540 journals, 5546 papers, 12782 sentences.

Genetics 453 papers with 1375 sentences.
Development 392 papers with 1133 sentences.
Dev Biol 300 papers with 690 sentences.
Cell 201 papers with 597 sentences.
J Biol Chem 200 papers with 277 sentences.
Mol Biol Cell 179 papers with 961 sentences.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 168 papers with 348 sentences.
Curr Biol 163 papers with 360 sentences.
J Cell Biol 156 papers with 513 sentences.
PLoS Genet 139 papers with 364 sentences.
Nature 137 papers with 239 sentences.
J Neurosci 118 papers with 257 sentences.
PLoS One 91 papers with 139 sentences.
EMBO J 90 papers with 229 sentences.
Dev Cell 88 papers with 180 sentences.
Science 84 papers with 154 sentences.
Worm Breeder _SQ_ s Gazette 83 papers with 89 sentences.
Neuron 83 papers with 257 sentences.
Nucleic Acids Res 76 papers with 127 sentences.
Mol Cell Biol 73 papers with 155 sentences.
J Mol Biol 71 papers with 185 sentences.
J Cell Sci 64 papers with 123 sentences.
PLoS Biol 59 papers with 274 sentences.
Mol Cell 49 papers with 133 sentences.
Genes Dev 44 papers with 51 sentences.
Mol Biochem Parasitol 35 papers with 69 sentences.
G3 _ORB_ Bethesda _CRB_ 33 papers with 67 sentences.
Gene 32 papers with 60 sentences.
Elife 32 papers with 51 sentences.
Worm 31 papers with 45 sentences.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 29 papers with 41 sentences.
BMC Genomics 28 papers with 42 sentences.
Nat Neurosci 25 papers with 42 sentences.
BMC Dev Biol 25 papers with 38 sentences.
Nat Genet 25 papers with 43 sentences.
Genes Cells 24 papers with 52 sentences.
Aging Cell 24 papers with 34 sentences.
Methods Mol Biol 23 papers with 39 sentences.
Nat Cell Biol 23 papers with 30 sentences.
Mol Gen Genet 23 papers with 65 sentences.
Mech Dev 22 papers with 44 sentences.
Genome Biol 22 papers with 55 sentences.
Biochem J 22 papers with 44 sentences.
Dev Dyn 22 papers with 38 sentences.
PLoS Pathog 21 papers with 77 sentences.
Int J Parasitol 21 papers with 31 sentences.
Cell Rep 20 papers with 26 sentences.
Mech Ageing Dev 18 papers with 36 sentences.
Mutat Res 18 papers with 38 sentences.
Genome Res 17 papers with 22 sentences.
FASEB J 17 papers with 33 sentences.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 17 papers with 28 sentences.
Nat Methods 17 papers with 33 sentences.
Hum Mol Genet 17 papers with 29 sentences.
Mol Biol Evol 16 papers with 27 sentences.
Exp Gerontol 15 papers with 22 sentences.
BMC Biol 15 papers with 18 sentences.
J Neurochem 14 papers with 22 sentences.
Infect Immun 14 papers with 19 sentences.
Methods Cell Biol 13 papers with 23 sentences.
FEBS Lett 13 papers with 17 sentences.
Cell Death Differ 13 papers with 16 sentences.
Nat Protoc 13 papers with 33 sentences.
Dev Genes Evol 13 papers with 26 sentences.
Genomics 13 papers with 29 sentences.
Biochemistry 13 papers with 20 sentences.
J Exp Biol 12 papers with 28 sentences.
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J Bacteriol 11 papers with 18 sentences.
Appl Environ Microbiol 11 papers with 20 sentences.
Nat Struct Mol Biol 11 papers with 17 sentences.
Oncogene 11 papers with 20 sentences.
BMC Evol Biol 11 papers with 21 sentences.
J Mol Evol 11 papers with 17 sentences.
J Nematol 11 papers with 37 sentences.
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Bioessays 10 papers with 16 sentences.
Cell Metab 10 papers with 13 sentences.
Biochim Biophys Acta 10 papers with 17 sentences.
Methods Enzymol 10 papers with 21 sentences.
Methods 10 papers with 18 sentences.
Exp Parasitol 10 papers with 12 sentences.
EMBO Rep 10 papers with 16 sentences.
Eur J Biochem 10 papers with 14 sentences.
Free Radic Biol Med 9 papers with 15 sentences.
Bioinformatics 9 papers with 14 sentences.
Genome 9 papers with 19 sentences.
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J Gen Physiol 8 papers with 33 sentences.
Nat Commun 8 papers with 8 sentences.
RNA Biol 8 papers with 13 sentences.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8 papers with 12 sentences.
J Comp Neurol 8 papers with 34 sentences.
Cell Motil Cytoskeleton 8 papers with 17 sentences.
Biophys J 8 papers with 8 sentences.
Proc Biol Sci 7 papers with 9 sentences.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 7 papers with 21 sentences.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 7 papers with 15 sentences.
Traffic 7 papers with 9 sentences.
CSH Protoc 7 papers with 7 sentences.
RNA 7 papers with 7 sentences.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 6 papers with 7 sentences.
Structure 6 papers with 8 sentences.
J Neurobiol 6 papers with 9 sentences.
Neurobiol Aging 6 papers with 8 sentences.
Mol Cell Neurosci 6 papers with 9 sentences.
Mol Cells 6 papers with 9 sentences.
Cell Mol Life Sci 6 papers with 15 sentences.
Sci Rep 6 papers with 7 sentences.
Exp Cell Res 6 papers with 7 sentences.
Trends Genet 6 papers with 7 sentences.
FEMS Microbiol Lett 6 papers with 12 sentences.
Mol Genet Genomics 6 papers with 13 sentences.
Mol Ecol 6 papers with 13 sentences.
Dev Genet 6 papers with 13 sentences.
Proteins 6 papers with 8 sentences.
Cell Cycle 6 papers with 7 sentences.
Invert Neurosci 5 papers with 10 sentences.
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Cytoskeleton _ORB_ Hoboken _CRB_ 5 papers with 13 sentences.
Ann N Y Acad Sci 5 papers with 8 sentences.
Chromosoma 5 papers with 8 sentences.
Glycobiology 5 papers with 13 sentences.
Biol Open 5 papers with 6 sentences.
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J Neurogenet 5 papers with 11 sentences.
Cell Host Microbe 5 papers with 12 sentences.
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Roux _SQ_ s Archives of Developmental Biology 5 papers with 8 sentences.
J Biochem 5 papers with 7 sentences.
WormBook 5 papers with 41 sentences.
Toxicol Sci 4 papers with 4 sentences.
Electrophoresis 4 papers with 5 sentences.
FEBS J 4 papers with 5 sentences.
Bioelectromagnetics 4 papers with 6 sentences.
Photochem Photobiol 4 papers with 4 sentences.
Genome Biol Evol 4 papers with 5 sentences.
Genet Res 4 papers with 6 sentences.
Nematologica 4 papers with 4 sentences.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys 4 papers with 4 sentences.
Pac Symp Biocomput 4 papers with 6 sentences.
J Cell Biochem 4 papers with 8 sentences.
Dis Model Mech 4 papers with 8 sentences.
J Neurosci Res 4 papers with 6 sentences.
Protein Sci 4 papers with 4 sentences.
Aging _ORB_ Albany NY _CRB_ 4 papers with 4 sentences.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London - Series B _CLN_ Biological Sciences 4 papers with 15 sentences.
Adv Exp Med Biol 4 papers with 4 sentences.
Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 4 papers with 5 sentences.
Semin Cell Dev Biol 4 papers with 8 sentences.
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Comp Funct Genomics 4 papers with 10 sentences.
Microbiology 4 papers with 4 sentences.
Age 4 papers with 4 sentences.
Parasitol Today 4 papers with 13 sentences.
Mol Microbiol 4 papers with 9 sentences.
Biol Pharm Bull 3 papers with 3 sentences.
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Nat Biotechnol 3 papers with 8 sentences.
Annu Rev Phytopathol 3 papers with 12 sentences.
Front Genet 3 papers with 3 sentences.
Mol Cell Proteomics 3 papers with 5 sentences.
J Immunol 3 papers with 5 sentences.
Anal Chem 3 papers with 3 sentences.
Eukaryot Cell 3 papers with 7 sentences.
Neuroreport 3 papers with 3 sentences.
Parasit Vectors 3 papers with 3 sentences.
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Chem Senses 3 papers with 4 sentences.
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Canadian Journal of Zoology 3 papers with 10 sentences.
Behav Brain Res 3 papers with 5 sentences.
Trends Biochem Sci 2 papers with 3 sentences.
Cell Microbiol 2 papers with 4 sentences.
Glycoconj J 2 papers with 3 sentences.
Epigenetics Chromatin 2 papers with 6 sentences.
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BMB Rep 2 papers with 3 sentences.
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Breast Dis 2 papers with 3 sentences.
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Peptides 2 papers with 3 sentences.
J Neurosci Methods 2 papers with 2 sentences.
Front Biosci 2 papers with 7 sentences.
DNA Res 2 papers with 2 sentences.
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 2 papers with 3 sentences.
Nucleus 2 papers with 2 sentences.
Ecotoxicology 2 papers with 4 sentences.
Biochem Soc Trans 2 papers with 2 sentences.
Cell Res 2 papers with 4 sentences.
J Biomol Struct Dyn 2 papers with 3 sentences.
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Nanotoxicology 2 papers with 2 sentences.
Biomed Res Int 2 papers with 2 sentences.
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Microbes Infect 2 papers with 2 sentences.
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IUBMB Life 2 papers with 3 sentences.
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Cell Div 2 papers with 2 sentences.
ACS Chem Neurosci 2 papers with 7 sentences.
MBio 2 papers with 2 sentences.
Biotechnol J 2 papers with 4 sentences.
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Brain Res Mol Brain Res 2 papers with 3 sentences.
Longev Healthspan 2 papers with 2 sentences.
Biochimie 2 papers with 3 sentences.
DNA Seq 2 papers with 4 sentences.
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Biosci Rep 2 papers with 2 sentences.
Antioxid Redox Signal 2 papers with 5 sentences.
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J Morphol 2 papers with 2 sentences.
Matrix Biol 2 papers with 5 sentences.
Age _ORB_ Dordr _CRB_ 2 papers with 3 sentences.
Journal of Gerontology 2 papers with 5 sentences.
Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 2 papers with 2 sentences.
Heredity 2 papers with 4 sentences.
Acta Trop 2 papers with 3 sentences.
Biological Control 2 papers with 5 sentences.
Proteomics 2 papers with 3 sentences.
Plasmid 2 papers with 3 sentences.
J Virol 2 papers with 7 sentences.
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Physiol Genomics 2 papers with 5 sentences.
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Cell Struct Funct 2 papers with 10 sentences.
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Front Microbiol 2 papers with 7 sentences.
Int J Dev Biol 2 papers with 2 sentences.
Neurosci Bull 2 papers with 2 sentences.
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Blood 2 papers with 4 sentences.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 2 papers with 2 sentences.
J Antimicrob Chemother 2 papers with 2 sentences.
Neuroscience 2 papers with 4 sentences.
Nat Chem Biol 2 papers with 3 sentences.
Virulence 2 papers with 4 sentences.
Autophagy 2 papers with 3 sentences.
Mamm Genome 2 papers with 3 sentences.
J Mol Endocrinol 2 papers with 3 sentences.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord 1 papers with 2 sentences.
Freshwater Biology 1 papers with 1 sentences.
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Learn Mem 1 papers with 1 sentences.
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Bioarchitecture 1 papers with 1 sentences.
FEMS Yeast Res 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Ecology 1 papers with 3 sentences.
New Journal of Chemistry 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Harvey Lect 1 papers with 10 sentences.
J Aging Res 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Cryo Letters 1 papers with 1 sentences.
J Comput Biol 1 papers with 5 sentences.
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PeerJ 1 papers with 1 sentences.
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Biol Cell 1 papers with 2 sentences.
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Am Nat 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Invertebrate Reproduction and Development 1 papers with 2 sentences.
Reprod Biomed Online 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Lipids 1 papers with 2 sentences.
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Genome Announc 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1 papers with 1 sentences.
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Med Microbiol Immunol 1 papers with 9 sentences.
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Cell Motility 1 papers with 1 sentences.
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Trace Elements and Electrolytes 1 papers with 1 sentences.
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Tissue Cell 1 papers with 2 sentences.
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Cell Physiol Biochem 1 papers with 1 sentences.
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J Submicrosc Cytol Pathol 1 papers with 1 sentences.
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Cell Regul 1 papers with 1 sentences.
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Chromosome Res 1 papers with 3 sentences.
Gene Expr Patterns 1 papers with 1 sentences.
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J Comp Physiol A 1 papers with 1 sentences.
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J Lipid Res 1 papers with 1 sentences.
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Journal of Health Science 1 papers with 3 sentences.
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Br J Pharmacol 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Small GTPases 1 papers with 2 sentences.
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Sleep 1 papers with 1 sentences.
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J Food Prot 1 papers with 1 sentences.
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Foundations in Systems Biology 1 papers with 9 sentences.
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Genetics 453 papers with 1375 sentences.
PaperID WBPaper00000031 SentenceID s307 SENTENCE : For completeness ' sake the map also includes genes in which mutants have been isolated either spontaneously or after 32P decay ( P . BABUand S . BRENNER , unpublished ) but which are not represented in the present set of EMS mutants .
PaperID WBPaper00000031 SentenceID s318 SENTENCE : All the genes are represented by EMS-induced mutants , except for those marked * which were isolated after 32P decay ( BABUand BRENNER , unpublished results ) , and for the site marked + , which is a spontaneous mutant .
PaperID WBPaper00000031 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : For example , the dorsal nerve cord is absent in several independent unc-5 IV mutants , while mutants in unc-30 IV have a specific lesion affecting a subset unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000031 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : body In some of these , the regular structure is absent in the body muscle cells , while others seem to be dystrophic in character ( H . EPSTEIN , R . WATERSON S . BRENNER , and unpublished results ) , Many other kinds of mutants can and have been isolated in C . elegans in this laboratory .
PaperID WBPaper00000031 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : Methods have been developed for complementing and mapping mutants , and the difficulties with sex-linked mutants can now be overcome by the recent discovery of a class of transformer mutants that are effective XX males ( J . HODGKIN S . and BRENNER , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000082 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : Since there are suggestions that P808 and P816 might be unable to form SDS resistant dauerlarvae ( R . L . RUSSELL , unpublished observations ) , it is possible either that these two mutant strains represent additional alleles of the daf-6 gene o r that they identify a nearby gene of related function .
PaperID WBPaper00000082 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : Preliminary results suggest that most chemotaxis- and thermotaxis-defective mutants do turn out to have limited defects in the anterior sensory nervous system , and may be useful for analyzing neural development ( RUSSELL , unpublished observations ; WARE , personal communication ; LEWIS HODGKIN and 1977 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000082 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : Similarly , P801 maps close to the tax-l complementation group ( DUSENBERY , SHERIDAN and RUSSELL1975 ; R . L . RUSSELL , unpublished results ) with whose mutants it shows functional similarities ; however , in this case two separate genes are indicated by complementation tests .
PaperID WBPaper00000082 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : X chromosome, chromosome Along these lines , it is interesting to note that the osm-l complementation group is located on the extreme right end of the X chromosome and is covered by the duplication strain Dp ( X ; V ) 1 isolated by HERMAN , ALBERTSON BRENNER and ( 1976 ) ( R . HERMAN J . CULOTTI , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000082 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : At least two other mutants , P808 and P813 , appear to have an altered l distribution of the presumed neurotransmitter ( dopamine ) normally found in these neurons ( SULTON 1976 ; J . CULOTTI , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000162 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : chromosomes Supporting the view that Dp2 , Dp3 , and Dp4 are autonomous are our results with the him-1 ( E879 ) mutation , which appears to promote nondisjunction of X chromosomes selectively ( HODGKIN , unpublished results ) : the frequencies of loss of Dp2 , Dp3 , and Dp4 ( Dp5 was not tested ) in strains homozygous for him-1 were higher than in the corresponding him-1 + strains .
PaperID WBPaper00000162 SentenceID s57 SENTENCE : Hermaphrodites homozygous for a mutation called him-1 ( E879 ) have a high rate of X nondisjunction : 17-20 % of their progeny are male , and they segregate REARRANGEMENTS IN C . elegans 97 triple-X animals , which tend to be small ( HODGKIN BRENNER , and unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000163 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : Indeed , one of these duplications , Dp ( X ; V ) I , has now been used to balance a Genetics 8 8 : 49-65 January , 1978 50 R . K . H E R M A N number of X-linked recessive lethal and sterile mutations ( MENEELY HERand MAN , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000164 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : X-chromosome We have also used some of the X-chromosome duplications in a study of sex determination in triploids ( J . MADL and R . HERMAN , unpublished ) , following the studies of DOBZHANSKY and SCHULTZ ( 1943 ) with Drosophila .
PaperID WBPaper00000179 SentenceID s21 SENTENCE : This difference is more obvious in the current map ( H . R . HORVITZ , unpublished ) than in the original map ( BRENNER 1974 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000179 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : This paper conforms to the recently introduced standardized nomenclature for C . elegans C . elegans NONDISJUNCTION MUTANTS 69 genetics ( H . R . HORVITZ , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000179 SentenceID s54 SENTENCE : All the mutants were isolated after mutagenesis with EMS ( ethyl methanesulfonate ) ( BRENNER 1974 ) , except for the two him-4 strains ( isolated after treatment with ICR-191 ( D . RIDDLE and D . L . BAILLIE , personal communication ) and for him-9 ( isolated after treatment with acetaldehyde ( J . HODGKIN , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000241 SentenceID s51 SENTENCE : fraction Since unc-84 is not covered by mnDp1 ( unpublished data ) , it appears that a disproportionate fraction of the left endpoints are situated between it and Zet-4 .
PaperID WBPaper00000241 SentenceID s98 SENTENCE : We shall also assume that mnDpl / mnDpl ; mnDfl / O zygotes do not become mature males ( mnDpl / mnDpl ; unc-3 / 0 zygotes do not ; unpublished experiments ) , although their presence would change the following calculations only slightly and the conclusions not at all .
PaperID WBPaper00000245 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : Compared to wild type , these worms are thinner , move more slowly and have a developmental time that is somewhat retarded ( MOERMAN , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000245 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : Electron microscope studies of twitchers reveal highly disorganized body-wall musculatures ( POPHAM , BAILLIE MOERMAN , and unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000245 SentenceID s72 SENTENCE : This is a much higher number than BRENNERS ( 1974 ) estimate of 2 , 000 genes or BAILLIES ( unpublished results ) of 4 , 000 genes , which are based on forward mutation rates .
PaperID WBPaper00000318 SentenceID s98 SENTENCE : 1405 . fact that wildThe type animals can be detected if they arise in such an experiment was demonstrated by the isolation of revertants from progeny of EMS-mutagenized unc-41 and unc-42 alleles ( unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000364 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : These results show that a value of 1 . 0 x 1011 base pairs is reasonable for the ( unpublished results ) has estimated that DNA content of a larva .
PaperID WBPaper00000393 SentenceID s162 SENTENCE : process Mutant fertilization The process of fertilization in C . etegans has been described briefly by NIGON ( 1949 ) and HIRSH , OPPENHEIMand KLASS ( 1976 ) and in more detail by our laboratory ( S . WARD J . CARREL , and unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000393 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : Many C . elegans mutant strains of all phenotypes produce fewer oocytes than wild type ( unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000393 SentenceID s55 SENTENCE : Unfertilized oocytes are readily recognized by their squashy . disc-like shape , their brownish pigmentation and their uptake of the dye trypan blue ( S . WARD and J . CARREL , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000427 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : For example , unc-15 and unc-87 mutants are paralyzed and have disorganized body-wall musculature ; unc-13 mutants are paralyzed when homozygous for unc-22 ( 32 ) ( ANNROSE , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000427 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : FISHPOOL Previously , WATERSTON ( unpublished results cited in WATERSTON , and BRENNER 1977 ) detected recombinants between e73 and e1214 at a frequency of less than 0 . 01 % .
PaperID WBPaper00000427 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : dpy-14 mutants are first larval-stage lethals when homozygous for unc-15 and unc-54 ( ANN ROSE , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000465 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : cuticles However , it should be noted that L3 and L4 juveniles of many of these mutants also display annulae defects , but struts are not observable in juvenile stage cuticles ( unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000465 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : cuticles This conclusion and 1975 ; SINGH is reinforced by electron microscopic studies ( CASSADA RUSSELL and SULSTON 1978 ; our unpublished results ) and biochemical studies ( unpublished results ) , which have demonstrated considerable variation in both the ultrastructure and protein composition of the different stage cuticles .
PaperID WBPaper00000465 SentenceID s56 SENTENCE : cuticles In some experiments , the cuticles prepared in this manner were further washed in 1 % sodium dodecyl sulfate ( SDS ) to remove any residual noncuticular material ( unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000486 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : Second , visible alleles of unc-93 other than e1500 and n200 have not been detected despite intensive screening for muscle mutants ( WATERSTON , THOMSON and BRENNER 1980 ; H . EPSTEIN , personal communication ) and egg-layingdefective mutants ( N . TSUNG H . R . HORVITZ , and unpublished ) ?
PaperID WBPaper00000486 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : We thank R . WATERSTON sharing strains , ideas and considerable unpublished data .
PaperID WBPaper00000495 SentenceID s40 SENTENCE : It is likely that normal oogenesis in unmated hermaphrodites is stimulated by the presence of hermaphrodite sperm because oogenesis is nearly normal in all the fer mutants that have sperm , but it is reLEWand WARD duced in spermatogenic mutants with few sperm ( NELSON , 1978 ; L . EDGAR personal communication ; J . MIWA S . WARD , and unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000495 SentenceID s79 SENTENCE : Only one recombinant was obtained from a three-factor cross ( Table 3 ) , and it could have been a double recombinant . f e r 4 complements all fer-l alleles , and its sperm have different anatomical alterations from those of fer-1 ( S . WARD Y . ARGON , and unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000496 SentenceID s170 SENTENCE : The four X-linked mutations , e1174 , e1410 , e1411 and e1412 , all fail to comple- 446 H . R . HORVITZ A N D J . E . SULSTON ment three newly isolated X-linked cell-lineage mutants ( 12323 , n369 , n371 ) ( W . FIXSEN R . HoRvrrz , unpublished results ) and at this point will be conand sidered to define a single genetic locus , unc-84 .
PaperID WBPaper00000496 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000496 SentenceID s9 SENTENCE : Many egg-laying-defectivemutants have been isolated , either by selecting animals that are bloated in appearance or that contain internally hatched larvae , or by picking random Fz progeny of mutagenized hermaphrodites and identifying fertile populations with no or very few free eggs ( R . HORVITZ , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000498 SentenceID s102 SENTENCE : Most of these single and double mutants are described in this paper or in a previous paper ( HODGKIN and BRENNER 1977 ) ; a few have been analyzed in unpublished work .
PaperID WBPaper00000498 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : Another possibility is that they were aneuploids , such as 4A ; 3X hermaphrodites : dpy-21 is expressed in 4A ; 4X tetraploid hermaphrodites , but not in 4A ; 3X hermaphrodites ( unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000498 SentenceID s32 SENTENCE : The gene unc-67 , previously reported to lie a t the right end of LGIII ( BRENNER 1979 ) , is probably not linked to LGIII ( R . ROSENBLUTH , personal communication ; J . HODGKIN , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000498 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : am grateful to all and I the workers cited for providing strains and communicating unpublished data .
PaperID WBPaper00000513 SentenceID s17 SENTENCE : Second , a variety of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors have been shown to produce a hypercontracted paralysis in C . elegans ( BRENNER 1974 ; J . A . LEWIS , personal communication ; R . L . RUSSELL , D . JOHNSON , RAND C . J . B . and J . G . CULOTTI , unpublished observations ) , indicating that acetylcholinesterase plays a n important behavioral role in C . elegans .
PaperID WBPaper00000513 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : synaptic Third , histochemical staining of C . elegans has shown selective localization of acetylcholinesterase in areas of high synaptic density , suggesting a synaptic role for the enzyme ( R . L . RUSSELL , unpublished results ; CULOTTI al . 1981 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000513 SentenceID s196 SENTENCE : The same region also contains -4 , whose mutant allele confers lack of sensitivity to mechanical stimulation ( SULSTON , J . unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000514 SentenceID s254 SENTENCE : We sought to confirm the differential distribution of acetylcholinesterase forms implied by these results by taking advantage of the known thermal sensitivity differences of hte wild-type C . elegans forms ( JOHNSON RUSSELL , in press ) . and The same two class A forms that are resistant to DOC inactivation in vitro ; ( forms 111 and IV ) are also resistant to inactivation at 45 " in uitro ; furthermore , J . and unpublished ) preliminary experiments ( J . LACE , CULOTTI R . E . RUSSELL , have established that this same differential resistance occurs f o r 45 O inactivation in vivo .
PaperID WBPaper00000514 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : The existing ace-l allele ( pl000 ) is probably inadequate in this respect ; kinetic studies of the inactivation of PRIOOO crude extract acetylcholinesterase activity by DOC indicate that there is less than 0 . 1 % having the DOC resistance characteristics of class A forms I11 and IV ( K . MURPHY R . L . RUSSELL , and unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000515 SentenceID s17 SENTENCE : Additional loci might be found by more extensive analysis , and certainly other suppressors with different specificities have been identified in studies of other unc-13 alleles and mutants of other loci ( WATERSTON unpublished ; HODGKIN 1974 ; RIDDLE and BRENNER 1978 ; BRENNER , personal communication ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000515 SentenceID s44 SENTENCE : I n support of this , putative intragenic revertants of some of these have been found rarely in reversion studies ( Table 1 ; unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000565 SentenceID s1 SENTENCE : MATERIALS AND METHODS , C . ELEGANS RADIATION-SENSITIVE MUTANTS 163 C . unpublished results ) . mutants ( R . K . HERMAN , K . KARIand P . S . HARTMAN , None of the him mutants showed significant departures from the wild-type pattern of radiation resistance ( see below ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000565 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : Egg hatching occurred at about 1 2 hr ; animals reached adulthood at about 48 hr and began egg laying at about 57 hr ( WOOD al . 1980 ) . et TABLE 2 Sizes and sex ratios of broods sired b y rad moles Cross progeny Male genotype Hermaphrodite Male ' Wild-type fertility 3 Wild type rad-1 rad-2 rad-3 rad-4 rad-5 rad-6 rad-7 rad-8 ; him-5 rod-9 ; him-5 him-5 789 399 696 730 128 69 272 680 0 9 815 394 701 723 125 73 277 674 0 1 1 100 49 87 90 16 9 34 85 0 1 531 524 66 throughout the nematode life cycle , particulariy during embryogenesis ( KLASS 1977 ; SAMOILOFF P . S . HARTMAN R . K . HERMAN , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000577 SentenceID s70 SENTENCE : X chromosome, chromosome A n animal carrying one of these , mnDf1 , and a normal X chromosome is non-Him ( unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000592 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : A fine structure analysis of the unc-22 gene itself is in progress in order to define the structural and regulatory elements of this gene ( MOERMAN and BAILLIE 1979 ; T . ROGALSKI , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000592 SentenceID s69 SENTENCE : It should be possible to clone the unc-22 gene and its surrounding region using a restriction fragment difference between the Bristol and Bergerac strains of C . elegans that occurs near unc-22 on LG IV ( A . M . ROSE , D . L . BAILLIE , E . P . M . CANDIDO , A . K . BECKENBACH D . NELSON , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000608 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : For example , ablation of the cell Plop leads to a specific loss of the hook sensillum , a sense organ located just anterior to the cloaca ; males lacking the sensillum have difficulty in locating the vulva during mating but nevertheless are eventually able to mate successfully ( J . E . SULSTON , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000608 SentenceID s151 SENTENCE : W T = wild type ; ND = not determined . ture of ciliated sensory neurons in the head ( LEWIS and HODGKIN 1977 ; J . H O D G K I N , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000608 SentenceID s179 SENTENCE : In addition , abnormal migration of the Q cell daughters occurs consistently in both sexes ( M . L . CHALFIE J . E . SULSTON , and unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000608 SentenceID s30 SENTENCE : X chromosome, chromosome Mutations in two dumpy genes ( dpy-21 and dpy-26 ) are not expressed in the male , but this is known to be a consequence of the different X chromosome dosage in males and hermaphrodites , rather than of sexual differentiation per 1980 ; J . HODGKIN , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000635 SentenceID s156 SENTENCE : - U c ; 2 z-o = L % : o E n g-0 3 0 z 0 E % a n 9-2 636 C . TRENT , N . TSUNG AND H . R . HORVITZ been ablated with a laser microbeam ( and the HSN-defective mutant unc-86 ; SULSTON HORVITZ and 1981 ) lay eggs in the presence of serotonin but not in the presence of imipramine ( R . HORVITZ J . SULSTON , and unpublished observations ; also see Table 5 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000635 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : Animals in which the HSNs have been eliminated by laser ablation are egg-laying defective but release eggs when treated with serotonin ; they do not and unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000635 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : The drug responses of mutants in categories C , D and E do not correspond to the responses of animals with lesions produced by elimination of any of the known components ( neurons , sex muscles or vulva ) of the egg-laying system ( R . HORVITZ J . SULSTON , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000635 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : The anatomical components of the egg-laying system have been defined using a combination of light and electron microscopy : the egg-laying system consists of an 18-cell vulva , 16 sex ( vulval and uterine ) muscle cells and 16 neurons ( as defined by connectivity ) ( WHITEet al . 1976 ; SULSTON and HORVITZ 1977 ; J . WHITE and R . HORVITZ , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000635 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : These neurons have been selectively eliminated using either a laser microbeam or mutations ; only the elimination of the two HSNs resulted in obvious defects in egg laying ( R . unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000635 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : A number of mutants defective in egg laying have been identified previously : ( 1 ) muscle mutants , which show abnormal somatic muscle structure and are presumed to be abnormal in vulval muscle 1974 ) ; unc-93 ( GREENWALD HORVITZ and structure as well : unc-54 ( EPSTEIN , WATERSTON BRENNER and 1980 ) ; unc-15 ( WATERSTON , FISHPOOL BRENNER and 1977 ) ; unc-22 , unc-52 , unc-60 , unc-82 and unc-87 ( WATERSTON , THOMSON BRENNER and 1980 ) , ( 2 ) cell lineage mutants , most of which are defective in the development of the vulva : unc-59 , unc-83 , unc-84 , unc-85 , unc-86 , Jin-1 , lin-2 , lin-3 , Jin-4 and lin7 ( HORVITZ SULSTON and 1980 ) ; Jin-10 , Iin-12 , Jin-14 , Jin-15 , lin-17 , Jin-24 , Jin-28 , Jin-31 and sup-17 ( E . FERGUSON , STERNBERG , AMBROS R . HORVITZ , P . V . and unpublished results ) , and ( 3 ) dauer-constitutive mutants : dof-1 , daf-4 , daf-7 , dof-8 and daf-14 ( RIDDLE , SWANSON ALBERT and 1981 ; D . RIDDLE , personal communication ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000635 SentenceID s61 SENTENCE : Since these egg-laying-defective tra-2 or tra-2 / + hermaphrodites respond better to serotonin than to imipramine , they appear to have lost HSN function ( C . TRENT , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000635 SentenceID s64 SENTENCE : Pharmacological tests : A number of pharmacological agents stimulate the release of eggs when and applied exogenously to wild-type hermaphrodites ( HORVITZ al . 1982 ; R . HORVITZ C . TRENT , et unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000635 SentenceID s79 SENTENCE : HORVITZ , unpublished observations ) , which suggests that these dauer-constitutive egg-laying-defective mutants may be abnormal in neurons involved in a humoral regulation of egg laying .
PaperID WBPaper00000635 SentenceID s81 SENTENCE : Vulvaless mutants , et such as Iin-7 , and animals in which the vulval and uterine muscles have been eliminated using a laser microbeam ( as well as muscle mutants such as unc-54 ) fail to respond to both drugs ( R . HORVITZ J . SULSTON , and unpublished observations ; also see Table 5 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000665 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : We assume that dosage compensation must occur in C . elegans , but this assumption so far is based only on genetic evidence that males hemizygous for an X-linked hypomorphic mutation are similar in phenotype to homozygous hermaphrodites ( P . M . MENEELY unpublished results , see also argument in MENEELYand HERMAN 1979 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000665 SentenceID s42 SENTENCE : WOOD , unpublished 1983b ) . results ; HODCKIN This research was supported by a grant to W . B . W . from the National Institutes of Health ( HD-11762 ) and by postdoctoral fellowships to P . M . from the American Cancer Society ( PF-1840 ) and the National Institutes of Health ( GM-07775 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000665 SentenceID s44 SENTENCE : We are grateful to J . HODGKIN , HORVITZ his collaborators and R . WATERSTON communication of unpublished R . and for results , to .
PaperID WBPaper00000665 SentenceID s64 SENTENCE : 69 ) V . These genes are the closest known visible markers to dpy-21 , unc7 6 being about 4 map units to the left and unc-51 about 10 map units to the right ( P . M . MENEELY and W . B . WOOD , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000675 SentenceID s25 SENTENCE : Preliminary experiments had already shown that the presence of the ace-1 mutation affected neither the drug sensitivity of animals homozygous for ace2 nor the epistasis of the resistance present in DH401 to the sensitivity of ace2 ( CULOTTI al . 1981 ; D . L . KOLSON , J . B . RAND et and R . L . RUSSELL , unpublished ressults ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000675 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : Second , we have been able to obtain wild-type recombinants from p l 1 5 6 / e 1 2 3 individuals ( J . B . RAND , unpublished results ) , which suggests that , if these two mutations are both deletions , they must not eliminate any genetic region in common , and therefore can not both overlap the two alleged genes .
PaperID WBPaper00000675 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : STEVE CARR and DAVID HIRSHnot only generously sent us their trichlorfon-resistant strain DH401 , but also provided us with unpublished data concerning the mapping of the mutation , thereby saving us much time and effort .
PaperID WBPaper00000675 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : D H 4 0 1 was isolated by S . CARRand D . HIRSHof the Department of Molecular , Cellular , and Developmental Biology at the University of Colorado ( unpublished results ) ; it was originally selected by its resistance to the anthelmintic drug trichlorfon , and had less than 2 % of wild-type ChAT activity levels .
PaperID WBPaper00000712 SentenceID s54 SENTENCE : I have observed simultaneous losses of more than one wild-type gene MADL and KARI 1979 ) , for example ( unpublished from mnDp26 ( HERMAN , observations ) , although the frequency of loss in that case was less than 1O-4 .
PaperID WBPaper00000715 SentenceID s44 SENTENCE : We thank VICTOR AMBROS , CHIPFERGUSON , DAVIDHIRSH , BOB HORVITZ , KEN KEMPHUES and JOAN PARKfor generously providing unpublished data , strains and helpful suggestions .
PaperID WBPaper00000727 SentenceID s193 SENTENCE : Some alleles , like e105 , have near-normal muscle structure , whereas others , like s12 , have muscle that is mildly disorganized and still others , like the amber allele , s32 , have severely disorganized THOMSON BRENNER and 1980 ; MOERMAN1980 ; also our muscle ( WATERSTON , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000727 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : All estimates of frequencies are based on previous counts which show that a 60-mm Petri plate can support 5 X lo3 to 1 X lo4 animals and that a 100-mm Petri plate can support about 1 X lo5 animals ( our unpublished data ; also see GREENWALD HORVITZ and 1982 ; WATERSTON , SMITH and MOERMAN1982 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000727 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : Dauer animals will not contribute progeny to the next generation , nor will unc-43 unc-22 doubles con- 862 D . G . MOERMAN AND R . H . WATERSTON tribute significantly because they grow very slowly and have small broods ( D . G . MOERMAN , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000727 SentenceID s67 SENTENCE : There is evidence et and YESNER 1984 ) , and for somatic excision ( EMMONS al . 1983 ; EMMONS recent experiments document germ line transposition of Tcl ( D . G . MOERMAN , G . M . BENIAN and R . H . WATERSTON , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000727 SentenceID s83 SENTENCE : ( D . and R . H . WATERSTON , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000727 SentenceID s90 SENTENCE : We thank SCOTT EMMONS permission to cite his unpublished data and also for his for interest and encouragment during the course of this project , PHILANDERSON providing the for HA-8 strain and permission to cite his unpublished data , MARKJOHNSTON for comments on the manuscript , BILLSHARROCK the BLl strain , TERESA for ROCALSKI the strain containing sDfl9 for and KAY WEBB for typing the manuscript .
PaperID WBPaper00000732 SentenceID s74 SENTENCE : We are especially grateful to EUNCHUNG PARK sharing uncfor 105 ( n490 ) and unpublished data concerning it .
PaperID WBPaper00000732 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : R . HORVITZ ( unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000750 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : There is evidence , both from our own experience ( R . E . ROSENBLUTH , C . CUDDEFORD and D . L . BAILLIE , unpublished results ) and others 7-INDUCED MUTATIONS IN C . ELEGANS 509 ( HERMAN 1978 ; MENEELYand HERMAN 1979 ) that the high doses do cause a great deal of sterility among the F1 generation .
PaperID WBPaper00000751 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : Studies so far have revealed the existence of a fifth collagen gene in this region , approximately 20 kb away from col-3 ( J . KRAMER , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000751 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : cuticular Mutations in bli-6 and dpy-20 ( see Figure 4 ) cause animals to manifest cuticular abnormalities ( M . KUSCH , personal communication , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000751 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : cuticle These genes map near col-2 which is and expressed at a high level only in animals molting into dauer larvae and presumably codes for a major structural component of the dauer cuticle ( J . M . KRAMER , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000751 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : chromosomal T h e chromosomal organization of C . eleguns collagen genes does not appear to be strictly related to their temporal programs of expression during development ( G . N . COXand J . M . KRAMER , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000762 SentenceID s132 SENTENCE : alleles are those alleles used in mapping studies and / or studies of gene interactions ( E . FERGUSON and P . STERNBERG , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000762 SentenceID s163 SENTENCE : + + + and on the right arm of LGV ( between the markers dpy12 and unc51 ) ( E . FERGUSON , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000762 SentenceID s170 SENTENCE : Complementationscreening experiments ( GREENWALD and HORVITZ 1980 ) to induce a point mutation failing to complement the Vul phenotype of n300 have not succeeded ( E . FERGUSON , unpublished results ) , and , thus , we do not know whether n30O defines a single gene that can mutate to result in a Vul phenotype .
PaperID WBPaper00000762 SentenceID s225 SENTENCE : Unlike the six other genes with incompletely penetrant Vul mutations ( lin2 , lin3 , lin7 , lin24 , lin33 and let23 ) , the penetrance of the Vul phenotype of lin1 O ( n299 ) hermaphrodites is not decreased either by starvation or by passage through the dauer larval stage ( E . FERGUSON , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000762 SentenceID s228 SENTENCE : [ sDf5 complements both nDf24 and nDf25 ; nDf23 , nDj24 and nDj25 all fail to complement lin28 ( E . FERGUSON , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000762 SentenceID s265 SENTENCE : [ sup17 ( n316 ) Z is an extragenic suppressor of partially dominant lin12 alleles isolated by phenotypically reverting linl2 ( nl77 ) ; E . FERGUSON , unpublished results .
PaperID WBPaper00000762 SentenceID s83 SENTENCE : Extragenic suppressors of mutations in lin12 ( E . FERGUSON , unpublished results ) and of mutations in lin1 ( K . EDWARDS , personal communication ) and extragenic enhancers of mutations in lin8 or lin9 ( E . FERGIJSON , unpublished results ) have been identified that define additional genes that may be involved in vulval development .
PaperID WBPaper00000762 SentenceID s87 SENTENCE : [ unc ( n754 ) is a dominant mutation resulting in unpublished reuncoordinated locomotion linked to nTZ ( ZV ; V ) ( E . FERGUSON , sults ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000797 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : of this screen , which yielded mutations in all three tra genes , will be described in detail elsewhere U . HODCKIN , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000797 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : Alleles of tra-1 have also been isolated as her-I suppressors ( HODGKIN 1980 : one allele ) and by reversion of a dominant feminizing allele of tra-1 ( HODGKIN1983a ; J . HODCKIN , unpublished results : 26 alleles ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000797 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : T h e dominant allele used , tra-I ( el575 e1816 ) , is a double mutant derived from tra-l ( e1575 ) ( HODCKIN 1980 ; J . HODGKIN , unpublished results ) , so all of these 26 recessive derived alleles a r e triple mutations of the tru-1 gene , e . . , tra-I ( e1575 e1816 e1835 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000797 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : These revertants , as well as the nine epistatic suppressors listed in Table 1 ( onefm-2 allele , four fem-3 alleles and four tru-l ( dom ) alleles ) , will be described elsewhere U . HODGKIN , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000797 SentenceID s25 SENTENCE : HORVITZ ( e1425 ) ; four were isolated as supsegregants by J . HODGKIN , BRENNER pressors of her-1 ( HODGKIN 1980 ) ; one was obtained from the general tru screen U . HODGKIN , unpublished results ) ; one was a temperature-sensitive sterile ( b202 , KLASS , WOLFand HIRSH1976 ) ; and one was a dominant egg-laying defective ( n196 , TRENT , TSLJNG HORVITZ1983 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000797 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : For tra-3 , four alleles were tested for suppressibility , two of which were obtained as chance segregants ( e1107 by D . L . BAILLIE , e1903 by E . M . HEDGECOCK ) , ( e1525 ) by a tra-3 compleone mentation screen U . HODGKIN , unpublished results ) and one ( el 767 ) from the general tra screen U . HODGKIN , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000862 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : During C . elegans development , p-glucuronidase seems to be subject to various types of regulation ( M . SEBASTIANO , M . DALESSIO and P . BAZZICALUPO , unpublished results ; N . WOLF and D . HIRSH , personal communication ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000862 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : We thank NURIT WOLF for sharing unpublished results and also thank our colleagues at I .
PaperID WBPaper00000862 SentenceID s73 SENTENCE : Enzyme purification : Approximately 5 g of worms were cleaned by flotation on sucrose , were disrupted by passing them three times through a French pressure cell at 12 , 000 p . s . i . and all the forms of the enzyme were solubilized by incubation with 0 . 2 % unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000862 SentenceID s80 SENTENCE : @ -Glucuronidaseis present in C . elegans in very low amounts so that specific antibodies are not yet available ( M . DALESSIO and P . BAZZICALUPO , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000898 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : Currently , more than ten genes with these properties have been deand unpublished fined in C . elegans ( E . PARK , I . GREENWALD R . HORVITZ , observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000898 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : Given the recent development of relatively straightforward approaches to the molec1985 and personal comular cloning of C . eleguns genes ( EIDEand ANDERSON G . personal commumunication ; D . MOERMAN , BENIANand R . WATERSTON , unpublished observations ; G . RUVKUN , V . AMBROS nication ; I . GREENWALD , and R . HORVITZ , unpublished observations ) , continued genetic and molecular genetic analysis of muscle genes should contribute significantly to our understanding of muscle structure , assembly and function .
PaperID WBPaper00000906 SentenceID s12 SENTENCE : cuticle, extracellular Phenotypes produced by these mutations include dumpy , small , long , blister , right and left roller ; in many cases mutants have demonstrable anatomical alterations in the extracellular cuticle ( Cox et al . 1980 ; M . KUSCH and R . S . EDGAR , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000906 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : annuli, cuticles, lateral At the light microscope level , aberrant annuli and lateral alae are visible ( COXet al . 1980 ) ; at the electron microscope level , aberrant structures are found within cuticles that have been cut in cross-section ( M . KUSCH and R . S . EDGAR , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000914 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : 58 ( e665 e21 12 ) ( S . BRENNER , personal communication ) ; let-405 ( 116 ) let-404 ( 119 ) let-402 ( 127 ) and let-401 ( 193 ) ( T . ROGALKI V , V , V V and D . BAILLIE , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000922 SentenceID s121 SENTENCE : 1 am also indebted to and KATHY BARTON , JUDITH KIMBLE and TIMSCHEDL valuable discussions and communication of for unpublished results .
PaperID WBPaper00000923 SentenceID s623 SENTENCE : I am grateful to my supervisor , JONATHAN HODGKIN , sharing unpublished data , for discusfor sion , for critical reading of manuscript and also for encouraging negatons .
PaperID WBPaper00000923 SentenceID s624 SENTENCE : I also thank CYNTHIA KENYON , RICHARD DURBIN and MICHAEL SHENfor discussion and comments on the manuscript ; TIMSCHEDL JUDITHKIMBLE for sharing unpublished results , JOHN SULSTON and and CYNTHIA KENYON for teaching me how to find HSNs ; SUSANINSOLE for drawing Figures 5 and 6 ; and the Thomas C . Usher Fund for a studentship .
PaperID WBPaper00000943 SentenceID s222 SENTENCE : SCHEDL , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000943 SentenceID s226 SENTENCE : ( g f ) alleles and a t r a - Z ( g f ) allele , qI22 ( T . SCHEDL , unpublished results ) reveals a balancing of masculinizing and feminizing activ ' ity in the germ line ( Table 7 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000943 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : For two alleles , q2U and q23 , the suppression offem-1 ( hcl7ts ) o r fem-2 ( b245ts ) , respectively , was mapped and gave results consistent with thefem-3 map unpublished results ) . position ( M . K . BARTON , Reversion of f e m - 3 ( g f ) mutations : Homozygous stocks of fem- ?
PaperID WBPaper00000943 SentenceID s73 SENTENCE : These ts alleles We are grateful to JONATHON HODCKIN and TABITHA DONIACH of fem-1 and fem-2 have residual activity even at refor sharing unpublished data and strains .
PaperID WBPaper00000987 SentenceID s108 SENTENCE : We are also grateful to J . HODGKIN , MEYER R . RUSSELL communiB . and for and for cation of unpublished results , to R . HORVITZ C . TRENT much helpful discussion , to C . TRENT , P . MAINSand B . McCOUBREY their constructive comments on the manuscript , and for to J . WILSON its preparation through many revisions . for
PaperID WBPaper00000987 SentenceID s196 SENTENCE : / mnDfl animals , although mnDfl does not delete unc-9 ( P . MENEELY , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000987 SentenceID s21 SENTENCE : Two X-linked enzymes have been assayed : ace-1 [ J . DUCKETT and R . RUSSELL ( cited by BULL1983 ) ; R . RUSSELL , personal communication ; P . M . MENEELY K . NORDSTROM , and unpublished data ] , which encodes one form of acetylcholinesterase , and nuc-1 X ( W . B . WOOD , unpublished data ) which encodes a DNA endonuclease ( M . DEW and J . E . SULSTON , personal communication ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000987 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : Meanwhile , however , findings cited in the introduction that dpy-21 mutations cause increases in the levels of several Xlinked-gene products normalized to autosomal controls supports the view that effects of dpy-21 on autosomal gene expression are small relative to its effects on X-linked-gene expression ( MEYER and CASSON 1986 ; DONAHUE , QUARANTILLO and WOOD , and K . NORDSTROM , unpublished 1987 ; P . MENEELY data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000987 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : X chromosome, chromosome Third , they either enhance ( dpy-21 , dpy-26 ) or suppress ( dpy-22 and perhaps dpy-23 ) the effects of increased X dosage in X chromosome aneuploids and segmental aneuploids ( MENEELYand WOOD1984 ; P . MENEELYand W . B . WOOD , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000987 SentenceID s39 SENTENCE : A hypomorphic lin-14 X mutation is apparently suppressed by dpy-21 mutations , but again , the assay involved scoring ectodermal cells ( P . MENEELY , unpublished results ; L . DELONGand B . MEYER , personal communication ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000987 SentenceID s40 SENTENCE : dpy-21 also affects the expression of X-linked genes for myosin ( myo-2 ) ( MEYERand CASSON 1986 ; DONAHUE , QUARANTILLO and WOOD1987 ) actin ( act- # ) ( DONAHUE , QUARANTILLO and WOOD1987 ) , and an acetylcholinesterase ( ace-I ) ( P . MENEELYand K . NORDSTROM , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000987 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : Mutations in dpy-27 suppress lin15 ( n765 ) in 2X animals ( P . MENEELY , unpublished Dosage Compensation in C . eleguns 39 results ) , and mutations in both dpy-27 and dpy-28 increase the levels of three X-linked transcripts in 2X 1986 ) . animals ( MEYERand CASSON The dpy-21 ( e428 ) and dpy-21 ( e459 ) mutations are recessive , and therefore probably result in loss o r reduction of gene product function , but the dpy-21 null phenotype has not been established .
PaperID WBPaper00000987 SentenceID s69 SENTENCE : Neither is known to be a null allele ; moreover , dpy-22 ( e652 ) may be a hypomorph , based on a preliminary finding that dpy-22 ( e652 ) / nDfI9 animals die as embryos ( W . B . WOOD , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000987 SentenceID s83 SENTENCE : Backcrosses with linked markers failed to separate and two mutations ( MENEELY WOOD 1984 ) ; however , a strain heterozygous for ct16 and the presumed null allele dpy-21 ( e428 ) produced fertile males ( P . M . MENEELY , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000987 SentenceID s89 SENTENCE : However , the observation that dpy-21 mutations , and in more recent experiments , dpy-26 mutations as well , enhance the hermaphroditizing effect of X duplications on sex determination ( MENEELY WOOD and 1984 and unpublished results ) suggests that the products of X-dependent dpy genes could act as components of the denominator of the X / A ratio , perhaps by negatively regulating the level of expression of certain early acting X-linked genes that in turn could control sex determination through her-1 , and subsequently control dosage compensation in later development as well by regulation of the X-dependent dpy genes ( WOOD al . 1987 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001002 SentenceID s147 SENTENCE : POLITZ , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001002 SentenceID s43 SENTENCE : cuticle, lateral Adults of the antigen-negative strains PA-1 and DH424 have apparently wild-type adult lateral alae , and cuticle collagens extracted from adults of strain DH424 show the SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis pattern characteristic of wild-type adults ( S . POLITZ and D . L . HERMAN , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001002 SentenceID s68 SENTENCE : 80 % positive ) ( S . POLITZ , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001011 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : process Previous studies have established the involvement of at least five genes , dpy-21 , dpy-26 , dpy-27 , dpy-28 and sdc-I , in the process of dosage compensation ( HODGKIN 1983a , 1987 ; MENEELY and WOOD 1984 , 1987 ; MEYER and CASSON 1986 ; VILLENEUVE and MEYER 1987 ; J . PLENEFISCH and B . MEYER , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001011 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : dpy-27 ( y49 ) was by J . HODCKIN isolated as a suppressor of the XO-specific lethality of xoll ( y 9 ) ( L . MILLERand B . MEYER , unpublished observations ) . dpy-Z8 ( yl ) was isolated and characterized by J . PLENEFISCH and B . MEYER ( unpublished observations ) . s939 , a gift from was D . BAILLIE , shown to be an allele of dpy-28 by its failure and to complement dpy-28 ( yl ) ( J . PLENEFISCH B . MEYER , unpublished observations ) and by its map position between unc-32 ( e189 ) and vab-7 ( e1562 ) ( data not shown ) . dpy ( 1983a ) . y6 , a gift from 26 ( n199 ) is described in HODCKIN E . WOLINSKY , shown to be an allele of dpy-26 by its was failure to complement dpy-26 ( n199 ) and by its map position between unc-ZZ ( e66 ) and unc-30 ( el91 ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001011 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : dpy-21 ( e428 , e459 ) and dpy-ZZ ( e652 ) are described in HODGKIN and BRENNER ( 1977 ) . dpy-Zl ( y47 , y50 ) were isolated as suppressors of the XO-specific lethality of xol-1 ( y9 ) ( L . MILLER and B . MEYER , unpublished observations ) . lin14 ( n179 ) and nDfl9 are described in AMBROS HORVITZ and ( 1984 ) . nT1 and unc ( n752 ) are described in FERCUSON and HORVITZ985 ) . yDpl is described in this work .
PaperID WBPaper00001011 SentenceID s42 SENTENCE : PLENEFISCH and B . MEYER , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001011 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : For example , the dpy-22 mutation does not suppress the XX-specific lethality of mutations in dpy-26 , dpy-27 and dpy-28 ; similarly mutations in these genes do not suppress the mutant phenotypes of dpy-22 ( J . PLENEFISCH , DELONG L . and B . MEYER , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001011 SentenceID s66 SENTENCE : We thank G . RUVKUN providing the linfor 14 clone and for sharing unpublished information .
PaperID WBPaper00001018 SentenceID s103 SENTENCE : A large number of additional lethal mutations balanced by eT1 have been recovered usingEMS , formaldehyde , gamma radiation and UV mutagenesis ( R . C . JOHNSEN , L . M . TURNER , I . STEWART H . and D . L . BAILLIE , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001018 SentenceID s134 SENTENCE : All other positions based are on data from ROSENBLLJTH , either CUDDEFORD and BAILLIE ( 1985 ) ; and R . E . ROSENBLUTH , R . C . JOHNSEN and D . L . BAILLIE ( unpublished results ) ; or from SWANSON , EDCLEY and RIDDLE ( 1 984 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001018 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : Similarly , R . E . ROGENBLUTH , R . C . JOHNSEN D . L . BAILLIE and ( unpublished results ) , by screening for EMS induced lethals all along the eT2-balanced region of LGV , recovered mutations in 16 genes near dpy-22 but in only two genes near unc60 .
PaperID WBPaper00001018 SentenceID s212 SENTENCE : An eT1 translocation carrying the lethal mutation s704 on one of its chromoand somes already existed ( R . E . ROSENBLUTH D . L . unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001018 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : L . BALLLIE , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001019 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : Consistent with this , the twofactor map distance between dpy-I3 and amal ( m118m252 ) indicates that recombination is not suppressed in this interval . Furthermore , an mDp1 strain developing of genotype m252 / m252 / + is much slower at 20 " than m252 / + or m252 / + / + strains , indicating that a predominance of the m252 product antagonizes function of the wild-type product ( T . M . ROCALSKI , and A . M . E . BULLERJAHN D . L . RIDDLE , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001019 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : Enzymes isolated from strains carrying the ama-1 alleles described here are being and characterized biochemically ( G . TULLIS M . GoLOMB , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001019 SentenceID s54 SENTENCE : In fact , the mDf4 deficiency has been used to identify a recombinant DNA clone carrying ama-1 ( D . BIRDand D . L . RIDDLE , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001019 SentenceID s55 SENTENCE : Both of the duplications obtained carry ama-1 , and one of the construction of these , m D p l , hasbeenusedin heteroallelic ama-1 strains to positionlethalalleles relative to each other in the fine-structure map ( A . M . E . BULLERJAHN D . L . RIDDLE , unpublished and data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001019 SentenceID s9 SENTENCE : The m252 mutation has been positioned within the fine-structure map of ama-I ( A . M . E . BULLERJAHN D . L . RIDDLE , and unpublished data ) suggesting that it is not a multiple mutant or a deficiency .
PaperID WBPaper00001019 SentenceID s93 SENTENCE : ROGALSKI , A . M . E . BULLERJAHN D . L . RIDDLE , and unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001020 SentenceID s127 SENTENCE : E . JOHNSON , preparation ) ; indeed , preliminary in findand T . E . JOHNSON , unpublished ings ( M . CRUZEN data ) suggest that the age-1 mutants may have a reduced metabolic rate .
PaperID WBPaper00001020 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : E . JOHNSON , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001020 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : SPANIER HERMAN 1984 ) and four-point and crosses using dpy-10 and unc-4 as flanking markers , confirms the tight linkage between the low self-fertility phenotype in age-1 and fer-I5 ( P . A . FITZPATRICK , J . E . SHOEMAKER , B . FRIEDMAN T . E . JOHNSON , D . and unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001020 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : E . JOHNSON , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001020 SentenceID s62 SENTENCE : B . FRIEDMAN T . E . and JOHNSON , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001020 SentenceID s63 SENTENCE : Although the original mutant strains were uncoordinated and male-sterile , age-I reisolates can have normal behavior and chemotaxis and aremale-fertile , although themale-fertility of age-1 strains may be reduced ( T . E . JOHNSON , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001020 SentenceID s69 SENTENCE : E . JOHNSON , unpublished data ) which simplifies the inference of genotype from phenotypic measurements .
PaperID WBPaper00001037 SentenceID s189 SENTENCE : and how is the switch from male to and M . K . BARTON , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001037 SentenceID s279 SENTENCE : soma It has been argued by HODGKIN ( 1987 ) , based on the prevalence of male / female reproduction among nematodes , hermaphroditism that in C . elegans is likely to be a secondary specialization of an ancestral female sex . Given that the somatic it issues of C . degum are extremely similar to thoseof females of C . rernunei ( SUDHAUS 1974 ; T . SCHEDL , unpublished ) and Punagrellus ( STERNBERGandHORVITZ1981 ; 1982 ) , it is possible that theevolution of self-fertile hermaphrodites in nematodes involved changes in the germ line but not in the soma .
PaperID WBPaper00001037 SentenceID s286 SENTENCE : HODGKIS T . DONIACH for and discussions and for sharing unpublished data andstrains .
PaperID WBPaper00001037 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : SCHEDL , unpublished T observations . tra-l ( lf ) is included in this table for comparison with tra-Z ( lf ) and tra-3 ( @ .
PaperID WBPaper00001037 SentenceID s40 SENTENCE : SCHEDL , unpublished T observations .
PaperID WBPaper00001037 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : ' HODCIN and BRENNER ( 1977 ) ; T . SCHEDL , unpublished observations .
PaperID WBPaper00001037 SentenceID s52 SENTENCE : In contrast , the role of tru-1 in the hermaphrodite germ line is unclear ( HODGKIN 1987a ; T . SCHEDL , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001040 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : With the additagging and cloning of essential genes ( K . MCKIM , tion of 26 mutations from this study to the previously Lethal Mutations in C . elegans 353 D . CLARK , JOHNSEN and D . BAILLIE , R . unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001040 SentenceID s49 SENTENCE : Additionally , the identification of coding elements , by finding regions of sequence identity between C . elegans and Caenorhabditis briggsae ( S . PRASAD and D . BAILLIE , unpublished results ) , will enable us to determine the number of mutationally silent genes in the unc-22 region .
PaperID WBPaper00001040 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : T . The remaining LGIV mutations were isolated at Simon Fraser University : unc-22 ( s7 ) ( MOERMAN and BAILLIE 1979 ) , sDj2 , sDj7 , sDf8 , sDj9 , sDfl0 ( MOERMAN and BAILLIE 1981 ) , sDj21 and sDj22 ( G . WILD and D . BAILLIE , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001041 SentenceID s213 SENTENCE : J . u ; o s o s , unpublished t l a t a ) : glycosidevariationsmay be sufficient t o x count for the migration tlif ' ferences on SDS gels .
PaperID WBPaper00001041 SentenceID s256 SENTENCE : 64 ) Ill , may have as little as 1-3 % of normal cathepsin D levels , presumably because the unc-52 or daf-4 mutations impose a net nutritional deficit and consequent underproduction underaccumula ( or tion ) of cathepsin D protein ( J . HAWDON and A . L . JACOBSOX , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001042 SentenceID s131 SENTENCE : This was necessary because one convenient marker , unc-6 , proved to decrease the penetrance of lin-15 even in the absence of stDp2 ( our unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001042 SentenceID s17 SENTENCE : chromosome In flies , the autosomal regulatory D . NORDSTROM , unpublished data ) , suggesting that X genes are thought to be positive regulators in males , chromosome expression is regulated on a regional partly because male-specific lethal mutations with or perhaps even a gene-by-gene basis .
PaperID WBPaper00001042 SentenceID s171 SENTENCE : J . G . DUCKETT and R . L . RUSSELL ( unpublished , but cited in BULL 1983 ; and R . L . RUSSELL , personal communication ) had shownpreviously that ace-1 is compensated between males and hermaphrodites , although the level of acetylcholinesterase activity is higher inmales than in hermaphrodites probably due tophysiological differences .
PaperID WBPaper00001042 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : + ; dpy-21 X0 animals and are sexually abnormal ( MENEELY WOOD1984 ; also P . unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001042 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : Other mutants with abnormal levels of X-linked gene expression in 1X or and 2X animals or both are also known ( VILLENEUVE MEYER1987 ; WOOD al . 1987 ; B . MEYER , personal et communication ; J . MANSERand W . B . WOOD , personal communication ; P . MENEELY , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001042 SentenceID s32 SENTENCE : In addition , both dpy-22 and dpy-23 mutant hermaphrodites have the same level of ace-1 activityaswild-type hermaphrodites ( our unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001042 SentenceID s54 SENTENCE : The biggest shortcoming of any model for dosage compensationin C . elegans is that there are other genes affecting dosage compensation besides these dpy genes mentioned ( VILLENEUVE MEYER1987 ; and WOOD et al . 1987 ; J . MANSERand W . B . WOOD , personalcommunication ; B . MEYER , personal communication ; P . M . MENEELY , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001042 SentenceID s56 SENTENCE : fraction At this temperature , the penetrance of the Muv phenotype , as measured by counting the fraction of animals with at least one additional pseudovulva , is sensitive to allele dosage and to extragenic suppressors ( MENEELY and WOOD 1987 ; P . M . MENEELY , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001042 SentenceID s71 SENTENCE : We thank BARBARA MEYER , BILLWOOD , and BOBHERMAN for sharing unpublished data , and CARL JOHNSON and JIM R A N D for advice with the enzyme assays .
PaperID WBPaper00001042 SentenceID s96 SENTENCE : ] However , in duplication homozygotesvery and few male self-progeny are seen ( MENEELY WOOD 1984 ; and P . M . MENEELY , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001072 SentenceID s145 SENTENCE : The bands at 11 . 0 , 8 . 5 and 4 . 5 kb are estimated to be less than one copy per genome based on their intensities relative to 1 . 7- and 0 . 9-kb bands which are estimated to be present at two copies in the N2 genome ( L . HARRIS , personal communication ; our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001072 SentenceID s167 SENTENCE : Each hybridizing fragment usually represents a whole TcZ since there are noEcoRI sites within most TcZs ( EIDE and ANDERSON 1985b ; I . MORI , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001072 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : Genetics 140 : 397-407 ( October , 1988 ) T strains : from 30 in the Bristol ( N2 ) strain , the most commonlyused laboratory strain of C . elegans , to more than 300 in the Bergerac ( BO ) strain ( EMMONS et al . 1983 ; LIAO , ROSENZWEIG HIRSH1983 ; our and unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001072 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : An intriguing feature of the T c l family is that in contrast to P and Ac / Ds , with which T c l shares significant structural features , most T c l family members are uniformly 1 . 6 kb in length even in the high copy number strains ( EMMONS al . 1983 ; et LIAO , ROSENZWEIG and HIRSH1983 ; this study ; I . MORI , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001072 SentenceID s76 SENTENCE : The BO genome contains more than 300 copies of Tcl andthe N2 genome contains 30 copies ( EMMONS et al . 1983 ; LIAO , ROSENZWEIC HIRSH 1983 ; our and unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001073 SentenceID s9 SENTENCE : T h e ama-1 gene is about 8 . 7 kb in length , 5 . 9kb of which is coding sequence ( D . BIRD and D . L . RIDDLE , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001074 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : The ama-1 gene has been cloned from C . elegans , and it is about 8 . 7 kb long ( D . BIRDand D . RIDDLE , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001074 SentenceID s21 SENTENCE : M . K . TON and E . COE for helpful discussions , R . ROSENBLUTH for critical comments on the manuscript , D . BIRDfor sharing unpublished results , and M . AUDSLEY processing the manuscript . for AHEARN , M .
PaperID WBPaper00001074 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : Molecular analysis has shown that the dpy-I3 end is the 5 ' end of the gene ( D . BIRD and D . RIDDLE , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001074 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : Toward this end , more than30 mutant alleles of ama-1 have been obtained , including amanitin resistant a n d lethal alleles ( ROGALSKI , BULLERJAHN RIDDLE1988 ) , and and the wild-type ama-1 gene has beenclonedand sequenced ( D . BIRDand D . RIDDLE , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001074 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : The resolution of the genetic map is not sufficient to tell if some of the mutations are small rearrangements or deficiencies , but preliminary Southern blot analyses suggest that none of the mutations mapped here are duplications or deficiencies larger than 50 bp ( L . NAEGER , D . BIRDand D . RIDDLE , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001075 SentenceID s111 SENTENCE : chromosomes Screens for oocyte-laying mutant hermaphrodites have , far , so permitted the identification of 36 C . elegans spe genes on all six chromosomes ( this paper and our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001075 SentenceID s114 SENTENCE : chromosome However , 13 spe genes have been mapped to regions for which noncomplementing deficiencies exist ( the five chromosome I genesdescribed in this paper and our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001075 SentenceID s115 SENTENCE : This oocyte phenotype appears to be duetothe presence of spe-11 sperm because we have occasionally observed hermaphrodites that lack sperm in one of the gonadal arms ( this phenomenon alsooccasionally occurs in wild-type hermaphrodites ; unpublished observations ) , and the oocytes formed by the spermless arm remain as single cells , but become polyploid like most other spe mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001075 SentenceID s115 SENTENCE : Twelve speldeficiency trans heterozygotes do not have different phenotypes from the spe homozygote ; the one exception is the fer- $ ( hclts ) / deficiency heterozygote , which has gonadal abnormalities not observed in the fer-4 homozygote ( our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001075 SentenceID s122 SENTENCE : chromosome The C . elegans spe mutations that have been analyzed ( a total of more than 30 genes on chromosome I and elsewhere ) ( WARDand MIWA 1978 ; ARGONand WARD 1980 ; WARD , ARGON and NELSON 1981 ; ROBERTS and WARD 1982a , b ; our unpublished observations ) are always associated with sperm defects , and the null phenotype of many of these genes probably does not affect it issues otherthan sperm ( see previous paragraph ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001075 SentenceID s127 SENTENCE : We thankJuDITH KIMBLE , and their laboratories for communicating unpublished results and thank the Rose laboratory for nematode strains .
PaperID WBPaper00001075 SentenceID s186 SENTENCE : 400350300250200150- , and f e r genes . hc94 has been determined to be an allele of fog-I ( feminization of the germline ; M . K . BARTONand J . KIMBLE , unpublished data ) , and heterozygous hc94 / + males contain oocytes .
PaperID WBPaper00001075 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : To date , more than 60spe mutations have been recovered by various laboratories ( e . . , HIRSH and VANDERSLICE 1976 ; WARD and MIWA 1978 ; ARGONand WARD 1980 ; EDGAR1982 ; BURKE1983 ; SIGURDSON , SPANIER and HERMAN 1984 ; this paper and unpublished observa- Genetics 1 2 0 435-452 ( October , 1988 ) 436 S . W . L ' Hernault , D . C .
PaperID WBPaper00001075 SentenceID s30 SENTENCE : Shakes and S . Ward unpublished results ) and nDf 23 , nDf 24 and nDf 25 ( FERGUand HORVITZ 1985 ) andthefree duplication sDp2 ( ROSE , BAILLIE , CURRAN 1984 ; HOWELL al . 1987 ) and et were also employed .
PaperID WBPaper00001075 SentenceID s44 SENTENCE : chromosome All cytologically identifiable stages in spermatogenesis nowhave at least one mutation ( chromosome I or elsewhere , unpublished data ) that either prevents or alters its transition to thenext cellularstage .
PaperID WBPaper00001075 SentenceID s56 SENTENCE : Feminization ( fern ; NELSON , LEWand WARD1978 ; DONIACH and HODGKIN 1984 ; KIMBLE , EDGARand HIRSH1984 ; HODGKIN 1986 ) or feminization of the germline ( f o g ; SCHEDL KIMBLE and 1988 ; M . K . BARTON and J . KIMBLE , unpublished observations ) mutations can also cause hermaphrodites to stop laying embryonated eggs and start laying oocytes but , unlike spe mutants , fern and fog mutant hermaphrodites do not produce sperm .
PaperID WBPaper00001075 SentenceID s59 SENTENCE : chromosomes We would like to identify all genes that confer a spe phenotype , and approximately 36 genes on all six C . elegans chromosomes that confer phenotype have , this thus far , been discovered ( HIRSHand VANDERSLICE 1976 ; WARD and MIWA 1978 ; ARGONand WARD 1980 ; EDGAR1982 ; BURKE1983 ; SIGURDSON , SPANIER and HERMAN 1984 ; our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001109 SentenceID s90 SENTENCE : chromosomes Our preliminary evidence indicates that the maternal-effect lethality andthe high incidence of males are due to extensive nondisjunction of all chromosomes in male and female meiosis DUFFY , C . SZABO , BASL M . and K . KEMPHUES , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001110 SentenceID s257 SENTENCE : + C . elegans Translocations 999 tion homozygotes , however , exhibit recombination in the regions where suppression is observed in heterozygotes ( ROSENBLUTH BAILLIE 1 ; K . PETERS , and 198 unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001114 SentenceID s142 SENTENCE : By characterizing additional mutator-induced mutations , we and others have recently discovered two additional families of transposons ( Tc4 and Tc5 ; J . COLLINS and P . ANDERSON , unpublished data ; J . YUAN , M . FINNEY and R . HORVITZ , personal communication ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001114 SentenceID s179 SENTENCE : Sixty-five spontaneous mutations in unc-54 of Bristol ( EIDEand ANDERSON 1985a ) , 90 in unc-54 or unc-22 of DH424 ( EIDEand ANDERSON 1985b ; D . EIDE and P . ANDERSON , unpublished data ) , and 56 in unc-54 , unc-22 , or lin-12 of Bergerac ( EIDE and ANDERSON 1985b ; GREENWALD 1985 ; MOERMAN , BENIAN and WATERSTON 1986 ; COLLINS , SAARI and ANDERSON 1987 ) have been tested ; noneare caused by Tc3 .
PaperID WBPaper00001115 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : In XX animals et linked gene expression in XX animals and result in an and the genes sdc-1 ( VILLENEUVE MEYER1987 ) and XX-specific maternal-effect lethality , presumably due sdc-2 ( C . NUSBAUM B . MEYER , and unpublished obserto a lethal disruption of dosage compensation .
PaperID WBPaper00001115 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : X chromosome, chromosome The mutation y 2 ( MATERIALS AND METHODS ) reduces X chromosome expression in both XX and X0 y 2 / y 2 animals ( from y 2 / + mothers ) and results in a completely penetrant XO-specific maternal-effect lethality and 10 % lethality in X animals . y2 does not X suppress any of the XX-specific phenotypes caused by mutations in dpy-28 or sdc-2 , nor is the XO-specific lethality of y2 suppressed by mutations in dpy-28 or sdc-2 ( J . PLENEFISCH , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001115 SentenceID s25 SENTENCE : processes sdc-1 ( VILLENEUVE MEYER 1987 ) and sdc-2 ( C . NUSand BAUM and B . MEYER , unpublished observations ) control the hermaphrodite ( XX ) modes of sex determination and dosage compensation ; mutations in these genes shift both processes to the male modes , resulting in masculinization and elevated X-linked gene transcript levels in XX animals .
PaperID WBPaper00001128 SentenceID s412 SENTENCE : Currently , this project et has progressed to the point that at least 90 % of the genome is represented by 247 contigs of average size 368 kb and ranging in size from 40 to 5100 kb ( A . COULSON , SULSTON , WATERSTON , KOHARA , J . R . Y . D . ALBERTSON R . FISHPOOL , and unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001128 SentenceID s415 SENTENCE : Indeed , genetic mapping of linked Tcl-dimorphic loci and the C . elegans physical geneticmap have alreadybeen used together to clone theC . elegans cell lineage gene unc-86 ( CHALFIE , HORVITZ and SULSTON 1 ; FIN198 NEY , RUVKUN and HORVITZ 1988 ) and thecell death gene ced-3 ( ELLIS and HORVITZ 1986 ; J . YUANand R . HORVITZ , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001133 SentenceID s316 SENTENCE : However , noadditional alleles were found despite screening 59 , 000 cross-progeny ( E . PASCAL C . DESAI , and unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001133 SentenceID s32 SENTENCE : Experiments in which specific neuron classes have been eliminated ( either by laser microbeam surgery or by mutation ) reveal that the HSNs play an important role in egg laying ( TRENT , TSUNG HORVITZ 1983 ; R . HORand VITZ and J . SULSTON , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001134 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : chromosome We have found , forexample , that the chromosome that carries mnC1 , a dominant crossover suppressor for much of chromosome ZZ ( HERMAN 1978 ) , exhibits enhanced recombination outside the region in which crossing over is suppressed ( R . K . HERMAN , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001148 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : The alleles p1182 and p1186 were isolated by KRISTIN PETERSON following heat-shock mutagenesis of the Bergerac strain of Caenorhabditis elegans ( EMMONS al . 1983 ) ; they were identified as being resistant et to 0 . 5 m aldicarb ( K . PETERSON R . L . RUSSELL , M and unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001154 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : Accordingly , radiation-sensitive and mutagen-sensitive mutantshavebeen isolated ( HARTMAN and HERMAN 1982 ; MUNAKATA , perN . sonal communication ; J . REDDY and P . S . HARTMAN , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001154 SentenceID s25 SENTENCE : Postreplicationrepair has beendemonstrated in wild-type C . elegans ( J . REDDY and P . S . HARTMAN , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001154 SentenceID s32 SENTENCE : Recently , it has been shown that a repair-deficienthuman cell line ( XP-A ) transformed with the yeast phr gene has an enhanced ability to repair ( 6-4 ) photoproducts in the dark ( D . L . MITCHELL , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001171 SentenceID s109 SENTENCE : The her1 ; sdc-2 ( y15 , y74 , ory77 ) X 0 animals are wild type in length , but occasionally unhealthy , as are some her-1 X 0 animals ( J . PLENEFISCH , NUSBAUM B . MEYER , unpublished obC . and servations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001171 SentenceID s157 SENTENCE : AMBROS for providing us with maDfl , maDj2 and the VT152 strain , and G . RUVKUN for providingus with unpublished data on the physical map of the lin-14 region .
PaperID WBPaper00001171 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : Moreover , the sexual transformation phenotypes of sdc-1 are incompletely penetrant , and sdc-1 mutations exhibit maternal rescue ( A . VILLENEUVE B . MEYER , unpublished obserand vations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001171 SentenceID s37 SENTENCE : That is , XX animals homozygous for sdc-1 and sdc-2 ( weak ) mutations are completely inviable , despite the fact that neither mutation and B . causes significant lethality ( A . VILLENEUVE MEYER , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001171 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : Complete loss of sdc-1 activity causes an incompletely penetrant transformation of XX animals toward the male fate ; only some XX animals develop as pseudomales or intersexes , while many undergo essentially normalhermaphrodite sexual development ( A . VILLENEUVE and B . MEYER , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001171 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : processes The significance of the role played by the sdc-2 gene in controlling both processes is emphasized by the fact that most sdc-2 mutations , unlike sdc-I putative null and mutations ( A . VILLENEUVE B . MEYER , unpublished observations ) , appear to result in complete disruption of both sex determination and dosage compensation in XX animals .
PaperID WBPaper00001182 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : , some hermaphrodites of genotype a l l + ; b are Muv ; and ( 2 ) certain pairs of nonallelic recessive mutations partially fail to complement , i . . , some hermaphrodites of genotype all + ; a2 / + ; b display a Muv phenotype of reduced expressivity compared to the Muv phenotypes of the strains a l ; b and a2 ; b ( E . FERGUSON , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001192 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : The remaining smg mutations were detected on the basisof the male morphological phenotype ( HODCKIN 1983 ; J . HODGKIN , EMMONS M . M . SHEN , S . and unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001192 SentenceID s127 SENTENCE : The partly suppressed tra-2 ( e1209 ) ; smg strains described above ( e . . , Table 4 ) were used to select stronger tra-2 suppressors ( J . HODGKIN A . SPENCE , and unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001192 SentenceID s147 SENTENCE : We are also grateful to ANDREW FIRE , DAVIDHsU and JAMES RANDfor the communication of unpublished results , and to SCOTT EMMONS and JOHN SULSTON for observations on the morphogenetic alterations in smg mutants .
PaperID WBPaper00001192 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : unc-54 ( r661 ) is a leaky mutation whose defect is probably due to aberrant mRNA splicing ( EIDE and ANDERSON 1988 ; B . CARR P . ANDERSON , and unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001192 SentenceID s30 SENTENCE : The gene tra-1 has been cloned ( J . HornKIN , unpublished results ) , and one of the smg-sensitive alleles , e2 ?
PaperID WBPaper00001192 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : Amber suppressors of other typeshavealsobeen identified ( HODGKIN 1985 ; K . KONDO , unpublished data ) but ochre and opal suppressors havenot yet been obtained .
PaperID WBPaper00001208 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : Control experiments indicate that the presence of tra-l ( e1575gf ) in the mother does not contribute to the tra-l ( lf ) phenotype ( our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001208 SentenceID s42 SENTENCE : EDGAR HIRSH1984 ; DONIACH HODCKIN and and 1984 ; HODCKIN 1986 ; our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001208 SentenceID s93 SENTENCE : soma This contrasts with the nongonadal soma , where partially masculinizing alleles become further masculinized in trans to a deficiency ( e1076 ; Table 1 A , our unpublished observations ; HODGKIN 1987 ) where complete mascuand linization is the phenotypic endpoint ( HODGKIN 1987 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001216 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : HSU and B . MEYER , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001216 SentenceID s54 SENTENCE : This result suggests that mnDflO deletes ( at least ) one X chromosomeelement involved in the choice of sexual fate ; this is consistent with the earlier observation that mnDfIO also strongly enhances the masculinization of XX animals by the gain-of-function mutation her-I ( n695sd ) ( D . Hsu and B . MEYER , unpublished results .
PaperID WBPaper00001216 SentenceID s9 SENTENCE : [ A caveat to this last argument is that we do not know whether yDfl completely deletes or simply breaks within the sdc-I gene ; this issue will be resolved by the molecular analysis of the sdc-1 locus that is currently in progress ( M . NONET and B . MEYER , unpublished results .
PaperID WBPaper00001217 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : 1987 ) , over 500 EMS induced mutations have been isolated and are being mappedand complementation tested ( HOWELL 1989 ; J . MCDOWALL and A . ROSE , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001217 SentenceID s129 SENTENCE : Supporting this proposal is the observation that some shortening events are associated with attachmenttoanotherchromosome ( HERMANandKARI 1989 ; K . MCKIM , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001217 SentenceID s216 SENTENCE : Some of the gamma ray induced lethal mutations mapped in this study were not separable from dpy-5 or unc-13 in recombination experiments ( R . MANCEBO and K . MCKIM , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001217 SentenceID s321 SENTENCE : chromosome The hDp20 chromosome also contains part of chromosome V ( K . MCKIM , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001217 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : At present , this DNA is aligned to the genetic map at six points ( STARR al . 1989 ; J . BABITY , et unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001252 SentenceID s12 SENTENCE : chromosomes ( 2 ) Mutations in essentialgeneson origins of the following recessive lethal mutations were described previously ( ROSENBLUTH al . 1988 ) : letet 344 ( 376 ) , let-347 ( 1035 ) , let-419 ( 219 ) and the lethal mutation unc-62 ( 472 ) . h e mutation let-326 ( 1404 ) T was recovered after 0 . 012 M ethylmethane sulfonate ( EMS ) mutagenesis ( R . C . JOHNSEN , unpublished results ) . the above All lethal mutations were induced in the eTl-balanced region on unc-46 ( eI77 ) marked chromosomes and wereselected fromeT1 screens as described by ROSENBLUTH al . et ( 1 988 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001252 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : Subsequently itwas found that all three failed to complementmutations in additional genes and were , therefore , reclassified as deficiencies ( R . C . JOHNSEN , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001252 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : JOHNSEN , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001252 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : Data not previously published were obtained by R . C . JOHNSEN ( unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001256 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : Extensivesearchesformutants defective in egg laying , locomotion , and touch sensitivity have been successfully undertaken ( TRENT , TSUNG HORVITZ 1983 ; BRENNER and 1974 ; CHALFIE and SULSTON 1981 ) . addition , In many mutations affecting several other behaviors such as pharyngeal pumping ( L . AVERY , personal communication ) , dauer formation ( RIDDLE , SWANSON and ALBERT , and I ) 198 osmotic avoidance ( CULOTTIand RUSSELL1978 ; and my unpublished results ) , have been isolated .
PaperID WBPaper00001256 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : Each of these three steps appears to be controlledby a separate set of motor neurons ( S . MCINTIRE , personal communication ; my unpublished observations ) , and all three steps are coordinately and cyclically activated from some unidentified source .
PaperID WBPaper00001256 SentenceID s96 SENTENCE : T h e sphincter muscle is difficult to see using a compound microscope and its movement is very fast . It is therefore uncertain what its action is , but freeze-frame video observations suggest that it stretches open ( perhapspassively ) during the aBoc and contracts very fast just as expulsion occurs , simultaneously with the other Exp muscle contractions ( my unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001270 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : Other known it issue-specific sex determining genes include fog-2 ( SCHEDL and KIMBLE 1988 ) , fog-3 ( T . SCHEDL , K . BARTON , J . KIMBLE , unpublished M . and results ) , and mog-1 ( for masculinization of the germ line ; P . GRAHAM andKIMBLE , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001270 SentenceID s71 SENTENCE : We are Determination Germ-Line Sex also grateful to TABITHA DONIACH sharing unpublished data for and strains .
PaperID WBPaper00001270 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : Two fog-1 alleles , q155 and q229 , were isolated after EMS mutagenesis in a general screen for self-sterile mutants ( see Table 1 ) ( S . MAPLES J . KIMBLE , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001274 SentenceID s97 SENTENCE : We also thank A . M . HOWELL of a defective subunit of myosin to disrupt muscle for the initial discovery of noncomplementation between ct42 and structure ( BEJSOVEC ANDERSON and 1988 ; MACLEOD alleles of let-354 and for communication of unpublished results . et al . 1977 ; WATERSTON , HIRSH andLANE 1984 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001305 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : The major esterase enzyme has been C purified and characterized ( MCGHEE1987 ) and the correspondinggene has now been cloned and sequenced ( B . P . KENNEDY , F . A . ALLENand J . D . MCGHEE , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001305 SentenceID s21 SENTENCE : These ges-l ( 0 ) strains are now being used as recipient strains in which we can reconstitute gut esterase expression by injecting the M . cloned wild-type ges-1 gene ( E . C . AAMODT , A . J . unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001305 SentenceID s78 SENTENCE : The " 2P-labeled probe was prepared by oligonucleotide priming ( FEINBERG VOCELSTEIN and 1983 ) of the ges1 cDNA extending from amino acids 9 to 546 ( the C terminus ) of the mature esterase protein ( andincluding 9- 12 basepairs at each end originating from linkers ; R . W . PREDY , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001328 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : The time points defined for these stages were based on published descriptions of maletail 1980 ) development ( SUISTON , ALBERTSON THOMSON and andon our unpublished observations .
PaperID WBPaper00001329 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : filaments, thick filaments At myofilament array ( EPSTEIN the permissive temperature ( 15 O ) , unc-45 ( t s ) animals move essentially as well as wild type and have approximately normal numbers of thick filaments in a substantially improved , but not fully normal organization ( EPSTEIN THOMSON R . H . WATERSTON and 1974 ; and J . N . THOMSON , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001329 SentenceID s21 SENTENCE : Some muscle function is known to be necessary for development and viability ( WATERSTON 1989 ; R . J . BARSTEAD , D . WILLIAMS B . and R . H . WATERSTON , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001329 SentenceID s25 SENTENCE : A double mutant , lacking both MHC A and B has normal pharyngeal pumping ( our unpublished observations ) , yet pharyngeal pumping fails in the unc-45 ( Ef ) mutants , even though there is no MHC B or A expressed in the pharynx ( ARDIZZIand EPSTEIN1987 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001329 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : WILLIAMS , morphogenesis ( WATERSTON R . H . WATERSTON R . J . BARSTEAD , and unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001330 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : The translocation hT2 was chosen because it suppresses crossing-over inboth these regions ( K . PETERS and K . MCKIM , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001339 SentenceID s107 SENTENCE : Wewish to thank DAVID BAILLIE , KIM MCKIM , DENISE CLARK and DONALD RIDDLEfor valuable discussion about this work ; PAUL MAINS for sharing unpublished results and strains ; JONATHAN HODGKIN comments on A .
PaperID WBPaper00001339 SentenceID s136 SENTENCE : MCKIM ( unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001339 SentenceID s94 SENTENCE : ELL , J . S . KIM , R . KISUN , K . MCKIM , K . MCNEIL , D . PILGRIM , PETERS , B . RATTRAY and T . STARR , K . unpublished results ) or duplication mapping ( A . ROSE and J . MCDOWALL , unpublishedresults ) were not analyzed .
PaperID WBPaper00001354 SentenceID s125 SENTENCE : nuclei Preliminaryrun-onexperiments measuring total [ ' * P ] CTP incorporation by wild-type ( N2 ) nuclei indicated that Rpo I1 was 50 % inhibited by approximately0 . 01 pg / ml amanitin ( B . DALLEY and M . GOLOMB , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001355 SentenceID s175 SENTENCE : The Muv phenotype of lin-I is epistatic to the Vu1 phenotype of many Vu1 genes in the pathway ( FERGUSON , STERNBERG and HORVITZ 1987 ) , andthe lin-I phenotype is coexpressed with lin-12 phenotypes in double mutants ( P . W . STERNBERG , unpublished observation ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001355 SentenceID s194 SENTENCE : A lin-34 ( gf ) Muv mutation has been isolated as a suppressorof the let-23 Vu1 phenotype ( G . JONGEWARD and P . STERNBERG , unpublished results ) , suggesting that lin-34 acts downstream of let-23 during vulval induction .
PaperID WBPaper00001355 SentenceID s206 SENTENCE : 7 ) / + unc-32 lin-IZ ( n676 n909 ) ; him-5 ( MT2375 ; P . STERNBERC R . HORVITZ , and unpublished ) was used for the construction . n137 is a dominant allele of lin-12 . n676 n909 is a lin-I2 ( d ) mutant plus an intragenic revertant resulting in loss of lin-12 function ( GREENWALD , STERNBERC HORVITZ1983 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001355 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : STERNBERG , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001355 SentenceID s63 SENTENCE : G . BERLIN for communicating unpublished results on let-60 and lin-34 , R . HERMAN and E . HEDGECOCK communicating results on for mosaic analysis on lin-15 , D . CLARK D . BAILLIE providing and for us with strains with let-60 and otherlethal alleles , the Caenorhabditis elegans Genetic Center ( supported by a contract between the Naand tional Institutes of Health Division ofResearchResources Curators of the University of Missouri ) and R .
PaperID WBPaper00001355 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : chromosome This mutation , sy96 , maps t o the left of unc-24 on chromosome ZV and defines a new gene , lin-45 ( M . HAN and P . W . STERNBERG , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001404 SentenceID s185 SENTENCE : We thank HELEN CHAMBERLIN , JONGEWARD GREGG and MIN HANfor unpublished observations and CHIP FERGUSON , WILL BOORSTEIN , NANCY BONINI , HOWARD LIPSHITZ , BARBARA WOLD , MIN HAN , ANDY GOLDEN , RUSSELL HILL , SUSANPARKHURST , TOM WILKIE , WENDY KATZ , PAUL KAYNE , NAGFSH MAHANTHAPPA andother members of our laboratory for helpful comments and critical reading of this manuscript .
PaperID WBPaper00001405 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : OKIMOTO , L . MACFARLANE , J . D . R . WOLSTENHOLME , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001405 SentenceID s3937 SENTENCE : CLARY and D . R . WOLSTENHOLME , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001405 SentenceID s839 SENTENCE : We thank D . BAILLIE , KOCHER , D . MOERMAN , PRAGER , T . E . S . PRASAD A . ROSE for comments and discussions as well as R . and OKIMOTO D . WOLSTENHOLME comments and unpublished and for results .
PaperID WBPaper00001406 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : RUVKUN , D . and personal observacommunication ; E . BUCHER , unpublished tions ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001437 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : However , molecular data indicate that thesuppressed strains are not homozygous for eDj20 ( M . GRANATO , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001437 SentenceID s32 SENTENCE : Although it has not been cloned , severalDNApolymorphisms havebeen detected in sup-35 mutant strains ( our unpublished observations ) , whose characterization may help to identify the gene and perhaps find a reason for this behavior .
PaperID WBPaper00001438 SentenceID s148 SENTENCE : All that is left of a corpse after destruction with a laser beam is a small amount of debris , similar to material we have sometimes seen where we expect cell corpses in the various ced mutants ( our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001438 SentenceID s30 SENTENCE : Recent work in our laboratory has shown that ced-5 lies to the right of mec-3 and to the left of him-8 ( S . GUS and R . ELLIS , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001438 SentenceID s95 SENTENCE : These strong alleles include ced-l ( n1506 ) , a potential transposon insertion ( our unpublished observations ) , and ced-l ( n691 ) , a spontaneous mutation .
PaperID WBPaper00001439 SentenceID s44 SENTENCE : This conclusion is supported by the fact that the mutator allele hZ0lO results from the insertion of the 1 . 6-kb transposable element Tcl into the bli-4 coding region ( K . PETERS , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001474 SentenceID s180 SENTENCE : Nematodesheterozygous for s1413 produce an average of 20 % more progeny than wild-type hermaphrodites ( our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001474 SentenceID s188 SENTENCE : This is greater than the rate 6 . 4 of X 10-4 for unc-22 ( unpublished results cited in MOERMAN and BAILLIE 1981 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001474 SentenceID s198 SENTENCE : The results of interallelic complementation tests show that lin-40 is a complex locus with at least five classes of alleles ( unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001477 SentenceID s119 SENTENCE : unc-4 ( e120 ) larvae exhibit wild-type germ-line proliferation ( P . MARTIN , unpublished results ) so any reduction seen is a result of the mes-2 allele .
PaperID WBPaper00001477 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : Inaddition , neither mes-3 ( bn2I ) / sDf4 mothers ( Table 3 ) nor mes-6 ( bn66 ) / eDf18 mothers ( C . GARVIN D . BREAZEALE , and unpublished results ) produced significantly more inviable embryos than + / Of controls , suggesting that the null phenotypes for mes3 and mes-6 do not include high levels of maternaleffect embryoniclethality .
PaperID WBPaper00001477 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : The significance of this result is unclear , although it has been observed that the genetic background of a mes-3 strain can affect the expressivity of the Mes phenotype ( E . CAPOWSKI , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001477 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : mothers carryingthe weak allele , e2030 ( S . STROME , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001477 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : ( Preliminary analysis ofmes-6 indicates that it and also belongs in this class of genes ; C . GARVIN D . BREAZEALE , unpublished results .
PaperID WBPaper00001482 SentenceID s105 SENTENCE : Among these , Daf-c heterozygotes were recognized by the segregation of dauers , but these dauers recover poorly at any temperature ( ALBERT , BROWNand RIDDLE 198 ; our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001482 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : Conversely , in a duf-22 mutant , which fails to synthesize dauer pheromone , high temperature and starvation fail to induce any dauer formation , but exogenous pheromone induces normaldauer formation ( GOLDEN and RIDDLE 1985 ; our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001482 SentenceID s87 SENTENCE : We thank SHOSHANNA GOTTLIEB GARY RUVKUN comand for municating unpublished data suggesting that m26 and m27 are Dauer Formation in C . elegans RIDDLE , L .
PaperID WBPaper00001482 SentenceID s96 SENTENCE : We areformedunder noninducing conditions ( BARGalso note that the phenotype most of the daf-16 and of MANN and HORVITZ 1991 ; our unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001504 SentenceID s1110 SENTENCE : However , data from comparisons of amino acid sequences of the most highly conserved mt-protein genes of organisms in different metazoan phyla indicate that the rate of evolution of the mtprotein genes havebeen greater in nematodes than in and vertebrates ( R . OKIMOTO D . R . WOLSTENHOLME , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001504 SentenceID s947 SENTENCE : That the nucleotides immediately adjacent to the 3 ' end of the tRNAhisgene and the tRNAg ' " gene in C . elegans mtDNA are the5 " terminal nucleotides of the s-rRNA and 1-rRNA genes , respectively , was conJ . firmed by primer extension analysis ( R . OKIMOTO , L . MACFARLANE and D . R . WOLSTENHOLME , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001504 SentenceID s953 SENTENCE : We have constructed a consensus secondary structure model for the entire C . elegans and A . suum mts-rRNA genes ( R . OKIMOTO , L . MACFARLANE J . and D . R . WOLSTENHOLME , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001504 SentenceID s955 SENTENCE : From similar primary and secondary structural considerations we have also built a consensus secondary structure model for the 3 ' , 63 % of the predicted C . elegans and A . suum mt-l-rRNAs ( R . OKIMOTO , L . J . MACFARLANE D . R . WOLSTENHOLME , and unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001516 SentenceID s159 SENTENCE : 1 of EPSTEINal . ( 1982 ) , generously provided by D . M . MILLER , North Carolina State University ; and R . MH27 anti-desmosomal antibody of R . FRANCIS WATERSTON ( unpublished ) , generously provided by R . BARSTEAD and R . WATERSTON , Washington University ; 4D9D4 anti-engrailed antibody ( PATEL al . 1989 ) , kindly provided et MRC Laboratories , Cambridge , England . by J . ROTHMAN , The secondary antibody in each case was flourescein-conjugated goat anti-mouse ( Miles ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001516 SentenceID s3 SENTENCE : In independent screens we have identified two alleles of one other member of the set , pur-5 ( D . MORTON and D . SHAKES , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001516 SentenceID s329 SENTENCE : Cell deaths in wild-type C . elegans are in the lumen of the intestine ( R . FRANCIS R . H . and restricted to a specific set of cellsthat are programmed WATERSTON , unpublished ; PRIESSand HIRSH 1986 ) by lineage to die at specific times in embryogenesis ( Table 5 and Figure 2 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001516 SentenceID s39 SENTENCE : par-j ( it54 ) is unpublished ; a strain bearing this mutation was provided by C . KIRBY .
PaperID WBPaper00001516 SentenceID s39 SENTENCE : P granules, granules In general , the phenotypes the parmutants reflect this coupling : par-1 , par-2 , par-3 and par-5 embryos improperly segregate P granules and factors controlling cell division timing and also undergo equal first divisions ( KEMPHUES 1989 ; D . MORTON and D . SHAKES , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001516 SentenceID s42 SENTENCE : The deficiency yDf6 on LG V was also used in this study ( unpublished ) . and was kindly provided by L . DELONC par-2 ( it5ts ) ; par-4 ( it57ts ) double mutant construction : par2 ( it5ts ) daf-7 ( el372ts ) III hermaphrodites were mated with dpy-2l ( e428 ) par-4 ( it57ts ) V males at 15 " .
PaperID WBPaper00001516 SentenceID s56 SENTENCE : body In contrast , morethan 90 % of embryosproduced by strong mutants of par-1 , par-2 , par-3 and par-5 express pharyngeal myosin or body wall myosin ( KEMPHUES et al . 1988 ; D . MORTON , D . SHAKES and C . KIRBY , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001516 SentenceID s79 SENTENCE : The other par genes are likely to interact with par-2 and par-4 in this system ; we have observed a dominant enhancement effect other par of mutations upon par-4 ( zt57ts ) and par-2 ( it5ts ) ( K . KEMPHUES , N . CHENC and D . MORTON , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001516 SentenceID s84 SENTENCE : The it92 mutation also lies in this interval , but is complemented by a deficiency , itDf2 , that fails to complement unc-76 and him-5 mutations as wellas par-1 mutations ( unpublished data ) , indicating that it92 lies to the left of par-1 and him-5 on LG V . Tests for complementation with par-2 or par-3 : Nine maternal effect lethal mutants that exhibited synchronous early cleavages and mapped to LG ZZZ were tested for complementation with existing par-2 mutations by one of two kinds ofcrosses : ( 1 ) Individual me1 ( m / m , m / + or + / + ) ZZZ ; egl23 ( n601sd ) him-3 ( e1147 ) ZV males were mated to dpy-l ( e1 ) par-2 ( e2030 ) ZZZ hermaphrodites at 15 " .
PaperID WBPaper00001558 SentenceID s61 SENTENCE : The following translocaand DEAK tions were used in this study : szTl ( I ; X ) ( FODOR 1985 ; MCKIM , HOWELL ROSE1988 ) , and hT2 ( I ; III ) ( K . and S . MCKIM , K . PETERSand A . M . ROSE , unpublished ) . szTl ( I ; X ) is inviable as a homozyote and is marked with the lon-2 mutation on IRXR .
PaperID WBPaper00001558 SentenceID s63 SENTENCE : bivalent, chromosome These roles do not appear to be specific to one end of the chromosome and either end can be the inner or outer end of the bivalent ( D . G . ALRERTSON , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001558 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : synapse Viable classes are indicated by phenotype and any aneuploidy they might carry . hDp134 progeny are duplicated for ZRZZZR and are viable ( K . S . MCKIM and A . M . ROSE , unpublished results ) . those observed for inversions in Drosophila , including crossover suppression within the inverted region and intrachromosomal effects . hZnl ( Z ) is capable of recombining efficiently with the translocation szTl ( Z ; X ) Z , indicating that the two rearrangements also synapse efficiently , a prerequisite to chaisma formation .
PaperID WBPaper00001558 SentenceID s98 SENTENCE : ALBERTSON , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001563 SentenceID s52 SENTENCE : Chromosome Chromosome X dpy-3 ( & 7 ) , unc-Z7 ( e155 ) , unc-90 ( e1463 ) , and R . WATERSTON , unpublished patfst558 ) ( B . WILLIAMS results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001615 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : Analysis of unc-52 cDNAs indicates that several different transcripts are produced from gene ( T . ROCALSKI this and D . MOERMAN , unpublished results ) and this may explain the complementationpattern we have observed .
PaperID WBPaper00001615 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : basement membrane, membrane Sequence analysis ( T . ROCALSKI and D . MOERMAN , unpublished results ) indicates that unc-52 encodes a protein with considerable similarity to themouse basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan , perlecan ( NOONANet al . 1991 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001615 SentenceID s54 SENTENCE : basement membrane, membrane The sequence of the unc-52 gene has been determined ( T . ROGALSKI D . MOERMAN , and unpublished results ) , and it resembles that of the mouse basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan , perlecan ( NOONAN al . 1991 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001615 SentenceID s69 SENTENCE : The st196 allele carries the transposon , T c l , inserted in the unc-52 locus ( D . MOERMAN , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001622 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : axonal, synapse, synaptic JOHNSONet al . 1988 ; RAND 1989 ; S . MCINTIRE , JORGENSEN E . and R . HORVITZ , personal communication ) , synapse formation ( HALL and HEDGECOCK 1991 ) , synaptic specificity ( J . WHITEet al . , unpublished , cited by CHALFIE and WHITE 1988 ) , and axonal outgrowth and guidet ance [ reviewed by HEDGECOCKal . ( 1987 ) andCHALFIE and WHITE ( 1988 ) l ( HEDGECOCK , CULOTTIand HALL1990 ; MCINTIRE al . 1992 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001622 SentenceID s56 SENTENCE : Indeed , when polyclonal antibodies raised against unc-33 fusion proteinsmadefroma 2 . 1-kb cDNA fragment covering all three messages were used in Western blots , three proteins were detected ( W . LI and J . SHAW , unpublished ) . computer analysis , the three By predicted polypeptides did not show significant amino acid sequence similarity to any other peptides in the databanks .
PaperID WBPaper00001622 SentenceID s74 SENTENCE : T h e 3 . 5kb Tc4 element in unc-33 ( rh1030 ) was cloned , and it was found by restriction mapping and Southern blotting that this particular copy of Tc4 has a 1 . 9-2 . 0 kb internal fragment that absent fromabout two-thirds is of the Tc4 copies in C . elegans , including Tc4-mn260 and the two reported by YUAN et al . ( 1991 ) ( W . LI and J . SHAW , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001622 SentenceID s85 SENTENCE : neuronal processes, processes proteins are distributed exclusively within neuronal processes after early embryogenesis ( W . LI and J . SHAW , unpublished ) and supports the notion the unc- ?
PaperID WBPaper00001669 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : WARD , et unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001669 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : Several new spermatogenesis-defective mutations map that under eDfl9 have been isolated recently , but they all complement spe-6 VARKEY , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001669 SentenceID s72 SENTENCE : chromosome This small deficiency on the right arm of chromosome IV , as well as an overlapping small deficiency , eDfl8 ( IV ) , deletes a cluster of eight spermspecific genes which had been identified molecularly , as well as other genes ( WARDet al . 1988 ; S . WARD , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001686 SentenceID s138 SENTENCE : neuronal processes, processes T h e nervous system of unc7 ( bx5 ) animals was examined immunocytochemically using antibody to unc-33 gene product , which is localized to neuronal processes ( W . LI and J . SHAW , unpublished results ) ; no abnormalities were detected ( W . Lr , personal communication ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001686 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : synaptic 1992 ; a Li , HERMAN n d SHAW 1992 ) , wiring specificity ( J . a WHITEet al . , unpublished results , cited by CHALFIE and WHITE1988 ; MILLER al . 1992 ; WHITE , SOUTHet GATE and THOMSON 1992 ) , synaptic transmission ( LEWIS al . 1987 ; JOHNSON al . 1988 ; RAND1989 ; et et HALLand HEDGECOCK 1991 ; OTSUKA al . 1991 ) , et neuronal cell fate ( FINNEY , RUVKUNa n d HORVITZ 1988 ; MILLER al . 1992 ; WHITE , SOUTHGATEn d et a THOMSON 1992 ) , chemosensation ( reviewed by CHALGenetics 133 : 527-541 ( March , 1993 ) mals with this phenotype are referred to as kinkers , and in the case of unc-7 mutants this uncoordination foris most apparent when the animals try to move ward .
PaperID WBPaper00001686 SentenceID s30 SENTENCE : Some preliminary screens for lethal mutations associated with unc-7 using gamma-irradiation have so farproduced only large deficiencies ( unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001687 SentenceID s159 SENTENCE : Also , a strain originally derived N2 , from T h e identified RFLPs , eP1 andthe eP2 cluster , CB4000 , has a greatly increased T c l copy number , provided potential starting points for a genomic walk presumably due to de novo activation of T c l transpodistance from the to tra-I , despitetheirapparent and unpublished resition ( C . TRENT J . HODGKIN , locus .
PaperID WBPaper00001687 SentenceID s447 SENTENCE : Further analysis ( M . DE BONO and J . HODGKIN , unpublished results ) indicates that this insertion is larger than 10 kb and derives from DNA located several hundreds of kilobasesto theleft of tra1 .
PaperID WBPaper00001687 SentenceID s603 SENTENCE : Two carryanapparently identical variant locus ( strains AB1 from Australia and CB4852fromEngland ) although hybridization with a T c l probe clearly differentiates AB1 and CB4852 ( J . HODGKIN , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001687 SentenceID s633 SENTENCE : The Freiburg strain RC301 contains two RFLPs and the strains AB1 ( from Australia ) andCB4852 ( from England ) contain four RFLPs , apparently identical . These two strains are however clearly distinct in terms of T c l distribution ( J . Hodgkin , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001687 SentenceID s638 SENTENCE : A goodexample of successful rescue by atruncated sequence is provided by the tra-3 gene ( T . M . BARNES and J . HODGKIN , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001687 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : T h e strain CB4000 is a derivative of N2 , with substantially increased T c l copy number and mutator activity ( C . TRENT J . HODGKIN , unpublished and results ) . et Standard nomenclature is used in this paper ( HORVITZ al . 1979 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001708 SentenceID s39 SENTENCE : Finally , using RNAse protection assays , we can demonstrate a twofold increase in the level of the X-linked myo-2 transcript relative to theautosomal myo-1 transcript in mutant background ( D . HSUand B . J . the sdc-3 ( 129 ) MEYER , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001708 SentenceID s52 SENTENCE : Extrachromosomal arrays carrying multiple wild-type copies of both sdc-1 and sdc-2 do not suppress the sex transformation of sdc-3Fra ) mutants ( R . D . KLEIN , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001708 SentenceID s65 SENTENCE : MCCUNE B . J . MEYER , and unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001708 SentenceID s70 SENTENCE : MCCUNE B . J . MEYER , unpublished observations ) . and This effect is rather modest compared to the complete self suppression exhibited by sdc-3 null alleles .
PaperID WBPaper00001709 SentenceID s209 SENTENCE : This is best AVERY and H . R . HORVITZ , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001709 SentenceID s248 SENTENCE : unc-57 , unc-75 and unc-104 ) were known to cause an Descriptions of feeding mutant phenotypes : ExEat phenotype ( HODGKIN al . 1988 ; J . H . THOMAS , et ceptwhere otherwise indicated , thephenotypedepersonal communication ; L . AVERY , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001709 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : There is one bilaterally symmetric pairof connections between the pharyngeal nervous system and the extrapharyngeal nervous system ( ALBERTSON and THOMSON 1976 ) , but this connection is dispensable for normal feeding : the only known consequence of its elimination is that feeding fails to be regulated by certain stimuli sensed by the extrapharyngealnervous system E . SULSTON , C . CHALFIE , H . THOMAS G . M . J . and GARRIGA , personal communication ; L . AVERY and D . RAIZEN , unpublished ) . h e simplicity of the pharynx T and its functional independence make it possible to study how the organas a whole produces andcontrols behavior .
PaperID WBPaper00001709 SentenceID s284 SENTENCE : Mutants had aslippery corpus and slightly loopymovement , but the rateof pumping and the rateof movement were normal . eat-11 mutants were hypersensitive to the cholinergic agonist arecoline , which increases pharyngeal muscle contraction ( AVERY and HORVITZ1990 ; L . AVERY , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001709 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : A V E R Y , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001709 SentenceID s373 SENTENCE : Long tetanic contractions induced in wild-type pharynxes by muscarinic agonists ( AVERY and HORVITZ 1990 ) often end after a few minutes with a slow , gradual , unsynchronized relaxation , and themuscle cells often appear damaged ( unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001709 SentenceID s427 SENTENCE : To them should be genes : unc-13 , cha-llunc-I 7 , unc-32 , unc-37 , unc-75 and unc-104 , which cause generally similar phenotypes et personal com ( HODGKIN al . 1988 , J . H . THOMAS , munication , and my unpublished observations ) and ought to turn up in the Eat screen but have not yet , presumably because it has not reached saturation .
PaperID WBPaper00001709 SentenceID s61 SENTENCE : J . RANDand M . NONETshared their unpublished data on ric-2 prior and shared their to publication .
PaperID WBPaper00001709 SentenceID s62 SENTENCE : L . A . SCHRIEFER R . H . WATERSTON unpublished results on the sequence of mutant actin genes .
PaperID WBPaper00001709 SentenceID s70 SENTENCE : 7 ) , eat-1 l ( ad541 ) , eat-l5 ( ad602 ) , eatwall muscle-defective ) mutants whose pumping was slow 16 ( ad702 ) , eDf3 , eDf4 , eDf5 , eDf6 , eDj9 , eDfl2 , eDfl5 , eDfl6 , were not kept , since these defects can cause slow pumping hDp62 , let-75 ( slOl ) , let-201 ( e1716 ) , let-202 ( e1720 ) , let ( my unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001710 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : Isolation of mog-1 alleles : Nine mutants that produce excess sperm and no oocytes in X X animals were isolatedin a screen for self-sterile mutations ( S . MAPLES , BALANDYK P . and J . KIMBLE , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001721 SentenceID s30 SENTENCE : However , gene dosage experiments show that ct46 does not behave like a hypermorphic mutation ( MAINS , SULSTON and WOOD1990 ; P . E . MAINS , unpublished observations ) + and since class 3 alleles arise frequently , we prefer an alternate explanation .
PaperID WBPaper00001721 SentenceID s62 SENTENCE : The remaining three suppressors were unlinked to unc-I3 and may identify a single locus ( T . R . CLANDININ , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001721 SentenceID s64 SENTENCE : First , three of these alleles were mapped to the same interval as ct46 , between lin-IO and unc-120 , the two known loci that flank mei-I most closely ( a 0 . 7-cM regionapproximately 200 kb in length , S . CLARK-MAGUIRE and P . E . MAINS , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001722 SentenceID s82 SENTENCE : I thank H . TELENIUSsharing his unpublished protocols for DOP-PCR for and RICHARD DURBIN for help the C . eleguns database ACEDB .
PaperID WBPaper00001733 SentenceID s153 SENTENCE : nuclei The tests done so far indicate tations in the same gene is shown by several lines of that unc-31 mutants have anatomically normal nervevidence : ( 1 ) unc-31 mutants have been isolated inous systems : the pharynxes of unc-31 mutants have dependently by screening for Unc ( BRENNER 1974 ) , the normal number of nuclei of normal morphology Egl ( TRENT , TSUNG and HORVITZ 1983 ; G . GARRIGA , in their normal locations ( our unpublished observapersonal communication ) , and PUC ( this work ) phetions ) , and serotonergic neurons have normal mornotypes .
PaperID WBPaper00001733 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : For comparison , bars over the histogram indicate the range of pumping ratesof well fed wildtype worms inparallel controls ( 0 . 02-0 . 15 ) and an interval expected to include 95 % of assays of starved wild-type worms under similar conditions ( 0 . 64-3 . 6 ; AVERY and HORVITZ 1990 ; our unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001733 SentenceID s83 SENTENCE : ) The acetylcholine agonist carbamyl choline ( MOLITOR 1936 ) can partially substitute forfood in initiating dauer recovery in wild-type animals ( C . I . BARGMANN , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001733 SentenceID s97 SENTENCE : basal It was unlikely that the sole effect of unc-31 mutations is a decrease in serotonergic transmission , because mutations in three differentthat serotonin genes reduce levels , bas-l ( ad446 ) ( G . GARRIGA , personal communication ) , c a t - l ( e l l l 1 ) and cat-4 ( el141 ) ( SULSTON , DEW and BRENNER 1975 ; DESAIet al . 1988 ) , do not cause Unc or Egl phenotypes ( our unpublished observations ) . cat1 mutants have also been tested for the Puc phenotype : their basal pumping rate ( 0 . 006 f 0 . 004 , n = 4 assays ) was actually lower than concurrent wild-type controls ( 0 . 21 f 0 . 035 , n = 4 assays ) . c a t 4 mutants also have a reduced pumping ratein a different assay ( AVERY and HORVITZ 1990 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001747 SentenceID s283 SENTENCE : chromosomes Some of the Unc-1 progeny were not true recombinants , but instead carried two normal unc-J X chromosomes and a new duplication resulting from breakage at the h D p l 4 insertion site [ i . . , Dp ( J ; X ; j ) [ unc-I ( - ) dpy-5 ( + ) ] ; K . MCKIM ( unpublished results ) ] .
PaperID WBPaper00001747 SentenceID s71 SENTENCE : centromere, chromatids Translocation studies of the control values in two translocations of chro ( ROSENBLUTH BAILLIE1981 ; MCKIM , HOWELL and mosome III , eTI ( IZZ ; V ) ( K . MCKIM , unpublished reand ROSE1988 ) showed that duringmetaphase I there sults ) and hT2 ( I ; ZIZ ) ( this study ) , and in two X chrocould be only a single functional centromere , that is , mosome translocations , szTI ( Z ; X ) ( McKIM , HOWELL the region where the sister chromatids are held toand ROSE 1988 ) and hT3 ( Z ; X ) ( this study ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001748 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : for sterility E . SCHEIN and D . L . BAILLIE , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001748 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : This simple screen has identified > 58 genes that appear to affect spermatogenesis ( HIRSHand VANDERSLICE 1976 ; WARD and MIWA 1978 ; ARGON and WARD1980 ; EDGAR1982 ; BURKE 1983 ; SIGURDSON , SPANIER and HERMAN 1984 ; LHERNAULT , SHAKES WARD1988 ; SHAKES and 1988 ; J . VARKEY S . WARD , unpublished data ; S . LHERand NAULT , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001748 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : membrane, plasma membrane The MOs play a secretory role when they fuse with the plasma membrane during activation of aspermatidintoa spermatozoon . spe-I 7 is one of several C . elegans spermatogenesisdefective ( s p e ) genes that has FB-MO structural and / or functional abnormalities ( WARD , ARGON and NELSON 1981 ; SHAKES and WARD 1989b ; LHERNAULT and ARDUENCO 1992 ; VARKEY al . 1993 ; J . VARKEY et and S . WARD , unpublished data ; S . LHERNAULT , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001748 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : Both hcDfllsDfl9 and hDfl3 / sDfl9twitch and are fertile while hcDfllsDf83 and hDf13 / sDf83 ( J . E . SCHEIN D . L . BAILLIE , and unpublished observations ) twitch but are sterile , suggesting that spe-17 is not located between let-56 and unc-22 but is either within unc-22 or beyond its 5 ' end ( Figure 1 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001748 SentenceID s37 SENTENCE : L ' HERNAULT , unpublished data ) . and We have also mated ethyl methane sulfonate mutagenized males to h D l hermaphrodites ( which are cf Unc-22 ) , picked 2 , 844 F1 non-Unc-22 heterozygous individuals to plates and screened for new self-sterile spe-17 mutant candidates ( E . LI and S . L ' HERNAULT , unpublished data ) ; none was recovered ( the rate of recovery of new mutants for anaverage sized C . eleguns gene by thesemethods would beabout1 / 2000 ; see BRENNER 1974 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001748 SentenceID s49 SENTENCE : The unc-ZZ ( ct37 ) strain was chosen as a controlfor these studies because this deletion-containing allele has no detectable unc-22 mRNA on Northern blot unpublished data ) andalmost hybridizations ( G . M . BENIAN , unc-22 ( ct37 ) 1 2 3 hcDfl 1 2 3 hDfl3 1 2 3 52 / 52 30 / 30 51 / 51 1 / 36 0 / 41 0118 92 / 101 30 / 30 92 / 92 0 / 97 0 / 28 0 / 69 1 / 23 0160 0186 9 / 77 21 / 42 39 / 39 1 / 94 1 / 7 2 / 48 0112 2 / 30 0 / 44 1 / 49 1 / 46 12 / 22 0121 0 / 8 0127 0 / 42 6 / 17 0111 0 / 4 0118 0145 0 / 46 1 / 26 0125 0 / 36 1 / 24 2 / 30 0144 0 / 14 1 / 17 Oocyte and progeny counts were performed on individual hermaphrodites until they either died or stopped laying .
PaperID WBPaper00001748 SentenceID s56 SENTENCE : - Several mutationally defined spe genes are now known to encode spermspecific mRNAs ( e . . , L ' HERNAULT and ARDUENGO 1992 ; J . VARKEY andWARD , S . unpublished data ) , so we probed Northern blots with genomic DNA subclones ( of wild-type DNA ) that spanned and flanked the hcDfl deletion in order to characterize the transcription pattern of this region ( theentire region between and including pSLl to pSLl3 ; see Figure 3 for position of clones ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001748 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : 7 , e2182 ) ( MOERMAN al . 1988 ; A . Z . FIRE , unpublished data ) , femet l ( hcl7ts ) ( NELSON , LEW and WARD 1978 ) , fem- ?
PaperID WBPaper00001748 SentenceID s66 SENTENCE : COLLNS strain TR708 ; , A . ROSE , D . CLARK and D . BAILLIE for for hDfl3 and unpublished data ; R . BARSTEAD R . WATERSTON and for their cDNA library ; A . COULSON J . SULSTON cosmids ; and for and for A . FIRE strain PD6005 .
PaperID WBPaper00001774 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : Second , the groups ofgenesas defined by strongest synergy correspond exactly to the groups defined by epistatic interactions with daf-d mutations ( VOWELS and THOMAS 1992 ; our unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001774 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : Che pheno ( 1976 ) ( where types : daf-l l , RIDDLE ( 1988 ) ; daf-21 , DUSENBERRY p673 was called DD73 ) ; our unpublished data .
PaperID WBPaper00001800 SentenceID s221 SENTENCE : Theother dominant-suppressor allele of sup-9 , n242 , was isolated after mutagenesis with gamma irradiation some years ago ( GREENWALD HORVITZ and 1980 ; and unpublished data ) as a suppressor of the rubber-band phenotype of unc-93 ( e1500 ) animals ( noted in Table 3 ofG R E E N A L and HORVITZ D 1980 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001800 SentenceID s40 SENTENCE : sup-1 l ( d ) is described by GREENWALD HORVITZ and ( 1 982 ) . a This allele was generated by GREENWALD HORVITZ and ( 1980 and unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001800 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : We isolated sup-9 ( n1553 ) as a recessive suppressor of sup-lO ( n983 ) ( our unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001800 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : The nl550 mutation was isolated ina heterozygote by M . HERMAN ( unpublished data ) on the basis of its rubber-band phenotype .
PaperID WBPaper00001800 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : The su $ -9 ( n1550 ) rubber-band mutation : Zdentijf cation and characterizationo su $ -9 ( n1550 ) : A new rubber-band mutation , n 1 5 5 0 , was isolated by M . HERMAN as a heterozygote in an unrelated screen in which the F2 self progeny of singleF1 worms wereexamined ( unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001807 SentenceID s426 SENTENCE : body In experiments with other enhancer segments from a variety ofother genes upstream of the glp-1 promoter ( V . PLUNGER , WADSWORTH , P . W . OKKEMA , FIRE , A . S . Xu and S . HARRISON , unpublished ) , we found that the glp-1 : : lacZ could be enhanced in a variety of nonmuscle it issues including body hypodermis , neurons , glial cells , gut , and non-muscle pharyngeal it issue .
PaperID WBPaper00001807 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : body In situ hybridization studies haveshown that unc-54 mRNA accumulation occursjust in body muscle cells ( KRAUSE1986 ; G . SEYDOUX and A . FIRE , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001807 SentenceID s61 SENTENCE : A minor start site for unc-54 ( arrowhead ) hasalso been mapped ( DIBBet al . 1989 ; A . FIRE unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001826 SentenceID s133 SENTENCE : synaptic In separate experiments , we have shown that synaptic input to the VA motor neurons is directly dependenton unc-4 expression in these cells ( D . M . MILLERand C . J . NIEMEYER , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001826 SentenceID s151 SENTENCE : axonal A cDNA fragment encoding a portion of the unc-76 axonal protein ( L . BLOOM and H . R . HORVITZ , unpublished data ) was incorporated into the unc-4-lac2 reporter gene .
PaperID WBPaper00001826 SentenceID s152 SENTENCE : axons, bodies, cell bodies, nucleus In the presence of the unc-76 protein fragment , most of the lac2 staining occursin neuronal cell bodies and axons instead of in the nucleus ( D . M . MILLER and C . J . NIEMEYER , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001826 SentenceID s25 SENTENCE : presynaptic Thesefindings suggest that unc-4 controls some feature of the VA motor neurons that is specifically recognized by presynaptic partners and which distinguishes the VAS from their sister VB motor neurons ( D . M . MILLER and C . J . NIEMEYER , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001826 SentenceID s55 SENTENCE : J . NIEMEYER , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001826 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : bodies, cell bodies, processes Anti- & galactosidase stains motor neuron cell bodies and processes due to the axon-specific unc-76 protein sequence ( L . BLOOMand H . R . HORVITZ , unpublished data ) in the reporter gene .
PaperID WBPaper00001826 SentenceID s67 SENTENCE : -galactosidase expression in transgenic nematodes is governed by a 3 . 2-kb PstI-SmaI genomic fragment spanning the unc-4 promoter region ( D . M . MILLER and C . J . NIEMEYER , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001826 SentenceID s68 SENTENCE : The unc-4-unc-76-lacZ construct includes a cDNA fragment from the axon-specific unc-76 protein ( L . BLOOM and H . R . HORVITZ , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001826 SentenceID s74 SENTENCE : For example , in Figure 8a , 2 of 10 VA motorneurons ( VA5 and VA6 ) and 1 of 6 DA motor neurons ( DA3 ) in the ventral nerve cord are not stained in this particular animal , but unc-4-lac2 expression in these motor neurons has been observed in many other animals , unc-4-lac2 expression in transgenic lines was detected by either histochemical staining with X-gal ( Figure 8a ) or by immunofluorescence withanti- & galactosidase ( Figure 8b ) ( D . M . MILLERand C . J . NIEMEYER , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001827 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : Cell-cell interactions have not been shown to be involved in the development of the SMs and CCs ( J . THOMAS , unpublished data ; C . KENYON , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001827 SentenceID s73 SENTENCE : lin-12 ( d ) / lin-12 ( 0 ) hermaphrodites display a 0 AC-Egl The allele lin-I2 ( or48 ) was subsequently identified phenotype ( GREENWALD , STERNBERG HORVITZ and by TIM SCHEDL ( unpublished data ) after EMS muta1983 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001828 SentenceID s239 SENTENCE : Possible alleles of sel ( ur40 ) were isolated by J . PRIESS A . M . HOWELL and ( unpublished data ; see below ) , who have evidence that such mutations are haploinsufficient suppressors of a glp-1 mutation .
PaperID WBPaper00001828 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : The translocation hTl ( 1 ; V ) ( McKIM , HOWELL ROSE 1988 ) causes recessive lethality and approach has notbeen successful in C . elegans : n o and suppresses recombination on the left halves of linkage other genes have been found that can mutate to either groups I and V . a Lin-12- or Glp-1-like phenotype ( SEYDOUX , SAVAGE LG Ill : dpy-l7 ( e164 ) , dpy-l8 ( e364 ) , dPy-l9 ( e1259 ) , linand GREENWALD 1993 ; J . KIMBLE , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001828 SentenceID s30 SENTENCE : ( E . unpublished data ; lin-I2 ( oz48 ) , ncl-l ( e1865 ) HEDGECOCK , LAMBIE n d KIMBLE ( 199 1 ) have identified two such a unc-32 ( el89 ) , unc-36 ( e251 ) , eTl ( ll1 ; V ) ( ROHERMAN 1989 ) , which have thesamenull genes , lag-1 a n d lag-2 , SENBLUTH and BAILLIE 1981 ) , qDp3 ( AUSTIN and KIMBLE phenotype as a lin-12 glp-1 double mutant ( lag = !
PaperID WBPaper00001828 SentenceID s30 SENTENCE : The apparent non-null HOWELL J . PRIESS , and unpublished data ; this work ) . nature of many of the sel mutations we isolated , and The sel ( ur40 ) , sog ( ru28 ) ( A . M . HOWELLand J . the fact that the sel mutations do not cause any phePRIESS , unpublished data ) , sel-I , sel-9 , sel ( arX ) sel-IO notype in a lin-12 ( + ) background may beadirect and sel-11 mutations are the first examples of mutaconsequence of these constraints . tions that have been found to suppress both lin-12 Similar constraints associated with other suppressor and glp-1 alleles .
PaperID WBPaper00001828 SentenceID s305 SENTENCE : J . PRIES and A . M . HOWELL ( unpublished data ) screened for dominantSuppressors of glp-I ( e2I42 ) [ sog mutations ] and obtained sog ( zu28 ) and many other mutations that appear to beallelic to sel ( ar40 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001828 SentenceID s306 SENTENCE : The sel ( ar40 ) and sog ( zu28 ) mutations both map 0 . 01 map units left of dpy-5 on linkage group I ( Table 1 ; A . M . HOWELL J . PRIESS , and unpublished data ) , and both are dominant suppressors of the Egl and 2 AC defects caused by lin-l2 ( n676n930 ) ( Table 11 and data not shown ; A . M . HOWELL J . PRIESS , and unpublished data ) and of the maternal effect embryonic lethality caused by glp-l ( e2142 ) ( Table 12 ; A . M . HOWELL and J . PRIESS , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001828 SentenceID s307 SENTENCE : Like sel ( ar40 ) , sog ( zu28 ) causes no obvious phenotype in a and wild-type background ( A . M . HOWELL J . PRIES , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001828 SentenceID s309 SENTENCE : Since sel ( ar40 ) was able to suppress both lin12 ( n676n930 ) and glp-l ( e2142 ) , we wondered if any of our other sel mutations might also suppress glpl ( e2142 ) ; such mutations might not have been identified in the screen of PRIES and HOWELL ( unpublished Suppressors of lin-I2 and glp-I TABLE 9 seI-9 ( + ) antagonizes the ability sel-9 ( ar22 ) to enhance the0 of AC-Eglphenotype caused by lin-I2 ( n676n930 ) at 15 " Relevant genotype % 0 AC-Egl 777 lin-I2 ( n676n930 ) ; sel-9 / sel-9 ' lin-I2 ( n676n930 ) ; el-9 / sel-9 / + lin-l2 ( n676n930 ) ; + / + ' lin-l2 ( n676n930 ) ; + / + / + 4 39 ( 77 ) " 14 ( 81 ) 3 ( 38 ) 7 ( 61 ) The number of animals scored is given in parentheses .
PaperID WBPaper00001828 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : Screens for suppressors of lin-l2 ( d ) screens may explain the fact that many of the supalleles ( FERGUSON HORVITZ and 1985 , and personal pressors of lin-12 or glp-1 isolated to date cause no communication ; F . TAX J . THOMAS , and unpublished phenotype other than suppression ( MAINE and KIMdata ) and for suppressors of partial loss-of-function BLE 1993 ; J . PRIES and A . M . HOWELL , unpublished glp-1 alleles ( MAINEand KIMBLE1989 , 1993 ; PRIESS J . data ; F . TAX J . THOMAS , and unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001828 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : Similar results were obtained with sog ( zu28 ) ( data not shown ) , an apparent allelic ( unpublished data ; see text ) . mutation isolated byJ .
PaperID WBPaper00001828 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : TAX J . THOMAS , and unpublished of lag-2 ( F . TAX and J . THOMAS , unpublished data ; data ; cited in LAMBIE and KIMBLE 1991 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001828 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : process ( 3 ) A gene that functions in one GUSON , unpublished data ) is a derivative of the translocation lin-12- and / or glp-1-mediated process might haveadnTI ( ZV ; V ) ( FERGUSON HORVITZ 1985 ) and containing both ditional roles as well ; eliminating the activity of such recessive lethal and dominant visible markers such that homozygotes are inviable and heterozygotes are uncoordia genewouldthereforecause anovelphenotype . and 1981 ) is nated ( Unc ) . eTl ( l1Z ; V ) ( ROSENBLUTH BAILLIE Screens for extragenic suppressors or enhancers of a reciprocal translocation that suppresses recombination on lin-12 o r glp-1 mutations make no assumptions about therightarm of linkage group 111 and the left armof the natureof the null phenotypes of interacting genes linkage group V , and which causes markers in these two and therefore could in principle circumvent some of regions to appear linked .
PaperID WBPaper00001828 SentenceID s61 SENTENCE : Greenwald , unpublished data ) . sel genes may interact with both Ein-12 and glp-1 : The glp-1 gene is structurally similar to lin-12 and functions in similar ways in distinct cell fate decisions ( AUSTIN and KIMBLE 1987 , 1989 ; PRIESS , SCHNABEL FIGURE 3 .
PaperID WBPaper00001832 SentenceID s17 SENTENCE : This genotype analysis takes advantage of a > 1 O-fold difference between the two strains in copy number of the transposon T c l : BO has -500 T c l copies / haploid genome ( MORI , MOERMANand WATERSTON 1988 , and our unpublished results ) , while N2 has only -30 copies ( LIAO , ROSENZWEIG and HIRSH 1983 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001832 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : Moreover , the increase in variance seen in the N2XBO F12populations was also observed in FP and later progeny of a cross between N2 and DH424 , both nonmutator strains at 20 " ( R . EBERT , H . N . K . EGILMEZ , RUGGLES S . and R . J . SHMOOKLER REIS , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001833 SentenceID s221 SENTENCE : Germlinespecific suppressor sog-1O ( ql62 ) maps to LG Ill : sog-lO ( q162 ) lies -0 . 3 m . u . to the left of dpy-17 ( Table 7B ) , close to a gene known to interact with lin-12 , sel-2 ( suppressor and / or enhancer of linand I . GREENWALD , unpublished 1 2 ) ( G . SEYDOUX - O data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001833 SentenceID s280 SENTENCE : membrane-associated Genetic mosaic , molecular and immunocytochemical analyses of glp-I indicate that it encodes a membrane-associated protein in the distal germ line ( AUSTIN and KIMBLE 1987 , 1989 ; YOCHEM and GREENWALD 1989 ; CRITTENDEN , TROEMEL S . E . and J . KIMBLE , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001833 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : Therefore , these genes act ( in a genetic sense ) as positive regulators of glp-I . Consistent with this notion , it is very difficult to recover transposoninduced sog mutations ; such mutations tend to eliminate gene function ( E . MAINE , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001833 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : -M . HOWELL J . PRIESS , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001833 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : Indeed , one gene , gld-I , is known to be involved in both proliferation and sex determination in the germ line ( T . SCHEDL , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001833 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : However , some double sog mutants have been examined ( e . . , sog-1 ; sog-3 ) , and no novel phenotype has been seen ( E . MAINE , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001833 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : MAINEand J . KIMBLE , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001833 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : membrane-associated T h e glp-1 gene has been shown by genetic , molecular and immunocytochemical analyses to encode a plasma membrane-associated protein in the germline ( AUSTINand KIMBLE 1987 , 1989 ; YOCHEM and GREENWALD 1989 ; S . CRITTENDEN , E . TROEMEL J . KIMBLE , unpublished data ) . and Suppressors may act by altering the function and / or level of other components of the cell-signaling system or by altering the level and / or pattern of glp-1 gene expression .
PaperID WBPaper00001833 SentenceID s51 SENTENCE : In addition , sog-1 complements smg-1 ( also located in the cluster on LG I ) for the Smg phenotype ( E . MAINE , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001834 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : We thank the following : SARAH CRITTENDEN , JUDITH KIMBLE , ANN-MARIE HOWELL , PRIESS , KRAMER , MEERA JIM JIM SUNDARAM and IVA GREENWALD for communicating unpublished results ; ANN MEANY , RUTHYOKOYAMAand SHOzo YOKOYAMA advice and for assistance with PCR and sequencing ; KEVIN VANDOREN helpful for discussions and use of the thermal cycler ; DICKLEVY for of the use sequencing apparatus ; PEI SHU for excellent technical assistance ; JUDITH KIMBLE , QIAO , PEI LI SHU and FRAN LISEMORE critically for reading the manuscript ; andJuDITH KIMBLEfor primers and helpful discussions .
PaperID WBPaper00001835 SentenceID s170 SENTENCE : KRAMER , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001835 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : M . KRAMER , 1982 ; COX , KRAMER and HIRSH 1984 ; COX et al . unpublished data ) presumdbly giving rise to the dis1985 , 1989 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001835 SentenceID s40 SENTENCE : LEVY J . M . KRAMER , unpublished data . and pletely wild-type phenotypes , and in some cases their phenotypes differed from each other ( Table 2 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001852 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : chromosomes It is likely , and indeed has been shown for some mutants , that this class of him mutants causes general nondisjunction of all chromosomes ( HODGKIN , HORVITZ and BRENNER 1979 ; P . MENEELY , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001852 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : Unlike the sterility associated with him-5 mutations ( P . MENEELY , unpublished data ) , and the lethality ( HOWELL a l .
PaperID WBPaper00001853 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : Taking into account the map distance of approximately 3 . 6 and map units between unc-46 and rol-3 ( M . L . EDCLEY D . L . RIDDLE , unpublished data ) , tight linkage of the srl mutation to dpy-18 III would give a ratio of 4 . 2 : 1 , while in the case of tight linkage to unc-46 V , the ratio would be 0 . 33 : 1 . on LGI , II , III or N : Testing for linkage to markers Hermaphrodites , homozygous for srl- ( sx ) , marker " m , " unc46 and rol-3 ( s1040ts ) , were mated to N2 males and the F2 progeny were scored .
PaperID WBPaper00001853 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : Given that rol-3 is separated from unc46 by 3 . 6 map units ( M . L . EDCLEY and D . L . RIDDLE , unpublished data ) , the number of Unc progeny expected due torecombination between unc-46 and rol-3 rather than due to recombination between M and srl-2 ( 2507 ) was determined from the formula U = q l - ( 1 - P ) ' ] / 3 where U is the number of Uncs , it is the total number of worms and P is the frequency of recombination between unc-46-rol-3 .
PaperID WBPaper00001854 SentenceID s102 SENTENCE : Although the order of daf-1 , dpy-9 , tpa-1 and j r - 3 was not determined by classical genetic means , the results of DNA cloning show that it isjlr-3 , daf1 and tpa-1 from left to right ( M . KAWAKAMI , ISHIHARA I . T . and KATSURA , unpublished data ) , where the position of dpy-9 is still unknown . tation of the pseudo-revertants with jlr-2 ( ut5 ) ; jlrl ( utl1 ) orflr-3 ( ut9 ) ; flr-2 ( ut5 ) showed that one of the secondary mutations ( ut73 ) complemented jlr-2 ( ut5 ) for suppression of the slow-growing phenotype of the original j l r mutation , whereas the other mutation ( ut71 ) did not complementjlr-2 ( ut5 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001854 SentenceID s145 SENTENCE : However , we recently clonedflr-3 by the transposon-tagging method and found sequence homology to all the conserved protein kinase catalytic domains ( M . KAWAKAMI , T . ISHIHARA and I . KATSURA , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001854 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : T h e mutations are recessive , and some of them injlr-1 andflr3 are caused by insertion of the transposon T c l ( M . KAWAKAMI , ISHIHARA , AMANO , KONDO and T . T . K . I . KATSURA , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001854 SentenceID s74 SENTENCE : Since we have cloned DNA fragments containing the T c l transposons that caused the Jr-l ( utl1 ) and flr-j ( ut9 ) mutations ( our unpublished data ) , we performed Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA from N2 , theflr mutants andtheirrevertants , using a DNA fragment flanking the T c l as a probe .
PaperID WBPaper00001884 SentenceID s618 SENTENCE : We have completed the sequence of cm20al2 ( S . C . MAGUIREand L . STEBLECKI , unpublished data ) and found that it codes for a protein that is 69 % identical to the CDC48 .
PaperID WBPaper00001884 SentenceID s620 SENTENCE : As an extension of another compilation of et partial sequences of C . elegans cDNAs ( MCCOMBIE al . 1992 ) , a gene more closely related to TBP-1 ( showing 85 % identity ) than is mei-1 has been found ( R . MCCOMBIE , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001884 SentenceID s77 SENTENCE : mei-1 genetically maps between lin-IO and lin- 28 , which are to the left and right of mei-I , respectively . lin-IO is on the cosmid TOlG9 ( KIM and HORVITZ 1990 ) , while lin-28 is to the left of a restriction fragment length polymorphism identified by cosmid C14F9 ( V . AMBROS , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001923 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : A fact that bears on this issue is that , in all cases in which Daf-c mutations have been made heterozygous with deficiencies that delete the genes ( daf-2 , -4 , -8 , -14 and -19 ) , -7 , a Daf-c phenotype has been observed ( H . R . HORVITZ , I . GREENWALD , EDGLEY , MAINS and J . A . HODGKIN , M . P . personalcommunication , andour unpublished o b servations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001924 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : process + / + hermaphrodites ( ALBERTSON 1993 ; T . BARNES , personal communication ; A . VILLENEUVE , unpublished results ) , arguing that theme8 mutation does not affect the process of recombination itself but instead affects a precondition for reciprocal exchange .
PaperID WBPaper00001924 SentenceID s54 SENTENCE : X chromosome, chromosome, process Independent evidence and has further implicated the him-8 gene product in the process of X chromosome pairing ( S . BURGESS W . and WOOD , personal communication ; A . M . VILLENEWE unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001924 SentenceID s64 SENTENCE : 1982 ; et l FODOR DEAK and 1985 ; A . VILLENEWE , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001924 SentenceID s66 SENTENCE : chromosomes 1982 ; et l A . VILLENEUVE , unpublished ) , heterozygosityfor the while deletionswith similar breakpoints described in the present study allows most X chromosomes to recombine and to disjoin properly .
PaperID WBPaper00001924 SentenceID s73 SENTENCE : The right half of the and BAILLIE1981 ; HERMAN al . 1982 ; ROSE al . 1984 ; et et figure indicates the predicted configuration of the chromoMCKIMet al . 1988 ; HERMAN KARI 1989 ; ZETKAand and somes at the pachytene stage of meiotic prophase , when chroROSE 1992 ; KEMPHUES , personal communication ; A . M . K . mosomes arefully synapsed ; cross-hatching represents the synVILLENEUVE , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001942 SentenceID s157 SENTENCE : Communicating editor : R . K . HERMAN behave as simple recessive alleles when daf-16 / + animals are induced to form dauer larvae by pheromone ( S . GOTTLIEB G . RUVKUN , and unpublished observation ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001942 SentenceID s66 SENTENCE : Significantly , mutations in d a f - 1 6 suppress both the L1 arrest and the reduced brood size phenotypes ( S . GOITLIEB , H . TISSENBAUM and G . RUVKUN , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001955 SentenceID s154 SENTENCE : The molecular means by which a feminizing element produces intersexes in triploids is not known , although the sequencehas been shown to be a protein binding site in vitro ( S . ROBERTSON , W . MCCOUBREY P . MENEELY , and unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001955 SentenceID s156 SENTENCE : First , unlike the effect of the dosage compensation mutants and the duplications , the injected feminizing element causes intersexual development rather than sex reversal . Although occasional broods of injected animals are observed that are predominantly hermaphrodites ( MCCOUBREY 1988 ; P . MENEELY , et al . unpublished ) , the more consistent effect is the production of intersexual animals .
PaperID WBPaper00001955 SentenceID s74 SENTENCE : Reet gions of the act-4 intron smaller than the 131 bp inserted in pCeA130 were tested ( Table 4 ; and P . MENEELY , MCCOUBREY S . ROBERTSON , W . and unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001956 SentenceID s394 SENTENCE : A Z J . KIMBLE , C C , T . HICKS , HODGKIN , HORVITZ , K T , K . KEMPHUES , OK B . MEER , D . MILLER , MOERMAN , D . K . NISHIKAWA , J . PLENEFIXH , J . PRIESS , A . H . R . J . SHAW , TUCK S . and D . RIDDLE , ROSE , SCHNABEL , SCHNABEL , J . Waddle for sharing deficiency strains , antisera , suggestions and unpublished data .
PaperID WBPaper00001957 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : In contrast , personal communication ; our unpublished results ) . early screens for nonmaternaleffect lethals identified These findings suggest that early expression of embryprimarily mutations that result in larval arrest onically transcribedgenescouldbemoreimportant ( HERMAN 1978 ; MENEELY and HERMAN 1979 , 1981 ; than previously suspected , as it is in embryos of ROGALSKI al . 1982 ; SIGURDSON al . 1984 ; ROSENet et Drosophila , where both maternally and embryonically BLUTH et al . 1988 ) ; only 9 of the 160 genes identified expressed genes are clearly essential for pregastruin these studies were represented by alleles that cause lation patterning ( for review see ST .
PaperID WBPaper00001957 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : X chromosome, chromosome, granule, granules For example , nullo-Xembryos , which do not display gut granules , nevertheless stain for gut-specific esterase ( F . STONER-GLAZER EDGAR , and L . unpublished ) , suggesting thatabsence of the X chromosome blocks rhabditin granule formation but gut not cell determination .
PaperID WBPaper00001957 SentenceID s44 SENTENCE : MAINS and J O E L ROTIIMAS for communication of unpublished data , helpful discussion , and critical comments on the manuscript F .
PaperID WBPaper00001958 SentenceID s100 SENTENCE : J . COLLINS , and unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001958 SentenceID s102 SENTENCE : Several features of unc-22 make it a good gene for this that two mutants contain insertions of Tc4 ( C . PARHAM and J . J . COLLINS ; unpublished results ) . dozen uncThree of the remaining mutants , 22 ( r644 ) , unc-22 ( r741 ) and unc-22 ( r753 ) , contain insertions of approximately 3 . 2 kb within unc-22 .
PaperID WBPaper00001958 SentenceID s105 SENTENCE : -Y . for DREWUS , YUAN and R . HORVITZ providing molecular clones ; G . BENLW sharing unc-22 sequence data before its publication ; for C . SAVAGE , CHALFIE , PATEL , MANCILM and T . SCHEDL sharing M . N . J . for unpublished information on transposon-inducedalleles isolated from for TR679 ; and J . SHAW discussions regarding the similarity between putative Tc4v-encoded and Tc5-encoded proteins .
PaperID WBPaper00001958 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : For this reason , information on the spectrum of mutational events recovered in this strain is of general interest . Our collection of 60unc-22 mutants includes : 43 caused by Tcl insertion ; three caused by Tc3 insertion ( COLLINS al . et 1989 ) ; two caused by Tc4 insertion ( C . PARHAM J . J . and COLLINS , unpublished results ) ; and three caused by Tc5 insertion ( Figure 1 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001958 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : Tcl and Tc3 are efficiently spliced from many , if not most , mutant pre-mRNAs ( RUSHFORTH 1993 ; BENIANal . et al . et 1993 ; A . RUSHFORTH P . ANDERSON , unpublished oband servations ; M . MILLS , GMNER andJ .
PaperID WBPaper00001958 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : J . COLLINS , J . unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001958 SentenceID s56 SENTENCE : In this report we describe genetic and Tc5plusflanking unc-22 sequences ( refer toFigure2A ) . et Nucleotide sequence analysis of the appropriate regions of molecular properties of another C . elegans transposon TR # 31 , TR # 33 and TR # 53 ( S . ANDREWS and J . J . COLLINS , family uncovered using this strategy , the Tc5 family . unpublished data ) confirmed that TR # 31 and TR # 33 together contain the entire Tc5 element inserted in uncMATERIALS AND METHODS 22 ( r644 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001958 SentenceID s85 SENTENCE : Inspection of their deduced amino acid sequences reveals that the proteins encoded by Tcl and Tc3 are quitesimilar ( 28 % identity overallROSENZWEIC 1983 ; D . SCHNEIDER , COLLINS et al . J . J . and P . ANDERSON , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001958 SentenceID s94 SENTENCE : In addition , Tcl excises at very high frequency in somatic cells ( EMMONS YESNER and 1984 ) , but no such events have been detectedfor Tc3 ( COLLINS et al . 1989 ) , Tc4 ( C . PARHAM and COLLINS , J . J . unpublished results ) or Tc5 ( Figure 1 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001990 SentenceID s25 SENTENCE : HORVITZ , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001990 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : Inparticular , SPIETH al . reported et et the unpublished conclusions of L . HUANGand P . STERNBERG the lin15 A gene that is located downstream of the lin15 B gene and that the lin15 A transcript is transspliced to SL2 .
PaperID WBPaper00001990 SentenceID s44 SENTENCE : Lossofhave a multivulva phenotype . function mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinaselet23 gene , theSH3 SH2SH3 adaptor proteinsem5 gene , letThe multivulva phenotype of many mutants requires 341 , let60 ras and lin45 raf suppress the Muv phenomutations in two genes ( HORVITZ SULSTON and 1980 ; type conferred by lin15 mutations , indicating that FERGUSON HORVITZ and 1985 , 1989 ; J . THOMAS H . R . and lin15 acts upstream of these five genes in the genetic HORVITZ , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001991 SentenceID s189 SENTENCE : J . MEYER , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001991 SentenceID s243 SENTENCE : Additionally , 100 & -3 ( yS2Tm ) loss of dpy-30 activityfeminizes XX animals carrying ei @ y-30 ( 130 ) dc-JCyll3Tm ) ther the sdc-3 ( yl13Tra ) mutation the her-1 ( yl Olsd ) or Z3A 98 [ I481 mutation , both of which normally cause extensive mas @ y-30 ( y228 ) 1 + 2 E 3 A ; culinization of XX animals ( TRENT a2 . 1991 ; DELONG et 0 50 100 et al . 1993 ; A . VILLENEWE B . J . MEYER , and unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001991 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : In X 0 animals , this coordinate control requires the activity of a single gene , xol-1 ( X 0 lethal ) that acts as an essential early genetic switch to specify the male modes of both sex determination and dosage compensation ( MILLER et al . 1988 ) , ( N . R . WIND B . J . MEYER , and unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002016 SentenceID s139 SENTENCE : RON ELLIS communicating unpublished results .
PaperID WBPaper00002016 SentenceID s56 SENTENCE : Molecular analysis has shownthat the mec-8 region personal communiis entirely missing in mnDfl11 ( R . ELLIS , cation ; E . LUNDQUIST , J . SHAW R . HERMAN , and unpublished experiments ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002016 SentenceID s58 SENTENCE : Preliminary molecular analysis of mec-8 supports the idea thatmec-8 protein controls the expression of other genes ( E . LUNDQUIST , J . SHAW and R . HERMAN , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002033 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : This expression et does not depend on normal phasmids since d a f l l ; lin-I 7 and daf-21 ; lin-17 doublemutantsare still strongly Daf-c ( our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002033 SentenceID s131 SENTENCE : We also thank C . BARGMANN E . MALONE for 218 : 578-580 . communicating unpublished results , J . CW for assistance with A L GOLDEN , W .
PaperID WBPaper00002033 SentenceID s152 SENTENCE : Maternal rescue of late phenotypes is unusual but not unique : both the Daf-c and egg-laying defective phenotypes of some daf-1 alleles are also maternally rescued ( SWANSON and RIDDLE 1981 ; our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002033 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : Mutants et al . with defects specific to avoidance of non-volatile repellents have been isolated , but await further characterization ( our unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002033 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : processes The amphid sheath cells surround the sensory ciliaand killing these cells causesdefects in three amphid-mediated processes : osmotic avoidance , chemotaxis , and the ability of the amphid neurons to take up a fluorescent dye , fluorescein 5-isothiocyanate ( BARGMANN al . 1990 ; C . et BARGMANN , personal communication ; our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002059 SentenceID s203 SENTENCE : W . EMMONS , unpublished observations .
PaperID WBPaper00002059 SentenceID s215 SENTENCE : Heat and CdCI , administration has been performed on him-5 males ( K . L . CHOW and S . W . EMMONS , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002059 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : Chromosomal Chromosomal aberrations used were : eDp6 ( III ; f ) , eDf2 ( III ) , stDp2 ( X ; II ) , uDfl ( X ) ( M . CHALFIE , unpublished ) , srTI ( X ; I ) All laboratory strains except RW7000 are derived from the 1974 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002059 SentenceID s59 SENTENCE : EMMONS , and unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002060 SentenceID s95 SENTENCE : Injected hermaphrodite spermfertilize a constant proportion the of oocytes overthe life of the recipientworm ( our unpublished results ) , indicating that injection does not reduce long-term viability .
PaperID WBPaper00002074 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : J . MEER , and unpublished ) , y261 ( C . C . AKERIB , unpublished ) ; sma5 ( n678 ) ; lin-2 ( e1 ?
PaperID WBPaper00002074 SentenceID s196 SENTENCE : HODCKIN and to be solely responsible for theDpy phenotype , since XX D . ALBERTSON ( unpublished results ) that a new XOanimals with extrachromosomal arrays of sdc-2 are wild specific lethal mutation they had identified was associtype ( D . S . BERLIN , unpublished ) . ated with a large inverted duplication of the left end of Our analysis of the unc-9 region therefore fails to X . The XO-specific lethal phenotype could be due to an show that its dose has any importanceforthe sexeffect of the duplicationitself on the sexdetermination determination signal . However , we have not excluded signal . Alternatively , the phenotype could be due to a 1112 C . C . Akerib and B . J . Meyer FIGURE 4 .
PaperID WBPaper00002074 SentenceID s25 SENTENCE : Extrachromosomal arrays : yEx68 [ sdc-2 ( + ) rol-b ( d ) ] ( D . BERLIN , unpublished ) , yExl11 [ Pdpy- ?
PaperID WBPaper00002074 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : O : : xol-I unc-76 ( + ) ] ( W I N D et al . 1995 ) , yEx152 [ xol-l ( + ) unc-76 ( + ) ] ( J . B . KOPCZIT ISKI , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002086 SentenceID s142 SENTENCE : WEISS his guidance with confocal microscopy for and image processing ; Ross FRANCIS for MH2 mAb and ALICE the RUSHFORTH PHILIP and ANDERSON for permission to cite unpublished results .
PaperID WBPaper00002086 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : To address this question , we are of exon specific antisera that preparinganumber should permitus to identify all of the unc-52 gene products ( G . P . MULLENand D . G . MOERMAN , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002086 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : basement membranes, membranes The proteins et recognized by these mAbs are synthesized emin bryogenesis ( ROGALSKI al . 1993 ; HRESKO al . 1994 ) et et and are present the basement membranes of all conin tractile it issues in adult hermaphrodites ( FRANCIS and WATERSTON 1991 ; P . MULLENand D . G . MOERMAN , G . unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002087 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : - SHAW , personal communication ) , osm-3 ( M . S W R and S . SIDDIQUI , personalcommunication ) and osm6 ( J . COLLET , HERMAN J . SHAW , unpublished R . and experiments ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002087 SentenceID s30 SENTENCE : RIDDLE , unpublished experiments ; MALONE and THOMAS 1994 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002111 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : Because lw32 is indistinguishable from it53 in expressivity ( K . J . KEMPHUES , unpublished data ) , we believe that the phenotype exhibited by it53 is likely to be the null phenotype .
PaperID WBPaper00002112 SentenceID s269 SENTENCE : I Y X analysis ( unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002112 SentenceID s445 SENTENCE : Because none of the egl-1 mutations inactivate the gene ( R . ELLIS and M . HENGARTNER , unpublished results ) , the null phenotype of egl-1 is unknown .
PaperID WBPaper00002112 SentenceID s535 SENTENCE : Ross FRANCIS giving us the mutations and for 02137 and 02147 and for freely sharing unpublished results .
PaperID WBPaper00002113 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : 61 and oz89 ) were isolated as part of screens for mutations that fail to complement fog-2 ( lf ) or fog-1 ( lf ) mutations that confer a recessiveFog phenotype ( SCHEDL and unpublished and KIMBLE 1988 ; T . SCHEDL M . K . BARTON , data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002113 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : Recent molecular analysis supports this assignment : gld-I ( 9485 ) contains a frame-shifting deletion in the amino-terminal portion of the coding region and is thus unlikely to make a gld-1 product ( A . JONES and T . SCHEDL , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002114 SentenceID s252 SENTENCE : Furthermore , although ablationof the DTC precursorshasnoeffecton sex determination ( KIMBLE and WHITE1981 ) , glp-1 ( @ -induced premature entry into meiotic prophase can cause masculinizationof the germline in genetic backgrounds that are partially feminized , Forexample , f m - 2 ( t s ) mutants make only oocytes , whereas f m - 2 ( t s ) glp1 ( y ) mutants make sperm at the restrictive temperature ( E . MAINEand J . KIMBLE , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002127 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : The full results of this screen will be presented elsewhere ( P . BOUTIS , B . LAKOWSKI and S . HEKIMI , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002128 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : The NDG resistance of pre- 1270 W . Shreffler et al . main ( CHALFIE and WOLINSKY 1990 ; DRISCOLL and CHALFIE 1991 ; CHALFIE al . 1993 ; HUANC CHALFIE et and 1994 ; E . WOLINSKY , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002128 SentenceID s49 SENTENCE : The human lung amiloride sensitive et Na + channel is also a member of the deg-1 family ( VOIL LEY et al . 1994 ) , with overall 50 % conserved or identical amino acids when compared to either deg-1 ( CHALFIE and WOLINSKY 1990 ; WOLINSKY , E . unpublished results ) or mec-4 ( DRISCOLL CHALFIE and 1991 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002148 SentenceID s12 SENTENCE : This signal is encoded by the lin-3 gene andis a member of the epidergrowth factors ( HILL mal growth factor ( EGF ) family of 1992 ; R . HILL , W . KAT & T . CLANDININ and STERNBERG and P . STERNBERG , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002148 SentenceID s205 SENTENCE : Animals of this genotype almost never lay eggs ( 0 / 3600 in contrast to 7 % of sy1 homozygotes ; AROIAN and STERNBERC 1991 ; G . D . JONGEWARD , unpublished data ) but are otherwise wild type .
PaperID WBPaper00002148 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : These genes , let-23 , lin-2 and lin-7 , are required for response to the inductive signal as well as negative regulation of this response ( FERGUSON and HORVITZ 1985 ; h o w and STERNBERG G . JONGE1991 ; WARD and P . STERNBERG , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002148 SentenceID s317 SENTENCE : processes JONGEWARD 1991 ; and P . STERNBERG , unpublished data ) . sli-I mutations suppress let-23 mutations in a it issuespecific manner : Mutations in kt-23 can affect several different developmental processes , disrupting vulval development , P12 neuroectoblast determination , male tail development , larval growth and hermaphrodite fertility ( FERGUSON HORVITZ and 1985 ; AROIAN and STERNBERG 1991 ; CHAMBERLIN STERNBERG and 1994 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002148 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : Third , mutants defective in both sli-1 and unc-101 display excessive vulval induction , supporting our hypothesis that sli-1 functions as a negative regulator ( G . JONGEWARD and P . STERNBERG , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002148 SentenceID s388 SENTENCE : genotype ( a reduction of function allele n378 in trans to a putative null allele n1059 ) is suppressed from an average of 0 . 1-0 . 6 W C s forming vulval it issue per animal as compared with 3 . 0 VPCs forming vulval it issue per animal in wild type ( Table 5 ; R . HILLand P . STERNBERG , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002148 SentenceID s402 SENTENCE : Animals homozygous for these alleles frequently display a Hin phenotype in the absence of a sli-1 mutation ( FERGUSON and HORVITZ 1985 ; G . JONGEWARD and P . STERNBERG , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002148 SentenceID s75 SENTENCE : Second , loss-offunction mutations in genes that act downstream of let23 in the vulval induction pathway often cause larval lethality and defects in P12 neuroectoblast determination and male tail development but do not appear to cause a sterile phenotype similar to that seen in let23 ( 912 ) animals ( BEITELet al . 1990 ; H . m et al . 1990 , 1993 ; CLARK al . 1992a , b ; E . LAMBIE , personal commuet nication ; T . CLANDININ P . STERNBERG , and unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002148 SentenceID s79 SENTENCE : Finally , we have recently identified second site suppressors of the sterility associated with let23 ( 912 ) that do not suppress the lethality or vulval defects associated with this let-23 mutation ( T . CLANDININ and P . STERNBERG , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002194 SentenceID s291 SENTENCE : I SENGUPTA , whom we thank as well for communicating unpublished data .
PaperID WBPaper00002194 SentenceID s57 SENTENCE : -B . STEWART P . COFFINO , M . and unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002195 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : We recently performed a large-scale isolation and characterization of mutants resistant to the AChE inhibitor aldicarb ( A . ALFONSO , M . NGUYEN , D . JOHNSON and J . B . RAND , C . unpublished results ) , which led to the identification of several additional genes .
PaperID WBPaper00002195 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : We also thank JOE CULOTTI for sharing for unpublished dataandJANET DUERR KEN MILLER useful discusand sions and helpful suggestions on the manuscript .
PaperID WBPaper00002195 SentenceID s9 SENTENCE : There are published reports of C . ekgans mutants resistant to AChE inhibitors ( BRENNER 1974 ; CULOTTI and KLEIN 1983 ; RAND and RUSSELL 1984 , 1985 ; HOSONO et al . 1989 ; HOSONO and KAMIYA 1991 ; NONET et al . 1993 ) , as well asseveral unpublished studies ( S . CARR and D . HIRSH , personal communication ; J . CULOTTI , personal communication ; K PETERSEN R . RUSSELL , and personal communication ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002238 SentenceID s114 SENTENCE : We havenow derived a map of gene density from the more advanced data obtained from the C . ekgans cDNA mapping and sequencing projects ( WATERSTON et al . 1992 ; Y . KOHARA , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002238 SentenceID s115 SENTENCE : chromosomes More than 2600 different cDNAs from normalized libraries have been positioned on the physical map by hybridization to a reference set of yeast artificial chromosomes ( YACs ) ( WATERSTONal . 1992 ; Y . KOHARA , et unpublished results ) , which account for -20 % of the currently estimated -12 , 500 total genes ( WATERSTON et al . 1992 ; WILSON al . 1994 ; S . JONES , personal comet munication ) , and should be representative of the genome .
PaperID WBPaper00002238 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : Indeed , these features have been evident from the earliest maps constructed ( in 1992 ) with a much more limited data set ( T . M . BARNES , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002238 SentenceID s78 SENTENCE : chromosome This conclusion is consistent with a higher resolution study of the right arm chromosome B BARNES 1991 ; T . M . of BARNES , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002238 SentenceID s99 SENTENCE : We would like to thank the C . ekguns community for their continued sharingof unpublished genetic and molecular data , which make ACEDB such a rich information resource .
PaperID WBPaper00002277 SentenceID s198 SENTENCE : By phenotypic analysis and / or genetic epistasis , several genes have been placed downstream of events involved in VPC specification , and hence appear to be involved in execution and morphogenesis ( FERGUSONal . 1987 ; et FREYD 1991 ; SEYDOUX al . 1993 ; T . HERMAN H . R . et and HORVITZ , personal communciation ; D . LEVITAN I . and GREEMVALD , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002277 SentenceID s304 SENTENCE : These reporterconstructs displayed very limited or no expression , even when coinjected with the lin12 ( + ) rescuing construct ( WILKINSON 1994 ; H . A . WIL KINSON and I . GREENWALD , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002278 SentenceID s149 SENTENCE : E . KWABARA , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002278 SentenceID s180 SENTENCE : More direct and extensive evidence for such an effect has been obtained by P . E . KWABARA ( unpublished results ) , in further work on the e2531 mutation .
PaperID WBPaper00002278 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : ( unpublished data ) , which leads to fertile male development in homozygous tru2 ( q276 ) X X animals , in contrast to most If ( loss-of-function ) tra-2 alleles , which lead to slightly abnormal , infertile male development .
PaperID WBPaper00002278 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : This separation and the further analysis of these mutations at both molecular and genetic levels has been carried out by P . E . KUWABARA ( unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002278 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : The last gene in the pathway , tra-1 , encodes TRA-lA , a DNA-binding protein that directs female development in all somatic it issues ( HODGKIN 1987a ; ZARKOWERand HODGKIN 1992 ; D . ZARKOWEKand J . HODGKIN , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002279 SentenceID s48 SENTENCE : ) double mutants have a moderate to severe G l p l phenotype ( E . MAINE , unpublished data ) . ego- ?
PaperID WBPaper00002279 SentenceID s98 SENTENCE : T JLW for communicating unpublished data ; JONATHAN HODGKIN , JlwL ' I ' ki KIMRI .
PaperID WBPaper00002305 SentenceID s180 SENTENCE : exp-2 ( sa26 ) and unc-llO ( el913 ) homozygotes arrest as early larvae , and sup-9 ( n2550 ) homozygotes are subviable and can barely be grownas a single mutant strain ( THO " C . ekguns Muscle Excitation Genes 971 1990 ; LEVIN and HORVITZ 1993 ; D . J . REINER , D . WEINand J . H . THOMAS , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002305 SentenceID s234 SENTENCE : Thenicotinic acetylchoet line agonist levamisole also activates egg laying ( LEWIS et al . 1980 ) , and the tricyclic antidepressants imipramine and clomipramine can induce egg laying both by blocking the reuptake of serotonin ( TRENT al . 1983 ) et and in aserotonin-independentmanner ( D . WEINSHENKER , G . GARRIGAand J . THOMAS , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002305 SentenceID s239 SENTENCE : post-synaptic A more detailed analysis ofegl-2 pharmacology suggests that it also causes a post-synaptic defect , despite its response to tricyclic antidepressants ( D . WEINSHENKER , GARRIGA G . and J . THOMAS , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002305 SentenceID s241 SENTENCE : Supporting this model is the observation that egg-laying defects as severe as those seen in the Mac-d mutants are seen in only two other categories of mutants ( our unpublished observations ) : those known to disrupt muscle structure or developmentstrongly ( WATERSTON 1988 ) , and those in which the vulva is abnormal ( FERCUSONal . 1987 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002305 SentenceID s98 SENTENCE : TRENT H . R . HORVITZ , and personal communication D . WEINSHENKER J . THOMAS , and unpublished data et TRENT al . ( 1983 ) E . JORGENSEN and H . R . HORVITZ , personal communication D . REINER and J . THOMAS , unpublished data TRENT al . ( 1983 ) et E . JORGENSEN and H . R . HORVITZ , personal communication LEVIN HORVITZ and ( 1993 ) GREENWALD HORVITZ and ( 1980 ) GREENWALD HORVITZ and ( 1986 ) GREENWALD HORVITZ and ( 1980 ) I . GREENWALD H . R . HORVITZ , and personal communication TRENT al . ( 1983 ) et L . AWRY , personal communication PARK HORVITZ and ( 1986a ) J . HODGKIN , personal communication PARK HORVITZ ( 1986a ) and PARK HORVITZ and ( 1986a ) AVERY ( 1993 ) R . LEE , M . HENGARTNER , L . AWRY , and H . R . HORVITZ , personal communication PARKand HORVITZ ( 1986a ) PARKand HORVITZ ( 1986a ) BRENNER ( 1974 ) D . THIERRY-MIEG , personal communication D . THIERRY-MIEG , personal communication BRENNER 1974 ) ( BRENNER ( 1974 ) PARK HORVITZ ( 1986a ) and S . BRENNER , personal communication personal communication I . GREENWALD H . R . HORVITZ , and R . WATERSTON , personal communication B . SCHRANK R .
PaperID WBPaper00002339 SentenceID s120 SENTENCE : Because nonconditional Him-14 mutants give very few progeny ( < 5 % of the eggs hatch ) , we used the temperature-sensitive allele it44 ( 35 % of the eggs hatch at 20C ) ( J . DUFFY and K KEMPHUES , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002339 SentenceID s176 SENTENCE : The effect of rec-1 on the frequency of double-crossing over was measured in the male , because double crossovers have not been detected in hermaphrodites ( HODGKIN al . et 1979 ; HOWELLet al . 1987 ; K . MCKIM and M . ZETKA , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002339 SentenceID s182 SENTENCE : autosomes, chromosomes ) , indicating that there is no increase in doublecrossing over in rec-1 homozygousmales when compared to wild-type controls . sDpl ( Z $ ) suppresses the rec-1 phenotype : ROSE and BAILLIE ( 1979b ) found no linkage between rec-1 and any markers located in the gene clusters o the f autosomes , however , when markerslocated atthe ends of the chromosomes were tested , rec-1 showed loose linkage to unc-54 , located on the right end of LG Z ( A . M . ROSE , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002339 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : Mutations in him-14 are recombination defective in several intervals that have been tested ( KEMPHUES et al . 1988 ; K . KEMPHUES , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002339 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : chromosomes Mutations in him-6 ( HODGKINal . 1979 ) and him-14 ( KEMPHUES et al . 1988 ; et J . DUFFY K . KEMPHUES , unpublished results ) reduce and crossing over leading to increased frequencies of nondisjunction for all the chromosomes .
PaperID WBPaper00002339 SentenceID s70 SENTENCE : LIEfor his discussion and comments on the manuscript and KENNETH J . KEMPHUES for sharing strains and unpublished data .
PaperID WBPaper00002341 SentenceID s111 SENTENCE : bodies In the L1 stage , snt-1 worms are often immobile with their bodies coiled ( D . M . RAIZEN , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002341 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : RY , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002341 SentenceID s51 SENTENCE : In the absence of food , pumpingbehavior appears similar to that seen after ablation ofMC : pumps occur infrequently and irregularly ( AWRY and HORVITZ 1990 ; D . M . RAIZEN and L . AVERY , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002341 SentenceID s52 SENTENCE : Furthermore , EPGs of normal worms pumping slowly ( in a bathsolution containing no serotonin or food ) often resemble those of MC- worms : There arefew or noI-phase transients and the E phase is composed of a single large transient or a large one preceded by a small one ( D . M . RAIZEN , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002341 SentenceID s55 SENTENCE : There are no obvious differences between wild-type and unc-29 worms in pharyngeal behavior , electrical activity , or response to drugs ( AVERY and HORVITZ 1989 ; RAIZEN and AWRY1994 ; and D . M . R A I Z K N , Y . N . LEEand L . AWRY , unpublished ObSerVdtiOnS ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002341 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : and AVERY , unpublished observations ) , small differences between pumping rates of videotaped worms may be a result temperof ature variations .
PaperID WBPaper00002342 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : process Similar results from phenotypic characterization of the three other postembryonic maternal-effect sterile genes in C . elegans ( mes-2 , mes-4 , and mes-6 ) suggest that all four mes genes participate in a common event or process in germ-line development ( C . GARVIN S . STROME , and unpublished data ) . m s 3 encodes a novel protein : Several lines ofevidence show that the cloned sequence reported here corresponds to the mes-3gene .
PaperID WBPaper00002342 SentenceID s37 SENTENCE : nuclei : 1b-l ' worms and the number in unablated mes-3 worms presumably reflects the effect of genetic background ( CAPOWSKI et al . l & l ; C . GARVIN and S . STROME , unpublished data ) . eration of the germ nuclei .
PaperID WBPaper00002342 SentenceID s82 SENTENCE : We et identified 31 mutations in five complementation groups that result in a Mes phenotype ( CAPOWSKI al . 1991 ; et C . GARVIN , I . KORF , P . MARTIN , E . WOWSKI , and J . PAULSEN , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002343 SentenceID s128 SENTENCE : Thanks to TOM JOHNSON for providing unpublished results .
PaperID WBPaper00002355 SentenceID s57 SENTENCE : Two classes of EMS-induced mutations were identified : those that result in enhanced rnec7lucZ expression in the touch neurons ( G . XIE and E . AAMODT , unpublished observations ) and those that cause rnec-7lacZ expression in other cells .
PaperID WBPaper00002398 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : JOIINSON , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002398 SentenceID s154 SENTENCE : JOHNSON , unpublished observations ) all confirm the accurate assessment of markers .
PaperID WBPaper00002398 SentenceID s59 SENTENCE : Indeed , some mutator strains that have the Tcl elements mobilized to yield high forward mutation rates have severely reduced life spans ( T . E . JOHNSON , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002398 SentenceID s77 SENTENCE : JOHNSON , unpublished observations ) , suggesting that survival and spermatogenesis are not strictly linked in C . ekguns , consistent with our results .
PaperID WBPaper00002398 SentenceID s79 SENTENCE : 1994 ) . et Increased stress resistance has been demonstrated in age-I ( -EN 1993 ; VANFLETEREN LITHGOW al . 1993 ; et 1994 ) , and recent studies ( LITHGOW al . 1995 ; S . MLW et AKAMI and T . JOHNSON , unpublished results ) show that increased stress resistance can be seen in mutants in age-I , spe-26 , daf-2 , clk-I , and daf-23 .
PaperID WBPaper00002398 SentenceID s80 SENTENCE : Tests of epistasis for life span between any of these genes have not been reported but areunderway in our laboratory ( S . MUMKAMI and T . JOHNSON , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002447 SentenceID s1 SENTENCE : axon, process DISCUSSION unc-73 mutants exhibit defects in axon guidance , cell migration , and generation of certain cell types ( HEDGECOCK et al . 1987 ; SIDDIQUI CULOTTI 1991 ; MCINTIRE and et aL 1992 ; W Y et a 1992 ) , and the UNG73 A L protein has a region of similarity to Cdc24 of yeast , a cell polarity protein that is required for bud emergence , bud placement andmating process extension ( R . STEVEN , RUIZ , A . J . MANCILLAS , J . and CULOTTI , unpublished results ; FIELD and SCHEKMAN MIYAMOTO al . 1987 ; RON et al . 1980 ; et 1991 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002447 SentenceID s182 SENTENCE : STEVEN and J . CULOTTI , unpublished results ) , rescues the lethality of je ?
PaperID WBPaper00002447 SentenceID s193 SENTENCE : We thank DAVIDGREENSTEIN examining the gonads of supfor 39 animals and for useful discussion and GIANGARRIGA WAYNE and FORRESTER communication of unpublished results , RCHAKO for TRIEMER ALICE LIUfor use of their PCR machines , JAMES WHITTAand KER for strain constructions , and AIAN COULSON cosmids .
PaperID WBPaper00002447 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : More recently , R . STEVEN , RUE , J . MANGILLAS , and A . J . CULOTTI ( unpublished results ) have shown that unc73 encodes a -2 , 000 amino acid protein with a region of similarity to Cdc24 of yeast and to the productsof the dbl and bcroncogenes , which appear to encode guanine nucleotide exchange factors ( HART et al . 1991 ; RON et al . 1991 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002447 SentenceID s59 SENTENCE : All unc-73 ; smg animals had withered tails and grew poorly ; these phenotypes are seen in unc-73 ( e936 ) animals grown at 25 " , and in more severe alleles of unc-73 ( J . WAY , unpublished results ; W . FORRESTER and G . GARRIGA , personal communication ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002447 SentenceID s68 SENTENCE : Thee936 mutation does not cause a DNA rearrangement that can be detected by Southern blot using the rescuing cosmid CllB5 as a probe ( R . STEVEN and J . CULOTTI , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002448 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : cytoplasmic Indeed , theSEL-1 amino terminus , when fused to normally cytoplasmic proteins , can direct these proteins into the secretory pathway ( B . GRANT and I . GREENWALD , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002485 SentenceID s126 SENTENCE : J . VOWELS , IWASAKI , K M . AILION and J . H . THOMAS , unpublished results ; I . KATSURA , M . URASAKI , SUZUKI T . ISHIHARA , N . and personal communication ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002485 SentenceID s181 SENTENCE : daf-2 et and daf-23 mutants are Din and long-lived ( Age ) ( KENYON et al . 1993 ; GOTTLIEB RLJVKUN and 1994 ; LARSEN et al . 1995 ; our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002485 SentenceID s184 SENTENCE : ( BRENNER 1974 ; TRENT al . 1983 ; THOMAS et 1990 ; AVERY 1993 ; KATSURA et al . 1994 ; IWASAKI al . 1995 ; J . J . VOWELS , IWASAKI , et K . M . AILION and J . H . THOMAS , unpublished results ; I . KATSURA , M . URASAKI , N . SUZUKI T . ISHIHARA , and personal communication ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002485 SentenceID s202 SENTENCE : Fourth , daf-2 and daf-23 mutants have unusually dark intestines ( Din ) ( THOMAS al . et 1993 ; GOTTLIEBand RUVKUN1994 ; our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002485 SentenceID s215 SENTENCE : The varied and pleiotropic effects of synthetic Daf-c mutations on nervous system function suggest that many of these genes are important for several behaviors ( BRENNER 1974 ; TRENT et al . 1983 ; THOMAS 1990 ; AVERY 1993 ; KATSURA et al . 1994 ; IWASAKI al . 1995 ; J . J . VOWELS , K IWMAKI , AILION et M . and J . H . THOMAS , unpublished results ; I . KATSURA , M . URASAKI , SUZUKI T . ISHIHARA , N . and personal communication ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002485 SentenceID s220 SENTENCE : Dauer recovery : In dauer formation , the partially two redundant branches of the genetic pathway ( THOMAS et al . 1993 ) arethought to depend on two different groups of sensory neurons ( BARGMANN and HORVITZ 1991 ; W . S . SCHACKWITZ J . H . THOMAS , and unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002485 SentenceID s225 SENTENCE : ASJ , a ciliated amphid neuron , activates both dauer recovery and dauer formation ( BARCMANN and HORVITZ 1991 ; W . S . SCHACKWITZ J . H . and THOMAS , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002485 SentenceID s226 SENTENCE : Most mutations that constitutively activate dauer formation also inhibit dauer recovery ( RIDDLE et al . 1981 ; THOMAS al . 1993 ; et GOTTLIEB and RWKUN1994 ; MALONE and THOMAS 1994 ; VOWELSand THOMAS 1994 ; LARSEN et al . 1995 ; our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002485 SentenceID s236 SENTENCE : We think it is unlikely that the dauer recovery defects are related to daf-28 ( sal91 ) because cilium-structure mutations seem to inhibit dauer recovery in other daf-28 and age-1 in Dauer Formation 1203 Daf-c backgrounds ( our unpublished observations ) , although this result is complicated by the fact that these Daf-c mutations affect dauer recovery themselves .
PaperID WBPaper00002485 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : THOMAS , unpublished results ) . and In addition , A J promotes dauer recovery ( BARGMANN S and HORVITZ 1991 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002485 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : There are perhaps more than 40 genes that have this property ( AVERY1993 ; J . VOWELS , IWASAKI , J . K . M . AILION and J . H . THOMAS , unpublished results ; I . KATSURA , M . URASAKI , SUZUKI N . and T . ISHIHARA , personal communication ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002485 SentenceID s290 SENTENCE : We thank JEREMY & ITER , JENNIE DORMAN and CYNTHIA KENYON for initial testing of the life span of daf-28 mutants and forcommunicating unpublished results that motivated us to study the Daf-c phenotype of age-I . We thank MICHAELAILION , who first discovered that some mutant strains form dauers at 27 " .
PaperID WBPaper00002485 SentenceID s292 SENTENCE : We thank GARY RUVKLN and members of his laboratory for helpful discussions aud forkindly sharing unpublished daf-23 alleles .
PaperID WBPaper00002485 SentenceID s39 SENTENCE : H . THOMAS , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002485 SentenceID s39 SENTENCE : The two parallel branches represented daf-23 gene is the same as age-1 . by the group 1 and group 2 Daf-c genes are thought to be required for the function of the dauer-promoting MATERIALS AND METHODS and -repressing sensory neurons , respectively ( BARG General genetic methods : Worms were grown on standard MANN and HORVITZ 1991 ; W . S . SCHACKWITZ J . H . and NG agar plates seeded with Eschachia coli strain OP50 ( BRENTHOMAS , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002485 SentenceID s43 SENTENCE : Upon transfer to 15 " , most group 1 Daf-c mutants recover slowly ( a week or more ) , while group 2 Daf-c mutants generally recover quickly ( 1-2 days ) ( RIDDLE et al . 1981 ; THOMAS al . 1993 ; et VOWELSand THOMAS 1994 ; our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002485 SentenceID s88 SENTENCE : H . THOMAS , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002485 SentenceID s95 SENTENCE : J . VOWELS , IWASAKI , AILION and J . H . K . M . THOMAS , unpublished results ; I . KATSURA , M . URASAKI , N . SUZUKI T . ISHIHARA , and personal communication ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002486 SentenceID s199 SENTENCE : ( G . L . LITHGOW TEJ , unpublished results ) , and we and show here that they are also Uvr .
PaperID WBPaper00002486 SentenceID s213 SENTENCE : Heat stress presumably works through protein denaturation by thermal energy and results in the induction of multiple heat shock proteins ( for a review see , PARSELL LINDQUIST and 1994 ) and many ofthe Age mutants show an elevated accumulation of the small and T . E . heat shock protein HSP-16 ( G . J . LITHGOW JOHNSON , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002486 SentenceID s218 SENTENCE : Moreover , dietary restriction in several species is associated with increased resistance to oxidative and thermal stress ( WEINDRUCH and WAL FORD 1988 ; HEYDARIal . 1993 ; E . MASORO and S . AUSet TAD , unpublished ) and with prolonged retention of the Life Extension , Stress Resistance 1215 A Dauer formation path ----- daf- I daf-4 daf-7 daf-8 daf-I4 ( Dafc ) " I daf-3 daf-5 daf-12 ( Dafd ) daf-2 LifeStress Span specific and ( rf " f daf16 ( Dafd ) Dauer daf-23 ( Oafs ) B age-I FIGURE6 .
PaperID WBPaper00002486 SentenceID s32 SENTENCE : J . LITHGOW and TEJ , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002486 SentenceID s82 SENTENCE : Moreover , a large number of other mutations that reduce fertility show no or little effect on life span ( JOHNSON 1984 ; FABIAN and JOHNSON 1994 ; S . A . DUHON and TEJ , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002487 SentenceID s152 SENTENCE : A number of uncoordinated ( Unc ) mutants , isolated on the basis of their abnormal locomotion ( BRENNER 1974 ) , had been observed to lay earlystage embryos ( W . SCHAFER , unpublished observation ; B . WIGHTMAN G . GARRIGA , and personal communication ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002487 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : KENYON , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002487 SentenceID s84 SENTENCE : The C . HORVITZ and J . SULSTON , unpublished results , cited in elegans genome project recently identified a coding reCHALFIE WHITE and 1988 ) and also by introducing mugion with high sequence similarity to the a-2 / 6 accestations in the egl-1 gene , which cause the HSNs to unsory subunits of vertebrate calcium channels ( WILSON dergoinappropriateprogrammed cell deathin heret al . 1994 ) ; this coding region has been shown to corremaphrodites ( TRENTet al . 1983 ; DESAIet al . 1988 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002559 SentenceID s309 SENTENCE : soma Evidence against the first hypothesis is that neither multiple copies of a Ce-tra-1 transgene construct nor four copies of the endogenous tra-1 gene feminize the soma of X 0 animals , suggesting that sexual differentiation is relatively insensitive to alterationsin tra-1 dose ( D . ZARKOWER , M . DE BONO and J . HODGKIN , unpublished results ; HODGKIN 1987 and unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002559 SentenceID s312 SENTENCE : In contrast , a Ce-tra-1 transgene construct , consisting of 7 . 5 kb of upstream sequence joined to cDNA sequences , restores female somatic development and self-fertility to such animals ( D . ZARKOWER , M . DE BONO and J . HODGKIN , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002559 SentenceID s323 SENTENCE : NANCY TSUNG , PHOEBE TZOL and DAVID ZARKOWEKfor STERNBERG , sharing unpublished data .
PaperID WBPaper00002560 SentenceID s114 SENTENCE : By contrast , five Ce-tru-B ( mx ) mutations encode missense changes that affect a discrete cluster of amino acids in the carboy terminal region ofCe-TRA-2A , named the MX site ( P . KWABARA , P . OKKEMA J . KIMBLE , unpublished data ) ; and four of these residues are conserved in Cb-TRA-2A ( Figure 3A ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002560 SentenceID s12 SENTENCE : The role of the and 1 . 8-kb tra-2 mRNAwill be discussed elsewhere ( P . KUWABARA , P . OKKEMA and J . KIMBLE , unpublished data ) ; however , there is already evidence that the 1 . 8-kb Cetra-2 mRNAmay be partially dispensable for somatic sex determination ( KWABARAand KIMBLE 1995 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002560 SentenceID s303 SENTENCE : The positions of individual Ce-tru-Z ( rnx ) mutations will be reported elsewhere ( P . KUWABARA , P . OKKEMA J . KIMBLE , and unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002560 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : The tra-2 ( mx ) mutations et encode missense changes in a discrete region of the carboxy terminal tru-2 coding region and collectively delineate a potential bindingsite for a repressor of tra2germline activity ( P . KUWABARA , P . OJSKEMA , J . KIMBLE , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002560 SentenceID s76 SENTENCE : This study showedthat only the TRA-2A MX region is conserved ( P . KUWABARA , P . OKKEMA J . KIMBLE , and unpublished data ) ; the DREs in the Ce-tra-2 3 ' UTR affected by the tra-2 ( gf ) mutations ( GOODWIN ul . pt 1993 ) are absent in Cbtra-2 .
PaperID WBPaper00002560 SentenceID s94 SENTENCE : Identical hydropathy predictions were made previously for Ce-TRA-2A ( KUWABARA al . 1992 ) . et Conserved and nonconserved regulatory elements i n the tru-2 gene and its gene products : Potential regulatory elements and functional domains have been identified by the molecular analysis of three kinds of tra-2 regulatory mutations : Ce-tm-2 ( eg ) ( HODCKIN and AL BERTSON 1995 ; KUWABARA 1996 ) , ce-tra-2 ( g-f ) ( GOODWIN et al . 1993 ) , and Ce-tra-2 ( mx ) ( P . KUWABARA , OKKEMA P . and J . KIMBLE , unpublished results ) mutations .
PaperID WBPaper00002561 SentenceID s72 SENTENCE : The evidence that the 25-kb deletion is responsible for the Mes-1 phenotype is that a 1ikb restriction fragment entirely contained within the 25-kb region deleted in bn74 DNA is capable of transformation rescue of mes-1 mutant strains ( L . BERKOWITZ S . STROME , unpublished and results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002770 SentenceID s191 SENTENCE : Transfer of sperm from male to hermaphrodite does not seem to be very efficient , since many encounters lead to no fertilization ( WARDand CARRELL 1979 ; LIU and STERNBERG 1995 ; J . HODGKIN , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002771 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : Identificationof mup4 and alleles : mup4 ( ar60 ) was identiand 1991 fied previously ( BUCFIER GREENWALD , and unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002771 SentenceID s193 SENTENCE : muu-3 ( ar62 ) has a muscle attachment defect that occurs during the L1 to L2 molt ( E . A . BUCHER , unpublished observations ; J . PLENEFISCH E . HEDGECOCK , and personal communication ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002771 SentenceID s273 SENTENCE : The hypodermal defects fold , develop a lesion , and then arrest at twofold ( B . K . could arise at midthreefold because the force of threeGATEWOOD E . A . BUCHER , and unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002771 SentenceID s277 SENTENCE : In either case it is notable that neither mup-2 nor elongate to threefold , develop a lesion , and then retract and arrest with a twofold morphology ( B . K . GATEWOOD mup-1 mutants show hypodermal defects at the time of muscle detachment ( GOH and BOGAERT 1991 ; MKKS et and E . A . BUCHER , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002771 SentenceID s302 SENTENCE : For example , immunofluorescenceanalyses demonstrate that mup-1 and mup-4 mutants have an identical threefold Mup phenotype ( B . K . GATEWOOD and E . A . BUCHER , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002771 SentenceID s307 SENTENCE : sarcomere Despite this similarity in cellular focus , mua-3 mutants display muscle position defects that occur during larval stages and these mostlikely representlaterrequirements for the maintenance and elaboration of attachments during larval molting and sarcomere addition ( BUCHER and GREENWALD E . A . BUCHER , 1991 ; unpublished results ; J . PLENEFISCH E . HEDGECOCK , perand sonal communication ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002771 SentenceID s308 SENTENCE : Interestingly , viable mup-4 mosaics that have lost mu @ -4 function in a subset of AB cells have a phenotype similar to mua-3 ( larval worms with localized muscle position defects ; B . K . GATEWOOD and E . A . BUCHER , unpublished results ) , although the muscle position defects in mup-4 mosaics may arise during embryogenesis rather than during larval molts .
PaperID WBPaper00002771 SentenceID s429 SENTENCE : IE , HELEN STEWART DIANA and JANE for generously providing alleles of mup-4 , deficiencies and unpublished results ; BRUCE WIGHTMAN and GARY RUVKUN for providing alleles of mup + Scorn CLARK , T . SCHEDI .
PaperID WBPaper00002771 SentenceID s430 SENTENCE : , JEFFWAY , JOEL ROTHMAN PEGGY and KROLL-CONNOR for WATERSON and generously providing strains ; HIROKAGAWA , ROBERT THIERRY BOGAERTfor gifts of antibodies ; ROBERTWATERSON , RICK WILSON , JOHN SPEITH , STEPHANIE CHISSOE and the Genome SequencEL ing Consortium for providing data and advice ; JEFF HARDIN and 1 , EN WILLIAMS-MASSON for sharing unpublished results , discussions and 4D archival time-lapse video analysis ; JOHN PLENEFISCH ED and HEDGECOCK for sharing unpublished results , discussions and identifying the muu-3 homologue to us ; andJoNATHAN RAPER , andJoE and JKLV SANGER for of time-lapse video recording equipment .
PaperID WBPaper00002772 SentenceID s121 SENTENCE : On the other hand , deletion of genes required for productionof seam cells might also be expected to result in a preenclosure arrest . In addition , we have Foundthat enclosureper se is not required for expression of SCM since a number of mutants , including several deficiencies ( Table 3 ) and embryonic lethal mutants identified in general screens ( J . ROTHMAN , S . GENDREAU I . MOSKOWITZ , unpublished and data ) arrest as unenclosed embryos but nonetheless express the marker .
PaperID WBPaper00002772 SentenceID s17 SENTENCE : chromosome Further , studies in this lab of the region on chromosome V required for endoderm specification ( which was identified based on the phenotypes of i D 2and nDf42 ) strongly suggest that multiple tf redundant genes within this genomic region , including end-I , act to specify the endoderm of C . elegans ( J . ZHU and J . ROTHMAN , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002772 SentenceID s195 SENTENCE : Accordingly , we have found that the T cells do not express SCM in male embryos and L1 larvae ( R . TERNS J . ROTHMAN , unpublished and data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002772 SentenceID s3 SENTENCE : The major advantage of this type of screen is that it allows relatively rapid scanning of most of the genome for regions of interest . The strategy of finding important genomic regions with deficiencies followed by identification of single gene functions has been proven successful for a number of developmentally important genes ( e . . , WHITEet al . 1994 ; GRETHER al . 1995 ; J . ZHU and J . ROTHMAN , et unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002772 SentenceID s30 SENTENCE : 1994 ; R . TEKNS , et I . HOPEand J . ROTHMAN , unpublished data ) and the antigen recognized by antibody NE2 / 1B4 ( SCHNABEL .
PaperID WBPaper00002772 SentenceID s301 SENTENCE : Analysis of deficiency embryos has demonstrated that the endoderm precursor cell , E , is not properly specified in embryos homozygous for these and other overlapping deficiencies ( J . ZHU and J . ROTHMAN , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002772 SentenceID s304 SENTENCE : ROTHMXS , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002772 SentenceID s310 SENTENCE : ROTtIMAN , unpublished data .
PaperID WBPaper00002772 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : SCM ( seam Cell Marker ) is a gene fusion construct ( pRT1 ) that is specifically expressed in all seam cells beginning at approximately the 1 . 5-fold stage of embryogenesis ( HOPE 1991 ; GENDKEAU al . 1994 ; R . TERNS , HOPEand J . ROTHet I . M A N , unpublished data ; Figure 3C ; see Table 3 legend for definition of morphological stages ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002772 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : Preliminary experiments suggest that the latter case may pertain to these deficiencies ( J . KASMIR and J . ROTHMAN , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002772 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : In addition , we have found that a number these deficiencies of result in alterations in programmed cell death ( A . SUCIMOTO and J . ROTHMAN , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002772 SentenceID s53 SENTENCE : Indeed , we have obtained evidence for such cell fate transformations by analyzing lineages and expression of cellfate markers in embryos homozygous for the deficiencies that eliminate endoderm formation ( J . ZHU and J . ROTHMAN , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002772 SentenceID s70 SENTENCE : nuclei R . Note added in pro $ Recent studies in this laboratory ( S . GENDREAU andROTHMAN , J . unpublished observations ) have demonstrated that neither the excess nuclei and nor the epidermal differentiation defect of mnDj88 is the result of deleting lin-26andits nearby paralogues , as was suggested in this article .
PaperID WBPaper00002772 SentenceID s93 SENTENCE : - - cells ( HOPE1991 ; GENDREAUal . 1994 ; R . TERNS , et I . HOPEand J . ROTHMAN , unpublished data ; see MATERIALS AND METHODS and Figure 3c ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002773 SentenceID s271 SENTENCE : MH27 staining defects will be presented elsewhere ( M . LABOUESSE , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002773 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : We thank TOM for BLUMENTHAL , BARand GARY BARA PAGE , JIM PRIESS , JOEL ROTHMAN , KEITH STEWARD and REBECCA TERNS sharing unpublished information , for VICTOR AMBROS , DAVID BAIILIE , RON ELLIS , BOB HORVITZ , N N ROSE , TIMSCHEDL , RALF A SCHNABEI .
PaperID WBPaper00002773 SentenceID s617 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002773 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : It was outcrossed four times and balanced by mnCl ( HERMAN 1978 ) . mcDfl complemented unc-104 , lin-5 and thedeficiency mnDf30 ; it failed to complementlin-26and the deficiency mnDf88 ; it complemented partially the deficiency mnDfl06 , in that mnDfl06 / mcDfl animals were viable but sterile ( S . SOOKHAREEA M . LARoUESSE , unpublished and data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002774 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : This difference is seen as early as the P4 blastomere and is maintained through into the early stages oflarval germline proliferation ( W . KELLY , unpublished observations ; G . SEYDOUX , T . SCHEDL , PRIESS , J . personal communications ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002774 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : We find that fusions containing just 5 sequences from kt-858 or unc-37 are sufficient to drive somatic , but not germline accumulation of GFP and P-galactosidase reporter proteins ( W . KELLY and A . FIRE , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002774 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : Injection of let-858 antisense RNA can also interfere with the expression of some early zygoticgenes ( W . KELLY , unpublished observation ) , although it is not clear whether this interference is at a transcriptional or posttranscriptional level .
PaperID WBPaper00002774 SentenceID s48 SENTENCE : We thank G . SEYDOUX , COLES , COULSON , MILLER , MEIR , L . A . D . J . J . PRIESS , SCHEDL , WADDLE , OKKEMA , HARFE , J . GOODIJFFE , T . J . P . B . S . KOSTAS , J . GALL , A . PINDER , and members of this lab for their help , sharing of unpublished data , and suggestions through the course of this work .
PaperID WBPaper00002811 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : Isolation and mapping of Ze & 6O ( ga89 ) : kt-6O ( ga89 ) was isolated during a screen for EMS-induced mutations causing a and protruding vulva ( Pvl ) phenotype ( D . M . EISENMANN S . K . KIM , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002811 SentenceID s1000 SENTENCE : for sharing unpublished results .
PaperID WBPaper00002811 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : GAP proteins decrease Ras signaling activity by greatly increasing the rate of GTP hydrolysis by Ras , and include GAP-1 in Drosophila and Caenorhabditis ekgans ( A . HAJNAL and S . K . KIM , unpublished results ) and pl20-GAP and NF1 in mammals .
PaperID WBPaper00002811 SentenceID s212 SENTENCE : gap-1 encodes a C . elYgnns Ras temperaturedependent GTPase in vitro : We used an GAP ( A . HAJNAL and K . KIM , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002811 SentenceID s217 SENTENCE : S . K . KIM , and are 89 % identical in their first 166 amino acids ( HAN unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002811 SentenceID s70 SENTENCE : ( syl ) and lin-2 ( n397 ) mutations enhance the multivulva phenotype of let-60 ( n1046 ) by a mechanism that is not yet understood SIMSKE , HAJNAL , R . HOSKINS A . and S . K . KIM , unpublished results ) , but these mutations have no such effect on the multivulva phenotype of let-60 ( gu89 ) ( data not shown ) . was built by mating letThe strain mpk-I ( n2521 ) ; let-6O ( gu89 ) 60 ( gu89 ) ; him-5 ( e1490 ) males raised at 15 " with unc-79 ( e1068 ) mpk-l ( n2521 ) hermaphrodites .
PaperID WBPaper00002811 SentenceID s9 SENTENCE : LGX : gap-l ( n1329 ) ( A . HAJNAL and S . K . KIM , unpublished results ) , dpy-3 ( e27 ) , lon-2 ( e678 ) , lin-2 ( n397 ) ( FERGUSON HORVITZ and 1985 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002811 SentenceID s988 SENTENCE : However , we have seen no evidence of transformed foci followingthe transfection of NIH3T3 cells at 37 " or 39 " with DNA expressing HRas ( L19F ) ( D . EISENMANN S . K . KIM , unpublished and results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002812 SentenceID s235 SENTENCE : In addition to the spe-5associated cold-sensitivity , spe4 mutations also exhibit a cs oocyte laying phenotype , and this includes a null allele that partly deletes the gene ( P . M . ARDUENGO and S . LHERNAULT , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002812 SentenceID s82 SENTENCE : LHERNAULT , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002921 SentenceID s56 SENTENCE : Since mutations in gon-2 also cause heterogeneous defects in the organization and structure of the gonad ( A . Y . SUNand E . J . LAMBIE , unpublished results ) , it is likely that gm-2 function is also required for subsequent division and or differentiation of the descendants of Z1 and 24 .
PaperID WBPaper00002921 SentenceID s68 SENTENCE : J . LAMBIE , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002958 SentenceID s130 SENTENCE : ( M . R . DOWand P . E . MAINS , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002958 SentenceID s21 SENTENCE : IMAINS , unpublished results ) that sb45alsofails to complement an intragenic revertant of ct61 and shares a similar embryonic phenotype .
PaperID WBPaper00002958 SentenceID s254 SENTENCE : Elsewhere ( M . R . Dow and P . E . MAINS , unpublished results ) , we describe a l revertant , ct61sb4 , of the gf f mutation mel-26 ( ct61 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002959 SentenceID s104 SENTENCE : The that the DNA encoding lag-2 is present in n1322 and suppression at 25 " was further complicated by the fact that n1323 animals ( F . TAXand J . THOMAS , unpublished supl 7 itself caused a Vu1 defect when gene activity was sufiresults ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002959 SentenceID s201 SENTENCE : sel-8 ( sa54 ) , when crossed these revertants were tightly linked to the Zin-12 locus . out of the lin-IZ ( d ) background , caused a cold-sensitive materMost or all of the tightly linked revertants are Iikely nal-effect lethality ( F . TAX and J . THOMAS , unpublished reto be Zin-12 alleles , since most share the phenotypic sults ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002959 SentenceID s207 SENTENCE : Approximately 20-30 % of glpl ( e2141 ) ; sel-6 ( sa44 ) animals hadan everted vulva phenotype ( a large bump can be found in the normal position of the vulva , see S m o u x et al . 1993 ) when grown at 25 " , similar to the phenotype of lin-12 ( 0 ) animals ( F . TAX and J . THOMAS , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002959 SentenceID s217 SENTENCE : These sup1 7alleles convey their own phenotypes in a lin-12 ( + ) background , but these defects are recessive ( F . TAX J . THOMAS , and unpublished results ) , Similarly , our dosage experiments demonstrated that deficiencies that remove supl 7 can weakly suppress the phenotypic effects caused by lin-12 ( d ) alleles ( Table 5 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002959 SentenceID s260 SENTENCE : The mutations cause the substitution of a conserved Gly in an extracellularly located EGF repeat ( TAXet al . 1994 ; F . TAX and J . THOMAS , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002959 SentenceID s75 SENTENCE : THOMAS , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002959 SentenceID s79 SENTENCE : Conclusive evidence for allelism has been demonstrated by our analysis of the DNA sequence from both lag-2 semidominant alleles , whichshowed the samesingle nucleotide change in both mutants ( TAXet al . 1994 ; F . TAX and J . THOMAS , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002959 SentenceID s81 SENTENCE : In the region in which n1255 and sa37 mapped , there is a small deficiency ( dIj70 ) that deletes 4 - 2 UOHNSEN and BAILLIE1991 ; F . TAX and J . THOMAS , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002959 SentenceID s87 SENTENCE : Interestingly , the maternaleffect lethality appears to be suppressed by the presence of Zin-l2 ( d ) alleles ( F . TAX and J . THOMAS , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003121 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : For MH1066 [ complete genotype lrp-1 ( ku156 ) ; him-8 ; kuEx76 ( pTG96 ; lrp-1 ) ] worms having the genotype lrp-1 ( ku156 ) / unc- 13 ( e1091 ) ; him-8 were injected with pTG96 at 100 g / ml and two cosmids , F29D11 and C27G12 [ for rescue of lrp-1 ( ku156 ) ; J . Yochem and M . Han , unpublished results ] .
PaperID WBPaper00003121 SentenceID s25 SENTENCE : nuclei The fluorescence resulting from a transcriptional fusion ( present in plasmid pTG96-2 ) of sur-5 to the same form of GFP does not localize well to nuclei ( T . Gu and M . Han , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003121 SentenceID s61 SENTENCE : For example , the lrp-1 ( ku156 ) mutation must be balanced at all times ( J . Yochem and M . Han , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003121 SentenceID s64 SENTENCE : After establishment of stably transgenic lines in which lrp-1 ( ku156 ) was complemented by extrachromosomal arrays , a line ( MH1066 ) was directly used for mosaic analysis with unambiguous results ( J . Yochem and M . Han , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003122 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : This could be due to the inability of the array to be expressed in the germline ; however , transgenic arrays carrying Ce-fem-2 are able to rescue the germline defect and have never been shown to rescue only the somatic it issue ( Pilgrim et al . 1995 ; D . Pilgrim , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003160 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : We isolated ky54 as a vulva-defective animal in a screen for mutants affecting an unrelated phenotype after mutagenizing N2 animals with EMS ( S . G . Clark and C . Bargmann , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003177 SentenceID s117 SENTENCE : Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of transgenic worms scored for the Muv phenotype . c Number of independent transgenic lines obtained . promoter ( hs-D-mek ( gf ) ) or under the control of the lin- 31 promoter , which predominantly drives expression in the vulval precursor cells ( lin-31-D-mek ( gf ) ) ( P . Tan , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003177 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : We thank M . Koga , R . Hill , M . Maduro , and T . Schedl for reagents and / or strains and K . Kornfeld for communicating unpublished data on mpk-1 ( oz140 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003179 SentenceID s150 SENTENCE : Mutations in daf-16 suppress Daf-c ( Riddle et al . 1981 ) , Age ( Kenyon et al . 1993 ; Larsen et al . 1995 ) , and , to some extent , Itt ( K . V . King and D . L . Riddle , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003179 SentenceID s223 SENTENCE : , J . B . Dorman , A . Rodan We thank A . Antebi , E . Hedgecock , and J . McCarter for communication of unpublished results , S . Botts for technical assistance , and Lithgow , G . J .
PaperID WBPaper00003179 SentenceID s32 SENTENCE : Two further alleles with lesions mapping to the putative ligand-binding domain , sa187 and sa229 , were subjected to preliminary phenotypic analysis . sa229 behaved as a class 1A allele : Adults maintained at 25 . 5 did not become Unc , and gonadal appearance remained normal ( D . Gems , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003179 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : However , sa187 behaved as a class 2 allele : Adults became Unc and developed abnormal gonadal appearance at 25 . 5 ( D . Gems , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003258 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : To distinguish the genotypes of the eT1 spot and eT1 no-spot embryos , two diagnostic primer pairs , unc- 60-3 / 6 ( McKim et al . 1994 ) and KRp64 / 65 ( C . Thacker , unpublished results ) , were used .
PaperID WBPaper00003259 SentenceID s2 SENTENCE : sup-10 ( n184 ) deletes sup-10 , mlc-1 ( Greenwald and Horvitz 1980 ) and deletes 70 kb of DNA between sup-10 and mlc-1 ( C . White , J . M . Levin , D . Albertson , H . R . Horvitz and P . Anderson , unpublished results ) . n184 does not affect mlc-2 ( see Figure 1 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003259 SentenceID s3 SENTENCE : X chromosome, chromosome, chromosomes We mapped mlc-1 and mlc-2 to the right end of the X chromosome by in situ hybridization to embryonic metaphase chromosomes and by Southern blot analysis of a series of X chromosome deficiencies and duplications ( C . White , J . M . Levin , D . Albertson , H . R . Horvitz and P . Anderson , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003362 SentenceID s90 SENTENCE : L . We thank V . Vassiliev for help in the analysis of data ; P . Keightley , P . Phillips , and two anonymous reviewers for helpful comments ; P . Keightley and A . Caballero for providing unpublished data ; and T . Stiernagle of the Caenorhabditis Genetics Center for supplying the experimental strain and for helpful technical advice .
PaperID WBPaper00003363 SentenceID s106 SENTENCE : It does not mean , however , that staining has been observed before the 32-AB-cell stage . lethal mutations ( R . Schnabel , H . Schnabel , R . Feichtinger and T . Kaletta , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003363 SentenceID s108 SENTENCE : , P . Bazzicalupo and W . B . Wood , 1980 Kaletta , unpublished results ) did not lead to saturation . of developmental potential in early embryos of Caenorhabditis Another and perhaps more realistic estimate of the elegans .
PaperID WBPaper00003363 SentenceID s141 SENTENCE : It is , however , our experience that arrested embryos also express markers normally expressed only later in development ( Laufer et al . 1980 ; R . Schnabel , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003363 SentenceID s39 SENTENCE : Three advances now permit such an approach for identifying genes required for specification within the AB lineage : ( i ) the description of a very specific early expression pattern of the gene pes-1 in the AB lineage that permits assessment of the blastomere identities of six of the eight AB descendants present in the 12-cell stage embryo ( Hope 1991 , 1994 ) ; ( ii ) the development of a 4D-microscope system that allows a precise and rapid analysis of the expression of a pes-1 : : lacZ fusion gene in embryogenesis ( Schnabel et al . 1997 ) ; and ( iii ) the isolation of a large collection of genetically balanced maternal-effect lethal mutants selected for their general requirement during embryogenesis ( R . Schnabel , H . Schnabel , R . Feichtinger and T . Kaletta , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003363 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : The mutations used in this study were chosen from a collection of maternal-effect embryonic lethal mutations isolated on LGs II and III ( R . Schnabel , H . Schnabel , R . Feichtinger and T . Kaletta , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003364 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : We also thank Sandra Wolin ( Yale University , New Haven ) for sharing unpublished data and all the members of the Rokeach and Hekimi laboratories for technical advice and insightful comments on the manuscript .
PaperID WBPaper00003389 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : Molecular characterization of these mutations confirms this assignment and will be described elsewhere ( S . O ' Connor , H . Shang and P . Anderson , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003389 SentenceID s21 SENTENCE : Genetics 151 : 605616 ( February 1999 ) and Philip Anderson * , 50 % identical to Upf1p of yeast ( M . F . Page , B . Carr , K . R . Anders and P . Anderson , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003389 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : Both SMG -5 and SMG -7 are coimmunoprecipitated with anti-SMG -5 or anti-SMG -7 antibodies , although it is unknown if this interaction is direct or indirect ( K . Anders and P . Anderson , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003389 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : We have shown previously that activity of SMG -7 influences the phosphorylation status of SMG -2 ( M . F . Page , B . Carr , K . R . Anders and P . Anderson , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003390 SentenceID s169 SENTENCE : The effects of fox-1 ( ) were also examined in the unusual tra-2 allele , q276 ( P . E . Kuwabara and T . Schedl , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003390 SentenceID s325 SENTENCE : process The finding of a surprisingly conserved human homologue ( 68 % identical within the RRM domain ; J . Collins , unpublished results , EMBL accession number AL009266 ) further suggests the involvement of fox-1 in a process other than sex determination .
PaperID WBPaper00003530 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : Indeed , we have observed sperm from these mutants contacting passing oocytes without the fertilization that nearly always follows oocyte contact with wild-type spermatozoa ( Ward and Carrel 1979 ; Singson et al . 1998 ; A . Singson and S . W . L ' Hernault , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003530 SentenceID s32 SENTENCE : Virgin spe-8 hermaphrodites are self-sterile . and S . W . L ' Hernault , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003530 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : Sperm transfer experiments : Sperm transfer and tracking experiments will be described in detail elsewhere ( K . L . Hill and S . W . L ' Hernault , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003530 SentenceID s49 SENTENCE : Although it is difficult to visualize individual SYTO 17-labeled C . elegans sperm , the larger sperm produced by Caenorhabditis remanei can be individually distinguished after labeling and sperm transfer ( K . L . Hill and S . W . L ' Hernault , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003530 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : granule Additionally , if the dye were to label a nonsperm component of the male ejaculate , this component would have to be transported to and preferentially accumulate in the spermatheca . daf- 4 ( e1364 ) hermaphrodites were used as sperm recipients because they have decreased gut granule autofluorescence relative to wild-type worms under rhodamine illumination ( K . L . Hill and S . W . L ' Hernault , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003531 SentenceID s32 SENTENCE : The spe-29 3 untranslated region ( UTR ) overlaps the 3 UTR of another hermaphrodite-specific gene ( J . Nance and S . Ward , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003531 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : These mutants , spe-8 , spe-12 ( L ' Hernault et al . 1988 ) , spe-27 ( Minniti et al . 1996 ) , and spe-29 ( J . Nance and S . Ward , unpublished results ) are unlike other mutants in that their Spe phenotype is affected by mating .
PaperID WBPaper00003531 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : Though these mutations affect spermatids from both sexes , as judged by defects after exposure of both hermaphrodite- and male-derived spermatids to the in vitro activator pronase ( Shakes and Ward 1989a ; Minniti et al . 1996 ; J . Nance and S . Ward , unpublished results ) , the role of the wild-type gene products in male-derived spermatids , if any , was unknown .
PaperID WBPaper00003531 SentenceID s62 SENTENCE : Similar incomplete precedence has been observed in wild type when males transfer few sperm ( S . Ward , unpublished observation ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003532 SentenceID s2 SENTENCE : LIN-26 and three LIN-26-related proteins define a new group of Zn-finger proteins : Sequencing of an 8-kb fragment surrounding lin-26 ( Labouesse et al . 1994 ; M . Labouesse , unpublished results ) and sequence analysis of the cosmid F18A1 ( GenBank accession no . U41535 , Wilson et al . 1994 ) revealed the existence of two open reading frames encoding putative proteins with C2H2 motifs related to the two LIN-26 C2H2 motifs .
PaperID WBPaper00003532 SentenceID s56 SENTENCE : However , these experiments did not reveal any element that would drive GFP expression in all cells ( as would be expected for lir-2 and lir-1A-C ; S . Quintin , A . Davies and M . Labouesse , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003532 SentenceID s76 SENTENCE : Because most of this intron is required for normal lin-26 expression ( den Boer et al . 1998 ; S . Quintin , A . Davies and M . Labouesse , unpublished results ) , we suggest that conserved sequences within the first lir-1 intron represent regulatory elements for lin-26 ( which is located downstream ) and perhaps also for the lir-2 / lir- 1A-C operon .
PaperID WBPaper00003533 SentenceID s39 SENTENCE : However , we were unable to demonstrate that P1 alone can confer male-specific regulation in studies with transgenic P1 reporter constructs ( W . Li and W . B . Wood , unpublished results ) , and P1 sequences alone failed to show masculinizing activity in the titration assay .
PaperID WBPaper00003533 SentenceID s49 SENTENCE : Studies involving reporter gene expression and immunostaining have suggested that her-1b is not translated ( B . Robertson , M . D . Perry , W . Li , A . Streit and W . B . Wood , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003533 SentenceID s53 SENTENCE : We thank T . Davis , H . Dawes , D . Lapidus , B . Meyer , L . Miller , and D . Pilgrim for communication of unpublished results , A . Fire for plasmid vectors , T . Blumenthal for the SL1-5S-rDNA probe and valuable suggestions , members of the Wood laboratory for helpful discussions , and E . Horanyi for help with building constructs .
PaperID WBPaper00003597 SentenceID s123 SENTENCE : This appears to be the case because overexpression of fox-1 from an extrachromosomal array ( yIs44 ; M . Nicoll and B . J . Meyer , unpublished observations ) at least partially rescues sex-1 hermaphrodites .
PaperID WBPaper00003597 SentenceID s57 SENTENCE : Recent work suggests a possible molecular mechanism for feedback involving sdc-2 ( H . Dawes and B . J . Meyer , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003597 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : Deficiencies : yDf19 X ( Nicoll et al . 1997 ) , meDf5 X and meDf6 X ( Villeneuve 1994 ) , yDf20 X , yDf17 X . Extrachromosomal array : yEx68 [ sdc-2 ( ) rol-6 ( d ) ] ( D . Berlin and B . J . Meyer , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003598 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : Because the mab-5 null mutant e1239 is normal for DTC migration ( Kenyon 1986 ; K . Nishiwaki , unpublished results ) and mab-5 does not seem to be expressed in DTCs ( Cowing and Kenyon 1992 ; Salser et al . 1993 ; Salser and Kenyon 1996 ) , the function of mig-14 in DTC migration is likely to be independent of mab-5 .
PaperID WBPaper00003598 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : Another strong allele k109 isolated in the present screening also produced a highly penetrant effect on both DTCs ( K . Nishiwaki , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003644 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : In a control experiment unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003644 SentenceID s32 SENTENCE : Using the fingerprints of the cognate fosmids from the grid as a starting point , a contig was constructed by interactive consultation of a database of fingerprinted C . briggsae fosmids ( M . Marra , J . Schein and T . Kucaba , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003644 SentenceID s61 SENTENCE : These constructs were chosen for comparison of protein functions because preliminary experiments with Ce-her-1 cDNA in such a transgenic construct had demonstrated dominant masculinization in both C . elegans and C . briggsae XX animals , presumably as the result of ectopic expression from the transgene ( M . D . Perry and W . B . Wood , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003663 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : The genes mec-2 ( M . Huang and M . Chalfie , personal communication ) and mec-8 ( E . Lundquist , R . Herman and J . Shaw , unpublished results ) may also be targets of MEC-8 control because Northern blots of RNA extracted from wildtype and mec-8 animals show clear differences when probed with sequences specific to these loci .
PaperID WBPaper00003663 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : It does not seem to produce alternatively spliced transcripts , as would be required if it were in the gene A class , and SYM-1 protein has no properties that suggest it could act as an RNA-processing factor ( class C ) ; e . . , it is not nuclearly localized ( as is MEC-8 ; C . Spike , R . Herman and J . Shaw , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003719 SentenceID s2 SENTENCE : Male tail-defective mutants identify genes affecting hindgut development : In a genetic screen for mutations that disrupt male tail development , we identified several distinct classes of mutants ( H . M . Chamberlin , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003720 SentenceID s164 SENTENCE : All six independently derived transgenic strains containing pJJ4 disal . 1997 ; Ogg et al . 1997 ; J . Jakubowski and K . Kornfeld , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003777 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : Indeed if we introduce the deletion mc33 on a lin-26 transgene that normally completely rescues the null phenotype of lin-26 ( mc15 ) , we still observe full rescue ( S . Quintin and M . Labouesse , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003777 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : The GFP ( M . Labouesse , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003778 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : Closer examination revealed that this is because some C . briggsae transgenic animals have adjacent 1 vulval cells ( four of the five animals we observed had more than three VPCs induced ; among the four animals , three had anatomy consistent with the presence of adjacent 1 vulval precursor cells ) , which can cause the formation of protruding vulvae ( P . Sternberg and R . Palmer , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003778 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : lin-3 is also required for animal viability , hermaphrodite fertility , as well as cell fate specifications in the male B cell lineage , of the P12 neuroblast , and of the uterine uv1 cells ( Sulston and Horvitz 1981 ; Ferguson and Horvitz 1985 ; Chamberlin and Sternberg 1994 ; Clandinin et al . 1998 ; Jiang and Sternberg 1998 ; Chang et al . 1999 ; J . McCarter , B . Bartlett , T . Dang , R . Hill and T . Schedl , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003778 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : The two putative protein products in C . elegans may differ in the range of their signaling ( J . Liu and P . W . Sternberg , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003778 SentenceID s59 SENTENCE : Regulation of expression in different it issues : The expression of lin-3 is temporally and spatially regulated ( Hill and Sternberg 1992 ; Chang et al . 1999 ; R . Hill , J . Liu and P . W . Sternberg , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003778 SentenceID s60 SENTENCE : Although all known cDNAs of C . elegans lin-3 contain exon C but not C2 , exon C2 appears to be functional since transgenes containing exon C2 , but not C , can induce vulval differentiation ( Hill and Sternberg 1992 ; J . Liu and R . Hill , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003778 SentenceID s74 SENTENCE : It has been suggested that the alternative splicing in lin-3 determines whether LIN-3 has long- or short-range of signaling ( J . Liu and P . W . Sternberg , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003778 SentenceID s89 SENTENCE : cytoplasmic Interestingly , the C-terminal half of the cytoplasmic domain of LIN-3 is also required for the long-range signaling of LIN-3 ( J . Liu and P . W . Sternberg , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003779 SentenceID s49 SENTENCE : : A persistent theme of differential reliance on conserved recombination components has emerged not only from the present study of him-14 , but also through the previous report on C . elegans spo-11 ( Dernburg et al . 1998 ) and ongoing work on other genes encoding components of the nematode recombination machinery ( K . Kelly , G . Chin and A . M . Villeneuve , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003779 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : fraction Mutation frequencies for each independent culture were calculated as : [ m , the mean number of spontaneous mutations per plate ] / 19 , 000 [ genomes represented per plate ] . m was calculated using the Poisson equation f ( 0 ) fraction of the plates from a given culture that did not contain a LevR mutant . over ( Durbin and Thierry-Mieg 1991 ; K . Kelly and A . M . Villeneuve , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003815 SentenceID s1 SENTENCE : DISCUSSION n2439 , n2720 , n2719 , n2454 , n2432 , n2830 , n718 , n3002 , n2883 , n2440 , n2871 , n2430 , and n2433 ) as well as The C . elegans CED-3 proprotein consists of an N-terminal prodomain with no known catalytic function strains homozygous for strong ced-4 alleles or for the ced-9 ( n1950 ) gain-of-function allele ( Hengartner et al . and central and C-terminal regions that are cleaved from the proprotein and associate to form an active 1992 ; Shaham and Horvitz 1996b ; S . Shaham and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished results ) contain more extra protease ( Yuan et al . 1993 ; Xue et al . 1996 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003815 SentenceID s128 SENTENCE : It remains possible that the disruption of C48D1 . 1 , F58D2 . 2 , or F58D2 . 1 in the ced-3 ( n2452 ) strain bypasses a need for CED-3 protease activity , although none of these genes has a sequence suggesting a direct or indirect role in programmed cell death ( our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003815 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : Furthermore , when ced-3 function is inhibited using the method of RNA-mediated interference ( Fire et al . 1998 ) , the resulting animals are also deficient in programmed cell deaths ( P . W . Reddien and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003815 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : We also have shown that ced-3 ( n2452 ) animals harboring an additional mutation affecting programmed cell The protease activity of CED-3 and the processing of the CED-3 proprotein are important for programmed death , ced-8 ( n1891 ) , contain an average of 11 . 9 extra cells in the anterior pharynx ( S . Shaham , G . Stanfield cell death in C . elegans : In this article we demonstrate that a mutation in the presumptive active-site cysteine and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished observations ) , supporting the hypothesis that cell deaths do occur in ced- 358 of CED-3 , previously shown to perturb CED-3 protease activity in vitro ( Xue et al . 1996 ) , also perturbed the 3 ( n2452 ) animals , because it appears that these deaths can be prevented by the ced-8 ( n1891 ) mutation . in vivo killing activity of ced-3 ( Table 2 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003827 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : However , in this context , we note that we see no evidence for a change in the subcellular distribution or accumulation of a LIN-12 : : GFP hybrid protein in a sel-5 mutant background ( H . Fares , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003827 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : We gratefully acknowledge the generosity of Jim Thomas and David Baillie for unpublished material and information .
PaperID WBPaper00003827 SentenceID s37 SENTENCE : The vector PIN2 drives inserted sequences under the control of sel-12 regulatory sequences ; it contains unique BamHI and NotI sites inserted at the second amino acid of a sel-12 rescuing genomic fragment containing 2 . 8 kb of 5 flanking region ( D . Levitan and I . Greenwald , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003827 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : chromosome LG III : unc-79 ( e1068 ) ( Sedensky and Meneely 1987 ) , mab- 21 ( bx53 ) ( Baird et al . 1991 ) , dpy-17 ( e164 ) ( Brenner 1974 ) , ncl-1 ( e1865 ) ( Hedgecock and Herman 1995 ) , unc-36 ( e251 ) ( Brenner 1974 ) , unc-32 ( e189 ) ( Brenner 1974 ) , lin- 12 ( n302 ) ( Greenwald et al . 1983 ) , lin-12 ( n676 ) ( Greenwald et al . 1983 ) , lin-12 ( n950 ) ( Greenwald et al . 1983 ) , lin-12 ( n137 ) ( Greenwald et al . 1983 ) , lin-12 ( ar170 ) ( Hubbard et al . 1996 ) , glp-1 ( e2141 ) ( Priess et al . 1987 ) , glp- 1 ( e2142 ) ( Priess et al . 1987 ) , glp-1 ( ar202 ) ( J . Hubbard and I . Greenwald , unpublished observations ) . sDp3 is a free duplication of part of this chromosome ( Rosenbluth et al . 1985 ) . sDf121 ( s2098 ) is a homozygous lethal deletion , which is rescued by sDp3 , of part of this chromosome ( Stewart et al . 1998 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003827 SentenceID s9 SENTENCE : intracellular Transgenes : arIs12 [ lin-12 ( intra ) ] ( Struhl et al . 1993 ) expresses the intracellular domain of LIN-12 under the control of lin-12 regulatory sequences and is marked with the dominant marker rol-6 ( su1006 ) . arIs13 [ lag-2 : : lacZ ] ( Wilkinson et al . 1994 ) carries the reporter lag-2 : : lacZ and is marked with rol-6 ( su1006 ) . arIs41 ( Levitan and Greenwald 1998 ) expresses a functional LIN-12 : : GFP fusion protein under the control of lin-12 regulatory sequences and is marked with rol-6 ( su1006 ) . arEx29 ( K . Fitzgerald and I . Greenwald , unpublished results ) is an extrachromosomal array carrying multiple copies of the lin-12 ( ) genomic region and is marked with rol-6 ( su1006 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003828 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : However , several observations make a direct effect more likely : ( 1 ) unc-79 mutations alter halothane binding in C . elegans ( R . G . Eckenhoff , personal communication ) ; ( 2 ) unc-79 alters responses to stereoisomers of halothane differently than the racemate ( Sedensky et al . 1994 ) ; ( 3 ) the null allele of unc-8 does not have as strong an effect on sensitivity as does n491n1193 ; and ( 4 ) suppressors of the kinked phenotype of unc-1 do not alter the ability of these mutations to suppress unc-79 ( P . G . Morgan and M . M . Sedensky , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003828 SentenceID s40 SENTENCE : 1681 We thank Janet Duerr , Helen Salz , Monica Driscoll , and Nektarios Tavernarakis for sharing unpublished data and critical discussions , as well as Carl Johnson , Eric Jorgensen , and Ralph Hecht for sharing their unc-1 alleles .
PaperID WBPaper00003950 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : Kent and A . M . Zahler , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003950 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : At a subsequent step , the choice between the 1 and wt splice sites is made and this appears to be independent of sup- 39 mutations . and wt sites requires the presence of a GU dinucleotide , which is present at the start of 98 % of 28 , 637 confirmed C . elegans introns ( W . J . Kent and A . M . Zahler , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003951 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : Some of the effects of flp-1 on egg-laying might also involve the VC neurons , although the fact that flp-1 mutations lengthen the inactive phase much more than ablations of the VCs do ( Waggoner et al . 1998 ; L . Waggoner , unpublished results ) argues that the VCs are not the primary target of the FLP-1 peptides .
PaperID WBPaper00003992 SentenceID s117 SENTENCE : , I . Mori , Y . Ohshima , C . I . Bargmann , 1998 unpublished information .
PaperID WBPaper00003992 SentenceID s80 SENTENCE : fraction Third , expression of daf-11 : : gfp in ASI could be an artifact of our assay : an unexpectedly large fraction of gfp fusions to neuronally expressed genes show expression in ASI neurons ( Troemel et al . 1995 ; D . A . Birnby , E . M . Link , J . J . Vowels , H . Tian , P . L . Colacurcio and J . H . Thomas , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003993 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : The reduced fertility of Cr-tra-2 ( RNAi ) mothers is unlikely to be a general effect of the RNAi technique , as RNAi with two other C . remanei genes , Cr-lag-1 and Cr-glp-1 , produced highly penetrant phenotypes of the expected sort in progeny , but did not adversely affect maternal fecundity in the first 48 hr after injection ( E . Haag and D . Rudel , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003993 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : Furthermore , the coding sequences from C . elegans , C . remanei , and C . briggsae are in general conserved similarly in all pairwise combinations ( Thomas and Wilson 1991 ; Fitch et al . 1995 ; D . Rudel , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003993 SentenceID s61 SENTENCE : As no lethality had been observed in C . elegans tra-2 null mutants ( Hodgkin and Brenner 1977 ; E . Haag , unpublished observations ) , we also investigated whether RNAi directed against Ce-tra-2 resulted in such effects in C . elegans .
PaperID WBPaper00003998 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : Preliminary evidence from studies of single N2 males exposed to hermaphrodites shows that their life spans are greatly reduced relative to those of solitary males ( D . Gems , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004202 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : % Muv , number of Unc Multivulva / total Unc hermaphrodite progeny . gion were tested in germline transformation experiments ( G . Kao , A . Melendez and I . Greenwald , unpublished observations ) , and cosmid C03B8 ( C . elegans Sequencing Consortium 1998 ) was found to rescue both the sterility and Muv phenotypes of lin- 13 ( n387 ) ( Figure 1 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004202 SentenceID s49 SENTENCE : Although we have not yet tested the effect of eliminating lin-13 activity on the expression of the same arrays examined by Hsieh et al . ( 1999 ) , we note that we have never observed reduced expression of any of the various repetitive transgenes we have placed in a lin-13 background in the course of other studies ( A . Melendez and I . Greenwald , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004202 SentenceID s59 SENTENCE : Preliminary observations suggest that sterile lin-13 hermaphrodites do have somatic gonadal abnormalities ( A . Melendez , unpublished observations ; J . Hubbard , personal communication ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004203 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : We narrowed the DNA region that contains dpy-18 by mapping 1141 relative to sequence polymorphisms ( Jakubowski and Kornfeld 1999 ) because this region is characterized by unstable recombinant DNA clones ( Hodgkin 1993 ; K . L . Hill and S . W . L ' Hernault , unpublished data ) and there are no cloned genes close to dpy-18 .
PaperID WBPaper00004203 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : The following genes and mutations were used in this study : LGIII : vab-7 ( e1562 ) ( Hodgkin 1983 ) , fer-2 ( hc2ts ) ( Ward et al . 1981 ) , spe-16 ( hc54ts , eb35ts ) ( Shakes 1988 ; K . L . Hill and S . W . L ' Hernault , unpublished data ) , dpy-18 ( e499 , e364 ) ( Brenner 1974 ) ; LGIV : him-3 ( e1147 ) ( Hodgkin et al . 1979 ) ; LGV : him-5 ( e1490 ) ( Hodgkin et al . 1979 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004204 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : The reduced fertility of Cr-tra-2 ( RNAi ) mothers is unlikely to be a general effect of the RNAi technique , as RNAi with two other C . remanei genes , Cr-lag-1 and Cr-glp-1 , produced highly penetrant phenotypes of the expected sort in progeny , but did not adversely affect maternal fecundity in the first 48 hr after injection ( E . Haag and D . Rudel , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004204 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : Furthermore , the coding sequences from C . elegans , C . remanei , and C . briggsae are in general conserved similarly in all pairwise combinations ( Thomas and Wilson 1991 ; Fitch et al . 1995 ; D . Rudel , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004204 SentenceID s61 SENTENCE : As no lethality had been observed in C . elegans tra-2 null mutants ( Hodgkin and Brenner 1977 ; E . Haag , unpublished observations ) , we also investigated whether RNAi directed against Ce-tra-2 resulted in such effects in C . elegans .
PaperID WBPaper00004264 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : , F . M . Salem and A . Ghattas , 1988 We are grateful to Mycogen Corporation ( now DOW AgroSciences ) for providing Cry5B and Cry6A strains , the C . elegans Genetics Center ( funded by the National Institutes of Health National Center for Research Resources ) for C . elegans strains , Johanna O ' Dell for unpublished observations , Omar Bazirgan for bre-4 three-factor mapping Sangadala , S .
PaperID WBPaper00004264 SentenceID s57 SENTENCE : Unlike wild type , in which half the coli-produced Cry5B ( L . D . Marroquin and R . V . Aroanimals die in 12 . 6 ian , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004264 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : body Otherwise , mapping was performed via method I ( 1 / 4 segregation expected for nonlinkage ) . a shrinking in from the body wall , although both to a lesser extent than seen with animals exposed to toxin ( J . O ' Dell and R . V . Aroian , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004310 SentenceID s113 SENTENCE : unc-3 has been shown to regulate the expression of the DAF-7 TGF- ligand ( M . Ailion and J . H . Thomas , unpublished results ; P . Ren and D . Riddle , personal communication ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004310 SentenceID s123 SENTENCE : We thank Don Riddle , David Miller , and Isao Katsura for permission to cite unpublished work ; Bob Horvitz , Don Riddle , Chris Li , Gary Ruvkun , and the Caenorhabditis Genetics Center for providing us with strains ; and the Sengupta lab for advice and ideas .
PaperID WBPaper00004310 SentenceID s181 SENTENCE : Mutations in the Daf-d gene osm-6 , which also lead to a Daf-c phenotype at 27 ( M . Ailion and J . H . Thomas , unpublished results ; Apfeld and Kenyon 1999 ) , do not suppress egl-4 , demonstrating that such mutual suppression is specific to daf-3 .
PaperID WBPaper00004310 SentenceID s255 SENTENCE : However , unlike egl-4 , egl-32 is not hypersensitive to dauer pheromone and we find that egl-32 is not Daf-c at 27 ( M . Ailion and J . H . Thomas , unpublished results ; Golden and Riddle 1984b ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004310 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : unc-3 encodes an Olf-1 / EBF1-like transcription factor that regulates expression of genes such as daf-7 , as well as cholinergic genes in motor neurons ( M . Ailion and J . H . Thomas , unpublished results ; P . Ren and D . Riddle , personal communication ; T . Starich and J . Shaw , personal communication ; K . Lickteig and D . Miller , personal communication ; Prasad et al . egl-4 Regulates Neuronal Functions 1998 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004310 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : unc-3 functions in the TGF- -mediated pathway for dauer formation , and the Daf-c phenotype of unc-3 mutants is fully suppressed by daf-3 and daf-5 mutations ( M . Ailion and J . H . Thomas , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004310 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : Diacetyl ( 1 nl ) is sensed exclusively by the AWA neurons , while higher concentrations 128 S . A . Daniels et al . are sensed redundantly by the AWA and AWC neurons ( P . Sengupta and C . I . Bargmann , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004310 SentenceID s63 SENTENCE : No group II Daf-c genes show significant defects in chemosensation ( S . Daniels and P . Sengupta , unpublished results ; Vowels and Thomas 1994 ) , although this behavior is difficult to measure due to their clumpy phenotype .
PaperID WBPaper00004311 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : The increased life span of this line was found to be replicable ( C . Greer , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004377 SentenceID s107 SENTENCE : chromosomal Once again , this contrasts with the results we obtained with the repair-defective mre-11 mutants , where gross chromosomal abnormalities were observed following irradiation ( G . Chin and A . Villeneuve , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004377 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : While this screen was successful in identifying several key components required either for recombination per se ( Zalevsky et al . 1999 ) or for homolog pairing and / or synapsis ( Villeneuve 1994 ; A . MacQueen and A . Villeneuve , unpublished results ) , it has two drawbacks .
PaperID WBPaper00004377 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : A . Villeneuve , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004377 SentenceID s99 SENTENCE : While this decrease in survivorship may be somewhat more severe than that observed for irradiated wild-type control hermaphrodites , it contrasts sharply with the elimination of survivorship that we observe in mre-11 mutants , which are defective for repair of radiation-induced breaks ( G . Chin and A . Villeneuve , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004378 SentenceID s85 SENTENCE : Because attaching the GFP tag to either the N or C terminus of MHC A resulted in impaired function in vivo ( P . E . Hoppe and R . H . Waterston , unpublished observations ) , we fused the smaller HA tag to the N terminus of chimera 7 .
PaperID WBPaper00004405 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : We have performed such a screen for Daf-c mutants at 27 , and we isolated several new alleles of unc-31 and unc-3 as well as a number of new dauer genes ( M . Ailion and J . H . Thomas , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004406 SentenceID s183 SENTENCE : unc-43 and the goa-1 / egl-30 network are widely expressed throughout the nervous system ( Mendel et al . 1995 ; Segalat et al . 1995 ; Koelle and Horvitz 1996 ; Hajdu-Cronin et al . 1999 ; Lackner et al . 1999 ; Miller et al . 1999 ; Nurrish et al . 1999 ; Reiner et al . 1999 ; E . Newton and J . H . Thomas , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004406 SentenceID s193 SENTENCE : Since UNC- 43 is also present in both the HSN motor neurons and the egg-laying muscles ( E . Newton and J . H . Thomas , unpublished results ) , an interaction between unc-43 and the goa-1 / egl-30 network could occur in either cell type .
PaperID WBPaper00004406 SentenceID s207 SENTENCE : We also thank Dave Reiner for constructing egl-30 ( ad805 ) ; unc-43 ( n1186 ) and the initial goa-1 ; unc- 43 ( n498 ) double mutant and for providing unpublished results for unc-103 .
PaperID WBPaper00004406 SentenceID s208 SENTENCE : We thank Elizabeth Newton for providing unpublished results for the unc-43 expression pattern and Duncan Johnstone for identifying unc-110 ( sa859 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004406 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : The C . elegans Ca2 -calmodulin-dependent serine / threonine protein kinase II ( CaMKII ) encoded by unc- 43 is also widely expressed in neurons and regulates locomotion rate , as well as other behaviors ( Reiner et al . 1999 ; E . Newton and J . H . Thomas , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004406 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : For behavioral assays , these strains were staged as L4 larvae and grown for 38 hr at 15 , which is equivalent to 24 hr of growth at 20 ( J . H . Thomas , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004406 SentenceID s61 SENTENCE : 1 ( null ) on unc-110 ( gf ) and unc-93 ( gf ) mutants must be indirect and nonspecific since unc-93 and unc-110 function in body-wall muscle ( Levin and Horvitz 1992 ; D . Johnstone and J . H . Thomas , unpublished results ) , whereas goa-1 acts neuronally to control locomotion ( Mendel et al . 1995 ; Segalat et al . 1995 ; Nurrish et al . 1999 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004406 SentenceID s62 SENTENCE : In contrast , unc-103 may function in some of the same neurons as the goa-1 / egl-30 network since unc- 103 probably acts in excitatory motor neurons ( D . Reiner and J . H . Thomas , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004407 SentenceID s17 SENTENCE : It is striking that the spectrum of events affected by lin-25 mutations is the same as that affected by mutations in lin-1 ( Beitel et 1094 L . Nilsson , T . Tiensuu and S . Tuck al . 1995 ; T . Tiensuu and S . Tuck , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004407 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : nuclear LIN-25 from C . elegans nuclear extracts does not have DNA-binding activity in vitro ( L . Nilsson and S . Tuck , unpublished observations ) , but we can not exclude the possibility that LIN-25 binds DNA transiently in cells in which let-60 ras is activated .
PaperID WBPaper00004407 SentenceID s48 SENTENCE : In let-60 ras cause P9 . p to be induced ( adopt either the 1 or 2 cell fate ; P . Sternberg , personal communication ; contrast , a null mutation in lin-39 did not significantly enhance the growth arrest phenotype caused by letour own unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004407 SentenceID s52 SENTENCE : -J . Kim , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004407 SentenceID s52 SENTENCE : To identify potential coding regions we analyzed the sequence generated by the C . briggsae sequencing consortium with the Genefinder program ( L . Hillier and P . Green , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004407 SentenceID s55 SENTENCE : We thank P . Sternberg for sharing unpublished Ras Signaling in C . elegans results on the preanal ganglion equivalence group , the Caenorhabditis Genetics Center ( which is funded by the National Institutes of Health ) for strains , and S . Gill and J . Flodin for help in cloning C . briggsae lin-25 .
PaperID WBPaper00004407 SentenceID s79 SENTENCE : It is known that sur-2 mutations cause partial fate transformations of cells in the tail region of the male that give rise to part of the spicules ( H . Chamberlin and P . Sternberg , unpublished results , cited in Singh and Han 1995 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004408 SentenceID s17 SENTENCE : Preliminary data suggest that the egg-laying defect of pvl-5 ( ga87 ) mutants is partially suppressed by a mutation in the programmed cell death gene ced-3 , suggesting that abnormal cell death of P or Pn . p cells may occur in pvl-5 mutants ( P . Joshi and D . Eisenmann , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004408 SentenceID s204 SENTENCE : nuclei We found that in pvl-5 ( ga87 ) / mnDf30 animals , Pn . p cells are still generated , and the number of Pn . p nuclei in these animals is similar to that in pvl-5 ( ga87 ) animals ( P . Joshi and D . Eisenmann , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004408 SentenceID s39 SENTENCE : Reduction of mig-5 disheveled ( Antebi et al . 1997 ) activity by RNA-interference technology ( J . Wagmaister and D . Eisenmann , unpublished results ) , production of an antisense message to apr-1 APC in the VPCs ( Hoier et al . 2000 ) , and mutation of the mom-1 porcupine gene ( Thorpe et al . 1997 ) all cause a Pvl phenotype , suggesting that these genes may function in vulval development in a manner similar to bar-1 and mom-3 / mig-14 .
PaperID WBPaper00004408 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : Additional alleles of bar-1 have been identified in other genetic screens ( mu38 , mu349 , Maloof et al . 1999 ; sy324 , A . Golden , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004408 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : The allele bar-1 ( sy324 ) was identified in a screen for mutations capable of suppressing the Muv phenotype of lin-1 ( e1777 ) ( A . Golden , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004408 SentenceID s86 SENTENCE : We thank Cynthia Kenyon , Michel Labouesse , and Bruce Bowerman for communication of unpublished results .
PaperID WBPaper00004442 SentenceID s17 SENTENCE : These weak alleles would not have been detected in a standard screen for Muvs or Vuls , since the penetrance for either phenotype would probably be well below the 3176 % Muv penetrance or the 1541 % Vul penetrance ( L . Miller , unpublished results ) exhibited by null alleles .
PaperID WBPaper00004443 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : However , in a separate study using Northern blots as a direct measure of gene activity , mnDp10 was shown to increase the mRNA levels of uvt-4 and uxt-1 , two X-linked loci not duplicated by mnDp10 ( B . J . Meyer , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004444 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : In addition , RNA-mediated interference with spe-29 double-stranded RNA fails to produce any phenotype ( as is true with nearly all spe genes assayed ; data not shown ; E . B . Davis , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004446 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : centrosome, spindle After these early events the first mitotic spindle forms and , during its formation , the posterior centrosome rocks back and forth , crossing the midline of the embryo at least four to six times ( Strome and Wood 1983 ; Albertson 1984 ; K . G . Miller , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004447 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : The remaining 978 fragments were analyzed for their amount and distribution of the 25 TEs , using the program RepeatMasker ( A . F . A . Smit and P . Green , unpublished data ; RepeatMasker is available at http : / / repeatmasker . genome . washington . edu / cgi-bin / RM2_req . pl ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004447 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : The C . elegans genetic map data were taken from ACEDB release WS6 ( December 1998 ; R . Durbin and J . Thierry-Mieg , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004448 SentenceID s128 SENTENCE : let-502 ( ca201 ) is a strong dominant negative while let-502 ( sb108 ) is hypomorphic . b Not determined or not relevant since the strain was homozygous for or lacked the marker in question . c unc-73 shows no genetic interactions with let-502 ( Wissmann et al . 1997 ; P . E . Mains , unpublished observations ) . d All hatched embryos arrested as early larvae .
PaperID WBPaper00004448 SentenceID s77 SENTENCE : We found that daf-2 ( m212 ) ; mig-2 ( mu28 ) is slightly Unc , although each individual mutation is not ( P . E . Mains , 1686 A . J . Piekny , A . Wissmann and P . E . Mains unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004485 SentenceID s32 SENTENCE : -A . Felix , unpublished results ) , these mutants all form a normal vulva from P ( 57 ) . p .
PaperID WBPaper00004485 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : -A . Felix , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004485 SentenceID s59 SENTENCE : Competence mutants suppress all Pn . p cell divisions and also affect competence ( S . Louvet-Vallee , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004485 SentenceID s76 SENTENCE : -A . Felix , unpublished results ; Figure 5 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004520 SentenceID s116 SENTENCE : Additionally , at least 32 amino acids on each side of the ANK repeats were required in transgenic assays for activity ( Roehl and Kimble 1993 ; V . Kodoyianni and J . Kimble , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004520 SentenceID s176 SENTENCE : However , these putative NREs are not conserved in the Cb-glp-1 3 UTR , and direct mutation of NRE residues does not disrupt regulation ( T . Evans and J . Kimble , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004520 SentenceID s181 SENTENCE : We also thank Tom Evans , Eric Polinko , Susan Strome , and Mary Montgomery for sharing unpublished results .
PaperID WBPaper00004541 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : In fact , our data for this and several other crosses ( Ebert et al . 1993 , 1996 ; S . Ayyadevara , R . Ayyadevara , J . J . Thaden and R . J . Shmookler Reis , unpublished results ) are not consistent with this scenario .
PaperID WBPaper00004541 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : Although several methods have been proposed for interval mapping of categorical traits ( Visscher et al . 1996 ; Xu and Atchley 1996 ; Xu et al . 1998 ) , their application to recombinant inbred populations is currently under development ( S . Ayyadevara , R . Ayyadevara , A . Galecki , J . J . Thaden and R . J . Shmookler Reis , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004541 SentenceID s3 SENTENCE : Through the combined use ( Lander and Botstein 1989 ; Lynch and Walsh 1998 ) . of recombinant-inbred ( and hence homozygous ) worms , Replicate survivals , even in varied environments , yield map expansion during inbreeding , and selective genoconsistent results by this method ( Ebert et al . 1993 ; S . typing of phenotypic extremes in a population , we have Ayyadevara , unpublished data ) , and further corrobogenerated data sets with improved power for the discovration is implied by our recurrent discovery of many ery and resolution of multiple QTL affecting life span . loci in more than one cross ( Figures 1 and 2 and addi- This gain in sensitivity and reliability entailed a sometional data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004541 SentenceID s65 SENTENCE : , and T . F . C . Mackay , 1996 characterized after extensive backcrossing ( A . Vertino , S . Ayyadevara and R . J . Shmookler Reis , unpublished Feller , W .
PaperID WBPaper00004545 SentenceID s123 SENTENCE : In contrast , three out Kniss and J . Austin , unpublished results ) , confirming that it is not essential to use unc-119 as the cotransforof the five GFP : : H2B-expressing lines that we obtained using microparticle bombardment have consistently exmation marker . pressed the GFP : : H2B transgene in the germline for 20 generations . curs in C . elegans has yet to be elucidated .
PaperID WBPaper00004660 SentenceID s70 SENTENCE : Preliminary analysis of unc-38 : : GFP promoter fusions ( A . Gottschalk and W . Schafer , unpublished data ) as well as genetic evidence ( discussed in Rand and Nonet 1997b ) suggests that unc-38 functions in neurons as well as muscles .
PaperID WBPaper00004661 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : The plasmid pH20 is a promoter trap construct in which a genomic fragment was inserted in the expression vector for green fluorescent protein ( GFP ) , pPD95 . 75 ( A . Fire et al . , personal communication ) . pH20 drives expression of GFP in almost all neurons ( T . Ishihara and I . Katsura , unpublished results ; see also Page et al . 1997 ) . pH20 ( 0 . 1 mg / ml ) was mixed with the plasmid pBluescript KS ( ) ( 0 . 3 mg / ml ; Stratagene , La Jolla , CA ) and injected into adult wild-type hermaphrodites .
PaperID WBPaper00004661 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : Whereas mua mutations were suppressed by unc-54 mutations , which affect the contraction of skeletal muscles ( Plenefisch et al . 2000 ) , our preliminary experiments showed that unc-54 mutations do not suppress ven-1 mutations ( G . Shioi and S . Takagi , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004661 SentenceID s73 SENTENCE : We thank John Plenefisch for communicating unpublished observa- Mello , C . C .
PaperID WBPaper00004685 SentenceID s88 SENTENCE : We used an extrachromosomal array ( uEx326 ) containing a mec- 3 : : gfp fusion gene that was expressed in all six touch cells and the two FLP neurons ( S . Luo and M . Chalfie , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004686 SentenceID s32 SENTENCE : We are very grateful to Becky Eustance Kohn , Jim Rand , Paul Baum , and Gian Garriga for kindly sharing unpublished data .
PaperID WBPaper00004687 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : Consistent with this hypothesis , we identified a putative gain-of-function allele of egl-30 as a suppressor of the lethargy and egglaying defective phenotype that results from overexpression of GPB-1 ( A . M . van der Linden , H . C . Korswagen and R . H . A . Plasterk , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004688 SentenceID s111 SENTENCE : These latter two deficiencies result in multinucleate hypodermal cells , suggesting defects in cytokinesis ( Terns et al . 1997 ; M . Furuya and A . Sugimoto , unpublished observation ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004688 SentenceID s112 SENTENCE : Moreover , eDf2 deletes cyk-4 , and nDf41 deletes zen-4 ; loss-of-function mutations in either of these genes lead to multinucleate cells and both are required for completion of cytokinesis ( Powers et al . 1998 ; Raich et al . 1998 ; Jantsch- Plunger et al . 2000 ; M . Furuya and A . Sugimoto , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004688 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : Similar analysis of two other class III deficiencies , sDf74 and rhDf1 , revealed that these also lead to a severe defect in engulfment ( our unpublished observations ) , suggesting that most , and possibly all , of the class III deficiencies might be engulfment mutants .
PaperID WBPaper00004688 SentenceID s77 SENTENCE : Cells in emb-29 mutants and in homozygous deficiencies that delete emb-29 arrest at M phase ( Hecht et al . 1987 ; our unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004721 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : vesicle Our working hypothesis prior to our findings resensitivity . ported here was that VAs bound to the SNARE complex We thank Yvonne Hajdu-Cronin and Shahla Gharib for technical and disrupted its function in mediating vesicle fusion assistance in sequencing goa-1 ( sy192 ) and Yvonne Hajdu-Cronin , Wen Chen , and Russell Roberson for communication of unpublished reand transmitter release and that the unc-64 ( md130 ) sults .
PaperID WBPaper00004770 SentenceID s113 SENTENCE : axon For example , although the e152 and the temperature-sensitive ev585 unc-5 alleles are quantitatively similar in their DTC and axon guidance defects at 25 ( Figure 5 and D . C . Merz , unpublished data ) , a double mutant of unc-40 ( 1430 ) together with unc-5 ( ev585 ) exhibited a less severe phenotype than an unc-6 null ( Figure 6B ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004770 SentenceID s2 SENTENCE : The following genes and alleles were used : Linkage group ( LG ) I : unc-40 ( e1430 ) , unc-40 ( ev457 ) , unc-40 ( ev643 ) ( D . C . Merz , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004770 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : extracellular, intracellular In cases where the site of the molecular lesion is known ( M . T . Killeen , A . Krizus , I . Scott , R . Wilk , M . Nygiem and J . G . Culotti , unpublished results ) , complementing pairs usually comprise one allele with an extracellular and one allele with an intracellular mutation .
PaperID WBPaper00004770 SentenceID s3 SENTENCE : LG IV : unc-5 ( e53 ) , unc-5 ( e152 ) , unc-5 ( ev432 ) , unc-5 ( ev435 ) , unc-5 ( ev512 ) , unc-5 ( ev585 ) , unc-5 ( ev634 ) , unc-5 ( ev642 ) , unc-5 ( ev644 ) ( this study ) , gon-1 ( ev635 ) ( D . C . Merz , unpublished results ) , dpy-20 ( e1282 ) , unc-22 ( e66 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004770 SentenceID s42 SENTENCE : A complete report of sequences of unc-5 alleles will be published elsewhere ( M . T . Killeen , A . Krizus , I . Scott , R . Wilk and J . G . Culotti , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004770 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : The isolation and phenotypic characterization of the unc-5 alleles e53 , e152 , e553 , ev432 , and ev435 have been previously described ( Brenner 1974 ; Hedgecock et al . 1990 ; Leung-Hagesteijn et al . 1992 ) . ev512 , ev585 , ev634 , ev642 , and ev644 were isolated by EMS mutagenesis in several genetic screens ( D . C . Merz , A . Colavita and J . G . Culotti , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004770 SentenceID s80 SENTENCE : In cases for which the site of the molecular lesion is known , the former group comprises alleles with UNC-5 ectodomain mutations , while the latter group comprises cytodomain domain mutations ( M . T . Killeen , A . Krizus , I . Scott , R . Wilk , M . Nygiem and J . G . Culotti , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004771 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : Detailed analysis of the putative transposases encoded by Stowaway suggests that these elements are related to members of the Tc1 / mariner transposons ( Le et al . 2000 ; K . Turcotte and T . Bureau , unpublished results ) , a widespread superfamily of elements with representatives in vertebrates , invertebrates , and fungi .
PaperID WBPaper00004883 SentenceID s52 SENTENCE : We have not found evidence that the coelomocytes of C . elegans provide a potent defense against bacterial infection ; as few as six bacterial cells ( OP50 ) injected into the pseudocoelom can multiply and kill the worm ( H . Fares and I . Greenwald , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004883 SentenceID s60 SENTENCE : We are grateful to David Hirsh for inspiring our interest in coelomocytes , Barth Grant and Yinhua Zhang for helpful reagents and discussions throughout the project , Piali Sengupta for the coelomocytespecific promoter and Paula Loria and Oliver Hobert for additional information about it , David Hall for communicating unpublished observations , and John Collier for the Diphtheria toxin clones .
PaperID WBPaper00004885 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : In addition , we have found that loss of zygotic pop-1 function by RNA interference results in defects in vulval formation ( S . Peyrot and D . Eisenmann , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004885 SentenceID s40 SENTENCE : However , expression of from the heat shock promoter can cause defects in vulval creates a truncated BAR-1 protein , and the bar-1 ( ga80 ) phenotype is likely due to complete loss of BAR-1 funcdevelopment ( J . Gleason and D . Eisenmann , unpublished results ) . tion ( Eisenmann et al . 1998 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004885 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : We did not observe an interaction between LIT-1 and BAR-1 in the yeast two-hybrid assay , and we have not observed any defects in vulval development in lit-1 temperaturesensitive mutants raised at the restrictive temperature after early embryogenesis ( D . Eisenmann , unpublished results ) , suggesting that LIT-1 may not function in larval Wnt signaling mediated by BAR-1 .
PaperID WBPaper00004885 SentenceID s77 SENTENCE : process However , we found that loss of zygotic activity of hmp-2 by dsRNA-mediated interference does not cause an obvious defect in vulval induction or any other postembryonic process nor does it enhance the penetrance of the bar-1 ( ga80 ) phenotype ( S . Peyrot and D . Eisenmann , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004885 SentenceID s78 SENTENCE : Also , while loss of wrm-1 zygotic function does cause a defect in vulval development , the defect is different from that caused by loss of bar-1 function and may be a secondary consequence of defects in somatic gonad development in these animals ( S . Peyrot and D . Eisenmann , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005019 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : MES-4 contains a SET domain and multiple PHD fingers ( Y . Fong , L . Bender and S . Strome , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005020 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : MES-4 is a SET-domain protein with multiple PHD fingers ( Y . Fong , L . Bender and S . Strome , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005045 SentenceID s76 SENTENCE : We also thank Rachel Aronoff for sharing unpublished data about smg-4 .
PaperID WBPaper00005096 SentenceID s115 SENTENCE : Importantly , the same RNAi phenotype has been observed for not only apc-1 , apc-2 , cdc-23 , and apc-11 ( this study ) , but also cdc-16 ( Golden et al . 2000 ) , apc-4 ( Furuta et al . 2000 ) , and cdc-27 ( J . Schumacher , M . Abdolurasulnia , D . Shakes and A . Golden , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005096 SentenceID s160 SENTENCE : We thank all members of the Shakes and Golden laboratories , especially D . Chase and J . Schumacher , for sharing unpublished information .
PaperID WBPaper00005096 SentenceID s32 SENTENCE : 1-cell , meiotic one-cell embryos arrested at metaphase of the first meiotic division , as described in Golden et al . ( 2000 ) ; ORF , open reading frame ; multicellular embryos , a mixed population of dead and hatching multicellular embryos . a Golden et al . ( 2000 ) . b This report . c J . Schumacher , M . Abdolurasulnia , D . Shakes and A . Golden , unpublished results . d Furuta et al . ( 2000 ) . e Injection method of RNAi . f Soaking method of RNAi . g Feeding method of RNAi ( see Figure 3 legend ) . h Previously subjected to RNAi and classified as defective in ability to progress through meiotic divisions ( Gonczy et al . 2000 ) . i Previously subjected to RNAi and classified as early embryonic arrest ( Fraser et al . 2000 ) . j Previously subjected to RNAi and classified as 1-cell arrest with a terminal phenotype as 1- to 12-cell arrest ( Zipperlen et al . 2001 ) . k Previously subjected to RNAi and classified as wild type ( Maeda et al . 2001 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005134 SentenceID s25 SENTENCE : We also injected mut-7 unc-32 P0 hermaphrodites with a control dsRNA corresponding to an open reading frame ( ORF ) in which RNAi leads to embryonic lethality due to zygotic effect before the ventral enclosure stage ( Maeda et al . 2001 ; C . Rinaldo , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005134 SentenceID s58 SENTENCE : We also analyzed the effects of rad-51 RNAi on fertility in two control strains respectively mutated in the genes nuc-1 ( involved in apoptosis well downstream from ced-3 when commitment to death is irreversible ; Wu et al . 2000 ) and him-3 ( acting in meiotic recombination downstream of rad-51 ; Zetka et al . 1999 ; C . Rinaldo , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005136 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : axons pkd-2 encodes the homolog of human polycystic kidney disease gene ( Barr and Sternberg 1999 ) and is expressed in all nine rays as well as ray axons ( L . Jia and S . W . Emmons , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005186 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : Therefore , males at low frequencies would Androdioecy in C . elegans be effectively diluted from the population despite their ability to sire two to four times the offspring through outcrossing than a selfing hermaphrodite ( Hodgkin and Barnes 1991 ; A . D . Stewart , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005186 SentenceID s37 SENTENCE : Moreover , sperm production in hermaphrodites is limited to 300 sperm ( Ward and Carrel 1979 ; Hodgkin and Barnes 1991 ; A . D . Stewart , unpublished results ) , while males have no such limitation , so that outcrossing can yield two to four times the offspring normally obtained through selfing ( Hodgkin and Barnes 1991 ; A . D . Stewart , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005186 SentenceID s51 SENTENCE : When the fog-2 allele has become fixed , the populations are functionally dioecious and males are maintained at 50 % through outcrossing and XO males producing nearly equal frequencies of X-bearing and O-bearing gametes ( A . D . Stewart , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005250 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : eor-1 and eor-2 are placed downstream or in parallel to mpk-1 on the basis of epistasis analysis and molecular identities ( R . M . Howard and M . V . Sundaram , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005250 SentenceID s40 SENTENCE : eor-1 maps in the vicinity of sur-8 ; however , both complementation testing and molecular analysis have verified that eor-1 is a distinct locus ( R . M . Howard and M . V . Sundaram , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005250 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : nuclear Our recent studies have shown that eor-1 and eor-2 function downstream or in parallel to mpk-1 and encode nuclear proteins that likely act at the level of transcriptional regulation ( R . M . Howard and M . V . Sundaram , unpublished results ; Figure 1 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005250 SentenceID s53 SENTENCE : We thank Yuming Han for isolating the lin-45 ( ku51 ) allele and Min Han for sharing unpublished data and for support during the design of this screen .
PaperID WBPaper00005250 SentenceID s54 SENTENCE : We also thank Michael Hengartner and Michael Herman for sharing unpublished data , the Caenorhabditis Genetics Center for worm strains , and Elizabeth Bucher and members of our laboratory for helpful comments and advice .
PaperID WBPaper00005272 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : nuclei Although we did not determine the exact numbers , no obvious increase in the number of somatic nuclei compared to wild type was seen in lon-3 mutants stained with 4 6-diamidino-2- phenylindole ( J . Nystro m and S . Tuck , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005272 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : body The expression of the lon-3 : : lacZ fusion gene reported here was not affected by mutations that increase or decrease the activity of the TGF pathway affecting body length ( J . Nystro m and S . Tuck , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005272 SentenceID s40 SENTENCE : It is noteworthy in this regard that young adult sma-2 or daf-4 mutant hermaphrodites have wild-type hypodermal ploidy ( A . Leroi , unpublished results ) , suggesting that the Sma phenotype displayed by worms at earlier larval stages is not caused by defects in hypodermal endoreduplication .
PaperID WBPaper00005272 SentenceID s68 SENTENCE : Within the limits of the accuracy of this technique , neither lon-3 mutants nor worms that overexpress dbl-1 have volumes that are obviously greater than wild type ( J . Nystro m and S . Tuck , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005272 SentenceID s75 SENTENCE : At least 6 of these ( dpy-2 , dpy-7 , dpy-10 , dpy-13 , sqt-1 , and rol-6 ) do not cause a Lon phenotype when present in multiple copies ( Johnstone et al . 1992 ; Yang and Kramer 1994 ; Gilleard et al . 1997 ; J . Nystro m and S . Tuck , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005272 SentenceID s82 SENTENCE : -Z . Shen and A . Leroi , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005275 SentenceID s9 SENTENCE : chromosome Two additional genes encode adenylyl cyclases in the C . elegans genome , acy-3 ( located on chromosome V , our unpublished observation ) and acy-4 ( located on chromosome III , C44F1 . 5 ; C . elegans Sequencing Consortium 1998 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005276 SentenceID s37 SENTENCE : Preliminary experiments indicate that SPE-6 indeed exists in spermatids in several differently charged isoforms , possibly representing alternate phosphorylation states ( M . Galligan and P . Muhlrad , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005276 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : AW057333 and AW057136 ; H . Smith , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005276 SentenceID s57 SENTENCE : Four PCR reactions were run for each template , and the products were pooled and purified by filtration on a Microcon PCR purification filter ( Millipore , Bedford , MA ) . cDNA clones for sequencing were amplified from a C . elegans spermatogenesis-enriched library constructed and generously provided by H . Smith ( unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005342 SentenceID s122 SENTENCE : chromosome From a screen of 2445 individual clones of a chromosome I bacterial RNAi library ( Fraser et al . 2000 ) , we identified five bacterial RNAi strains that shortened the life span of C . elegans ( A . Dillin , D . Garigan , D . Crawford , J . Ramond and C . Kenyon , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005342 SentenceID s2 SENTENCE : daf-2 ( mu150 ) was recovered from an EMS mutagenesis screen of 11 , 000 haploid genomes in a temperature-sensitive sterile background [ CF512 fer-15 ( b26 ) II ; fem-1 ( hc17 ) IV ; J . Apfeld , H . Hsin , B . Albinder , B . Tsung , J . Dorman and C . Kenyon , unpublished data ] .
PaperID WBPaper00005342 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : RNA interference : Bacterial RNAi clones that shortened adult life span were identified by a procedure described elsewhere ( A . Dillin , D . Garigan , D . Crawford , J . Ramond and C . Kenyon , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005342 SentenceID s48 SENTENCE : chromosome From a screen of a chromosome I bacterial RNAi library ( Fraser et al . 2000 ) , we found five clones that shortened adult life span ( A . Dillin , D . Garigan , D . Crawford , J . Ramond and C . Kenyon , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005342 SentenceID s56 SENTENCE : 1111 Second , the schedule of progeny production , which is delayed in calorically restricted animals ( D . Crawford and C . Kenyon , unpublished results ) , is normal in these animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005396 SentenceID s116 SENTENCE : -C . Yen and A . Deshpande for technical assistance ; H . Kagawa for C . briggsae HK104 ; E . S . Haag , S . Wang , and J . Kimble for communication of unpublished results ; and D . Fitch , B . J . Meyer , C . Davidson , J . Puglise , and the reviewers of this manuscript for many helpful comments .
PaperID WBPaper00005396 SentenceID s95 SENTENCE : Segregation of sex-linked mutant phenotypes in C . briggsae and C . remanei was consistent with the presumed XX and XO karyotypes of hermaphrodites / females and males , respectively ( LaMunyon and Ward 1997 ; S . E . Baird , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005486 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : Moreover , these efforts , in synergy with other work in the laboratory , have greatly expedited the molecular identification of genes we had previously defined by mutational analysis ( A . J . MacQueen , M . P . Colaiacovo , J . Engebrecht , K . C . Reddy and A . M . Villeneuve , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005486 SentenceID s54 SENTENCE : All three genes have now been matched with meiotic mutants identified in our genetic screens ( A . J . MacQueen , M . P . Colaiacovo , J . Engebrecht , K . C . Reddy and A . M . Villeneuve , unpublished data ) , and an in-depth analysis of their functional roles will be reported elsewhere .
PaperID WBPaper00005486 SentenceID s60 SENTENCE : chromosomes RNAi for one gene , T09E8 . 2 , appeared to preferentially affect the segregation of the X chromosomes ; we have since found that T09E8 . 2 corresponds to the him-17 gene ( defined by multiple mutant alleles ; K . Reddy , J . Hodgkin and A . M . Villeneuve , unpublished data ) and are currently investigating its function in more detail .
PaperID WBPaper00005548 SentenceID s37 SENTENCE : : ( 1 ) Baptist and Robertson ( 1976 ) ; ( 2 ) Hillesheim and Stearns ( 1991 ) ; ( 3 ) Robertson ( 1955 ) ; ( 4 ) Masry and Robertson ( 1978 ) ; ( 5 ) Scheiner and Lyman ( 1991 ) ; ( 6 ) Reeve and Fairbairn ( 1996 ) ; ( 7 ) Partridge et al . ( 1999 ) ; B . Zwaan and L . Partridge , unpublished results ; ( 8 ) McCabe et al . ( 1997 ) ; ( 9 ) Robertson and Reeve ( 1952 ) ; ( 10 ) Tantawy et al . ( 1964 ) ; ( 11 ) Aguade et al . ( 1981 ) . in outbred populations may be caused by factors that are not applicable to the selection experiment reported here , such as elevated inbreeding depression in the selected lines relative to the control lines ( Falconer and Mackay 1996 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005548 SentenceID s55 SENTENCE : body Of 383 viable body size mutations isolated , 77 ( 20 % ) increased and 306 decreased some aspect of body size ( Z . Z . Shen and A . M . Leroi , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005549 SentenceID s161 SENTENCE : Isolation of mutants defective in telomere maintenance has allowed the generation of many other X autosome fusions in C . elegans ( Ahmed and Hodgkin 2000 and our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005549 SentenceID s63 SENTENCE : I am grateful to Tim Schedl and Jane Hubbard for providing unpublished strains , to Debbie Whittington for technical assistance , and to the Medical Research Council for support .
PaperID WBPaper00005586 SentenceID s109 SENTENCE : Similar results have been obtained during mapping and cloning of vulval patterning genes ( J . Srinivasan and R . J . Sommer , unpublished observation ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005586 SentenceID s116 SENTENCE : Currently , this study is complemented by a physical mapping project of the complete BAC library using amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting ( T . Jesse , M . de Both and R . J . Sommer , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005638 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : chromosomes This difference probably reflects differences between chromosomes since preliminary tests with the STS assay found double crossovers on LGIV ( P . Meneely and S . Taylor , unpublished data ) , confirming the work of Hodgkin et al . ( 1979 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005680 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : We have found that lon-3 expression and W . B . Wood , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005680 SentenceID s75 SENTENCE : granules Light spots in EG are caused by autofluorescence of gut granules and are unrelated to lon-3 expression . thought to function upstream of dbl-1 ( Y . Suzuki and W . B . Wood , unpublished observations ; S . Baird , C . Savage-Dunn and R . Padgett , personal communication ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005695 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : confers a recessive lethal phenotype , referred to as " DnT1 " ( E . Ferguson , unpublished data ) ] , qDp3 ( III ; f ) ( Austin and Kimble 1987 ) , mnDp68 ( X ; f ) ( Herman and Kari 1989 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005695 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : -W . Lo and E . J . A . Hubbard , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005695 SentenceID s48 SENTENCE : -W . Lo and E . J . A . Hubbard , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005695 SentenceID s57 SENTENCE : -W . Lo and E . J . A . Hubbard , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005727 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : After fusion of cells with the same terminal fate , the progeny of P ( 57 ) . p give rise to six vulval rings , lettered vulA to vulF ( I . Kolotuev and B . Podbilewicz , unpublished results ) . a vulval fate whereas P4 . p and P8 . p adopt a nonvulval fate and become part of the epidermal syncytium after two divisions ( noted " ssss " for syncytial ; Figure 1 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005727 SentenceID s17 SENTENCE : -A . Felix , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005727 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : -A . Felix , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005728 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : A total of 10 ng / l of the plasmid DNA was coinjected with the gut-specific , selective marker KQT1 : : GFP ( M . Kniazeva , unpublished data ) into the N2 worms .
PaperID WBPaper00005755 SentenceID s105 SENTENCE : This procedure has already led to confirmation and absolute physical positioning of three longevity QTL ( A . Vertino , S . Ayyadevara , R . Ayyadevara , J . J . Thaden and R . J . Shmookler Reis , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005755 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : In each case , we found the expected effect of QTL on trait : 1 . 54 days alteration in median and 18 days in maximal life span ( Figure 2 ; see also Ayyadevara et al . 2001 ; A . Vertino , S . Ayyadevara , J . J . Thaden and R . J . Shmookler Reis , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005755 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : As QTL-to-marker distances increase , effects meabership in an extreme-trait group ( A . Galecki , R . Miller and R . J . Shmookler Reis , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005755 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : Association between genotypes and life span at each locus was first assessed by single-marker analysis , wherein the significance of shifts in allelic proportions was determined by the 2 test . We then employed interval mapping , using a nonparametric algorithm that requires no assumptions about trait distribution ( Kruglyak and Lander 1995 ) , and a newly developed Bayesian maximum-likelihood procedure designed for categorical traits ( A . Galecki , R . A . Miller , S . Ayyadevara and R . J . Shmookler Reis , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005755 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : --CTIM and NpIM of life-span QTL ( 1sq1lsqXc ) determined by analysis of genotypes for unselected young adults and extreme ( highest 1 % ) survivors in an F7 recombinant-inbred population generated from a Bergerac-BO symbols and lines show interval-mapping LOD scores generated by CTIM , a Bayesian interval mapping procedure for categorical traits ( A . Galecki , S . Ayyadevara , R . A . Miller and R . J . Shmookler Reis , unpublished results ) based on generalized linear models .
PaperID WBPaper00005755 SentenceID s43 SENTENCE : We determined maximum-likelihood positions of these QTL by both nonparametric interval mapping ( Kruglyak and Lander 1995 ) and categorical trait interval mapping , developed for this experimental design ( A . Galecki , S . Ayyadevara , R . Miller and R . J . Shmookler Reis , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005755 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : chromosome It is instructive that examination of congenic recombinants spanning the QTL interval on chromosome IV confirmed the existence of a longevity QTL only between markers stP44 and stP35 ( as indicated for samples C2 ) , but not within the stP13stP44 interval implicated by samples C1 and C3 ( A . Vertino , S . Ayyadevara , R . Ayyadevara , J . J . Thaden and R . J . Shmookler Reis , unpublished re- Mapping of C . elegans Longevity QTL sults ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005756 SentenceID s2 SENTENCE : We thank Y . Kohara ( National Institute for Genetics , Mishima , Japan ) for cDNA clones , A . Fire ( Carnegie Institution , Baltimore ) for vectors , members of the worm community for plasmids and strains , G . Seydoux for communicating unpublished results , and the Caenorhabditis Genetics Center for the nematode strains used in this study .
PaperID WBPaper00005804 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : This includes the 6 alleles identified here as well as another 14 described by E . Gilchrist , G . Mullen , T . M . Rogalski and D . G . Moerman ( unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005861 SentenceID s117 SENTENCE : We thank Beth Castor for expert technical assistance and Ewa Davison and Xiaowei Lu for sharing unpublished data .
PaperID WBPaper00005861 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : An additional class B mutation , n3718 , was obtained in a screen for synMuv mutants following the mutagenesis of lin-15 ( n767 ) animals ( C . J . Ceol , F . Stegmeier , M . M . Harrison and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005861 SentenceID s181 SENTENCE : ND , not determined . a These data were obtained by estimating the penetrance and by assuming that the number of doubly homozygous animals were one-quarter of the R progeny . b These data are from Table 1 of Ferguson and Horvitz ( 1989 ) . unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005861 SentenceID s30 SENTENCE : The lin-52 mutation n3718 was isolated following mutagenesis of a lin-15 ( n767 ) homozygous mutant strain ( C . J . Ceol , F . Stegmeier , M . M . Harrison and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005861 SentenceID s52 SENTENCE : Dufourcq et al . ( 2002 ) reported that hda-1 / gon- 10 ( e1795 ) does not have class B synMuv activity but other results using stronger class A synMuv mutations suggest that hda-1 / gon-10 ( e1795 ) does have class B synMuv activity ( C . J . Ceol , E . C . Andersen and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005861 SentenceID s72 SENTENCE : Such an interaction had not been previously observed for the synMuv genes , but lin-8 ( n111 ) synMuv double mutants have occasionally been observed to be weaker than corresponding synMuv double mutants carrying other class A mutations ( Thomas and Horvitz 1999 ) . o Hsieh et al . ( 1999 ) . p Von Zelewsky et al . ( 2000 ) . q Page et al . ( 2001 ) ; C . J . Ceol and H . R . Horvitz ( unpublished results ) . r hda-1 is also known as gon-10 ( Dufourcq et al . 2002 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005861 SentenceID s73 SENTENCE : The hda-1 ( e1795 ) mutation alone causes a weakly penetrant Muv phenotype ( Dufourcq et al . 2002 ) , but in combination with the class A mutation lin-15 ( n767 ) this phenotype is fully penetrant and displays stronger expressivity ( C . J . Ceol , E . C . Andersen and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished results ) . s Dufourcq et al . ( 2002 ) . t ( C . J . Ceol , F . Stegmeier , M . M . Harrison and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished results ) . u Unhavaithaya et al . ( 2002 ) . v Belfiore et al . ( 2002 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006130 SentenceID s61 SENTENCE : Zhu and S . W . L ' Hernault , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006130 SentenceID s69 SENTENCE : Zhu and S . W . L ' Hernault , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006178 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : filament E-mail : jmcghee @ ucalgary . ca ges-1 and the gene encoding the gut-specific intermedi- Genetics 165 : 575588 ( October 2003 ) 2 5 kb upstream of 8E cell stage 576 T . Fukushige et al . ate filament protein containing the epitope MH33 ( Fukushige et al . 1998 ; T . Fukushige and J . D . McGhee , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006179 SentenceID s70 SENTENCE : For example , K . Szafraniec and R . Korona ( Figure 4 in unpublished results ) report a surprising number ( 9 / 38 ) of mutation pairs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that repeatably increase fitness in the heterozygous state ( i . . , both the average fitness of individuals carrying one of the two mutations and the fitness of individuals carrying both mutations are greater than that of the ancestral wild type ) , although any tests of the significance of this result would be post hoc .
PaperID WBPaper00006296 SentenceID s32 SENTENCE : body Features that describe worm body transparency ( median pixel value ) , and head and tail movement relative to centroid were also measured ( W . Geng , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006297 SentenceID s3 SENTENCE : Detection and localization of Tc1 , Tc3 , and Tc5 insertions in the sequenced genome : Tc1 , Tc3 , and Tc5 sequences in the sequenced genome were retrieved using the RepeatMasker program ( A . F . A . Smit and P . Green , unpublished data ; RepeatMasker is available at http : / / repeatmasker . genome . washington . edu / cgi-bin / RM2_req . pl ) and a database of reference sequences for each of the known transposon families [ accession numbers in GenBank : Tc1 , K01135 from position 46 to 1655 ; Tc5 , Z35400 ; Repbase Update database ( Jurka 2000 ) for the following families : IR-1 , IR-2 , IR-3 , IR-4 , IR-5 , Tc2 , Tc4 , Tc6 , Tc7 ] .
PaperID WBPaper00006312 SentenceID s133 SENTENCE : Similarly , maintenance of ectopic str-2 expression in the AWA neurons in odr-7 mutants also required odr-1 ( M . E . Colosimo and P . Sengupta , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006312 SentenceID s53 SENTENCE : Melkman and P . Sengupta , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006312 SentenceID s54 SENTENCE : nuclear In tants specifically fail to respond to diacetyl while retaining additional wild-type ODR-7 functions , including all cases , nuclear expression of the mutant ODR-7 proteins was detected in the AWA neurons of early larvae maintenance of odr-7 expression ( Sengupta et al . 1994 ; Sagasti et al . 1999 ; P . Sengupta , unpublished observa- ( Figure 2 and data not shown ) , and multiple transgenic lines exhibited similar phenotypes , suggesting that the tions ) , suggesting that distinct residues of ODR-7 may be required for the regulation of different target genes . autoregulatory defects may not arise simply as a consequence of lack of stability or mislocalization of the mu- In addition to the G340 residue that is mutated in odr-7 ( ky55 ) , we identified a second residue that appears to be tant ODR-7 proteins .
PaperID WBPaper00006312 SentenceID s60 SENTENCE : nuclei Moreover , staining with anti-ODR-7 antibodies showed AWA-specific signaling genes including the odr-10 diacetyl receptor and the osm-9 TRPV-like channel genes that ODR-7 ( R372A ) was localized to the nuclei and that levels of ODR-7 ( R372A ) were less than twofold different ( Sengupta et al . 1996 ) ( P . Sengupta , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006312 SentenceID s66 SENTENCE : We are grateful to Laura Vivier , Maura Berkeley , and Julia Thompson for technical assistance ; Marc van Gilst and Ann Sluder for sharing unpublished reagents and results ; Andy Fire for expression plasmids ; and Cori Bargmann and Marc van Gilst for reagents and strains .
PaperID WBPaper00006312 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : The ky55 mutation is unlikely to result in reduced levels of ODR-7 protein since staining odr-7 ( ky55 ) animals with anti-ODR-7 antibodies showed wild-type levels of expression ( P . Sengupta , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006314 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : body However , our unpublished experiments suggest that C . elegans is not tolerant to overproduction of egl-30 in muscle cells , on the basis of our attempts using musclespecific heterologous promoter elements such as myo-3 ( body wall ) , myo-2 ( pharyngeal muscle ) , and hlh-8 ( M-cell lineage specific ; Harfe et al . 1998 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006314 SentenceID s77 SENTENCE : This low induced level of expression is in marked contrast to the high induced levels of expression that were obtained with an analogous GOA-1 construct ( C . Bastiani , W . Chen , M . I . Simon and P . W . Sternberg , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006314 SentenceID s78 SENTENCE : The same differences in expression levels are observed when levels of GOA-1 and EGL-30 are compared after transfection of cDNA expression plasmids into HEK293T cell lines ( C . Bastiani , W . Chen , M . I . Simon and P . W . Sternberg , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006314 SentenceID s88 SENTENCE : We also isolated extragenic suppressor mutations that suppress the egg-laying defects and lethargic locomotion exhibited by egl-30 ( md186 ) mutants ( C . A . Bastiani , S . Gharib and P . W . Sternberg , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006438 SentenceID s115 SENTENCE : nuclear ( A ) Component of nuclear complex . ( B ) Facilitated assembly of nuclear complex . in combination with sel-7 ; J . Chen , I . Katic and I . Greenwald , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006438 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : At least five additional sel genes are defined by conventional genetic screens ( Tax et al . 1997 ; L . Vallier , I . Katic , J . Chen and I . Greenwald , unpublished observations ) and many more identified by RNAi screens ( C . Bais and I . Greenwald , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006438 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : E-mail : greenwald @ cancercenter . columbia . edu Genetics 166 : 151160 ( January 2004 ) , , 2 ( Tax et al . 1997 ; L . Vallier , I . Katic , J . Chen and I . Greenwald , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006438 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : sel-7 ( n1253 ) was originally identified by Tax et al . ( 1997 ) as a suppressor of the 0 AC- Egl defect of lin-12 ( n302 ) , and we identified additional alleles of sel-7 in a similar screen ( L . Vallier , I . Katic , J . Chen and I . Greenwald , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006440 SentenceID s102 SENTENCE : Instead , we recently cloned sys-1 ( T . Kidd , unpublished data ) and plan to test the model by overexpression of a sys-1 transgene .
PaperID WBPaper00006440 SentenceID s121 SENTENCE : We thank Joel Rothman and Morris Maduro for providing plasmids and discussing unpublished data , Jennifer Miskowski for providing jmp # 1 , and Andy Fire for plasmids .
PaperID WBPaper00006440 SentenceID s127 SENTENCE : Wnt / MAPK signaling controls this asymmetric T cell division : abrogation of Wnt / MAPK signaling causes in elongation was detected in sys-3 male gonads , but somatic gonadal it issues were sometimes positioned abeither a reversal of cell polarity or both daughters to adopt an anterior identity ( Herman and Horvitz 1994 ; normally within the gonad , as has been seen in sys-1 and pop-1 males ( K . Siegfried , unpublished observa- Sawa et al . 1996 ; Rocheleau et al . 1999 ; Herman 2001 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006440 SentenceID s49 SENTENCE : The gon-14 ( q10 , q12 , and q686 ) alleles were isolated in other EMS mutagenesis screens ( J . Kimble and L . Mathies , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006440 SentenceID s59 SENTENCE : A deletion internal to the sys-1 locus had the same effect as qDf14 Double heterozygotes of sys-1 and Wnt / MAPK mutants in this assay ( A . Kidd and K . Siegfried , unpublished results ) , suggesting that qDf14 represents the effect of a sys-1 null .
PaperID WBPaper00006498 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : We also utilize previous work on the properties of spontaneous mutation ( Vassilieva and Lynch 1999 ; Vassilieva et al . 2000 ) and on molecular evolution ( Shabalina and Kondrashov 1999 ; Denver et al . 2000 ; D . Denver , K . Morris , M . Lynch and K . Thomas , unpublished results ) in C . elegans to directly assess the effect of msh2 at the molecular level and to make inferences regarding the distribution of mutational effects on fitness .
PaperID WBPaper00006498 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : Comparatively , the rate to such visible mutations observed in the natural MA lines is 20 times lower at 1 . 3 10 4 / generation ( S . Estes and M . Lynch , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006498 SentenceID s60 SENTENCE : As expected , the mutational patterns that we observed were similar between both sets of experimental lines sequenced [ i . . , between the 40 N 1 lines used in the phenotypic study reported here and the 45 additional such lines from a separate study ( D . Denver , S . Estes , K . Thomas and M . Lynch , unpublished results ) ] .
PaperID WBPaper00006498 SentenceID s61 SENTENCE : We estimate the molecular mutation rate ( SE ) in complex sequence to be 2 . 2 10 6 ( 3 . 5 10 7 ) / nucleotide / generation , an 100-fold increase over the estimate of 2 . 3 10 8 ( 6 . 0 10 9 ) previously measured in natural C . elegans MA lines ( D . Denver , K . Morris , M . Lynch 1275 a h2 m 0 . 211 0 . 0168 ( 0 . 0047 ) 0 . 106 ( 0 . 062 , 0 . 155 ) 0 . 160 ( 0 . 100 , 0 . 342 ) 0 . 088 ( 0 . 032 ) 0 . 0008 ( 0 . 0003 ) 0 . 369 ( 0 . 446 , 0 . 305 ) 0 . 416 0 . 0213 ( 0 . 0071 ) 0 . 211 ( 0 . 121 , 0 . 322 ) 0 . 529 ( 0 . 281 , 0 . 528 ) 0 . 222 ( 0 . 060 ) 0 . 0033 ( 0 . 0008 ) 0 . 131 ( 0 . 219 , 0 . 033 ) 0 . 458 0 . 0127 ( 0 . 0051 ) 0 . 232 ( 0 . 115 , 0 . 386 ) 0 . 390 ( 0 . 084 ) 0 . 0031 ( 0 . 0007 ) and K . Thomas , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006498 SentenceID s74 SENTENCE : nuclear A subset of homopolymer loci ( Denver et al . 2004 ) as well as complex nuclear sequence ( i . . , nonrepetitive sequence ) previously analyzed in the natural MA lines ( D . Denver , K . Morris , M . Lynch and K . Thomas , unpublished results ) was examined for these sets of repair-deficient lines .
PaperID WBPaper00006498 SentenceID s77 SENTENCE : nuclear In addition , a separate set of 45 msh-2 lines also propagated at N 1 for 20 generations from another study ( D . Denver , S . Estes , K . Thomas and M . Lynch , unpublished results ) was surveyed for molecular variation by sequencing 20 kb of nuclear DNA--again , a subset of the complex sequence examined in the natural MA lines .
PaperID WBPaper00012773 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : -W . Sun , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00013472 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : We also found that osr-1 ( rm1 ) animals accumulate high levels of glycerol ( 1455 26 nmol of glycerol per milligram of protein ; A . Solomon and R . Morimoto , unpublished results ) even under normal growth conditions , while wild-type animals have undetectable levels .
PaperID WBPaper00013472 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : cuticle For the observed acute resistance to osmotic stress seen in osr-1 ( rm1 ) animals , we suggest that it might be related to alterations in cuticle structure , as we find that mutations in cuticle collagen genes , DPY-10 and DPY-2 ( Levy et al . 1993 ) , result in an osr-1 ( rm1 ) -like resistance phenotype in acute and chronic osmotic stress conditions ( A . Solomon and R . Morimoto , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00013472 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : On the basis of lipophilic dye staining , we could not detect any morphological abnor- 164 A . Solomon et al . malities in the osmosensory organs ( amphids and phasmids ) of osr-1 ( rm1 ) animals ( A . Solomon and R . Morimoto , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00013472 SentenceID s82 SENTENCE : The interactions between OSR-1 and PMK-1 / p38 appear to be specific because OSR-1 does not interact with two other C . elegans p38 homologs ( Berman et al . 2001 ) , PMK-2 and PMK-3 ( A . Solomon and R . Morimoto , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024251 SentenceID s115 SENTENCE : P granules, P-granule, granules All three PGL proteins depend on GLH-1 for proper localization to P granules ( Kawasaki et al . 1998 ; Kuznicki et al . 2000 ; N . Meyer , A . Orsborn , K . Bennett and S . Strome , unpublished results ) , suggesting that GLH-1 is upstream of all three PGL proteins in a P-granule assembly pathway .
PaperID WBPaper00024251 SentenceID s117 SENTENCE : A normal pattern of GLH-1 in embryos may require the PGLs , a possibility that is being investigated ( N . Meyer and S . Strome , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024251 SentenceID s12 SENTENCE : cytoplasmic, fraction, granules The GLH proteins were identified as C . elegans homoboth embryo extracts and adult worm extracts , whereas the lower PGL-1 band is detected mainly in the cytoplasmic logs of Drosophila Vasa , a DEAD-box RNA helicase that is a component of Drosophila germ granules ( Hay et fraction ( I . Kawasaki , unpublished result ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024251 SentenceID s17 SENTENCE : In flies , germ-granule components are not encoded by Meyer , A . Orsborn , K . Bennett and S . Strome , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024251 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : It is useful to consider the unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024251 SentenceID s49 SENTENCE : P-granule Whatever the molecular explanation , it is noteworthy that the phenotypes caused by loss of other P-granule components ( e . . , glh-1 and ife-1 ) are also more pronounced at elevated temperature ( Kawasaki et al . 1998 ; Amiri et al . 2001 ; N . Meyer , A . Orsborn , K . Bennett and S . Strome , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024251 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : nucleus PGL-2 lacks an RGG box and also differs et al . 2002 ; I . Kawasaki , unpublished result ) , suggesting that mRNA processing or export from the nucleus is from PGL-1 and PGL-3 in being undetectable in embryos .
PaperID WBPaper00024251 SentenceID s67 SENTENCE : Indeed , PGL-1 and PGL-3 possess the amino acid motif YXXXXL ( where is a hydrophobic amino acid and X is any amino acid ) , which is used by eIF4G , eIF4E-binding proteins , and Maskin to bind eIF4E ( Mader et al . 1995 ; Amiri et al . 2001 ; I . Kawasaki , unpublished result ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024251 SentenceID s71 SENTENCE : , L . Y . Jan and Y . N . Jan , 1988 PGL-1 fragment C-terminal of the YXXXXL motif appears to mediate binding of PGL-1 to IFE-1 ( N . Meyer and S . Strome , unpublished result ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024252 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : Isolation of mat-3 alleles : ku233 was identified as an egglaying defective mutant after gamma-irradiation ( 2400 rad ) of strain MH620 [ lin-45 ( ku112 ) dpy-20 ( e1282 ) ] ( M . Sundaram and M . Han , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024252 SentenceID s21 SENTENCE : We are confident that phenotypic suppression of ku233 is a result and not a cause of the elevated mat-3 mRNA levels since we have identified a novel suppressor of ku233 that has no detectable effect on mat-3 mRNA levels ( our unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024256 SentenceID s102 SENTENCE : Although wve-1 RNAi feeding to wild type produced no lethality , injection of wve-1 dsRNA produced 39 % lethality ( Figure 2A and our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024256 SentenceID s103 SENTENCE : Either feeding or injection of wve-1 dsRNA produced nearly 100 % embryonic lethality in an unc-34 / ena mutant ( Figure 2A and our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024256 SentenceID s2 SENTENCE : A C . elegans N-WASP homolog can compensate for a lack of unc-34 / ena during embryogenesis : The unc-34 gene encodes the sole Enabled homolog in the C . elegans genome and is hereafter referred to as unc-34 / ena ( Figure 1 ; Yu et al . 2002 ; M . Dell , W . Forrester , F . Gertler , H . R . Horvitz and G . Garriga , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024256 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : Strikingly , feeding or injection of wve-1 dsRNA into either unc-34 / ena or wsp-1 produced nearly 100 % embryonic lethality ( Figure 2 and our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024256 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : Consistent with previous experiments ( Sawa et al . 2003 ) , we found RNAi of wsp-1 caused a moderate amount of embryonic lethality corresponding to 19 % ( N 324 ) as well as a reduced brood size ( our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024256 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : Given the known roles of WASP and Ena / VASP proteins in actin remodeling , we were surprised to find that the neuroblast cells that close the ventral cleft do not undergo any gross changes in morphology or actin reorganization during cleft closure ( our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024256 SentenceID s30 SENTENCE : Furthermore , the overall actin structure of all mutant combinations examined here were indistinguishable from wild type ( our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024256 SentenceID s49 SENTENCE : axon Neither wsp-1 RNAi-treated animals nor the wsp-1 mutant display defects in neuronal cell migration or axon outgrowth ( Figure 4 and our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024256 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : axon In addition , staining of unc-34 ( gm104 ) mutant embryos or probing of Western blots from mutant extracts produced no detectable signal . Finally , extensive comparison of the cell migration and axon outgrowth defects in unc-34 ( gm104 ) to a mutant that lacks the unc-34 genomic region has detected no discernible differences in the penetrance or expressivity between the two ( G . Garriga and M . Dell , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024256 SentenceID s58 SENTENCE : In some embryos cytokinesis failed at the first embryonic division while in others we observed the failure as late as 1624 cells ( Figure 4A and our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024256 SentenceID s64 SENTENCE : Because the cell cycle length of wsp-1 mutant embryos appeared indistinguishable from wild type during early cell divisions ( our unpublished observation ) , we believe that the delay in wsp-1 embryogenesis is likely due to defective morphogenesis .
PaperID WBPaper00024256 SentenceID s64 SENTENCE : cortical Interestingly , cortical actin morphology and abundance in the wsp-1 mutant embryos was indistinguishable from wild type ( our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024256 SentenceID s88 SENTENCE : Mutations in unc-34 / ena appear to enhance the frequency and severity of embryo-shape defects but not the cytokinesis defects of wsp-1 mutants ( our unpublished observation ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024365 SentenceID s108 SENTENCE : cilia Olfactory Signaling in C . elegans up fluorescent dyes ( Zwaal et al . 1997 ) , probably because of structural defects of the cilia ( J . Burghoorn and G . Jansen , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024365 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : Finally , AWA-specific expression of GPA-3 rescues AWA-mediated olfaction in a gpa-3 odr-3 background ( H . Lans and G . Jansen , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024407 SentenceID s60 SENTENCE : One possible target of the GLD-2 / GLD-3 poly ( A ) polymerase is gld-1 mRNA ; preliminary results indicate that the gld-1 poly ( A ) tail is shorter in gld-2 mutants than in wild type ( N . Suh and J . Kimble , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024551 SentenceID s51 SENTENCE : We previously identified a set of genes that promote germline proliferation by screening for genetic enhancers of a weak glp-1 loss-of-function mutation ( Qiao et al . 1995 ; Smardon et al . 2000 ; J . Spoerke and E . Maine , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024552 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : We thank Kouichi Iwasaki , Lorna Brundage , and Paul Sternberg for sharing of unpublished data and reagents .
PaperID WBPaper00024637 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : Finally , the e2639 deletion allele of sqt-3 , which was recovered in a mut-7 mutator background ( M . Skipper and J . Hodgkin , unpublished results ) , was assigned to sqt-3 on the basis of the results of complementation tests .
PaperID WBPaper00024638 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : X chromosome, chromosome Interestingly , whereas the pairing kinetics at the left end of the X chromosome are essentially identical for the him-3 ( me80 ) mutant and wild-type controls ( Couteau et al . 2004 ) , the right end of the X chromosome tends to achieve maximal pairing with slightly lagging kinetics in the him-3 ( me80 ) mutant ( K . Nabeshima , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024638 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : chromosomal Interestingly , we find that accumulation of the dimethyl-K9 modification of Histone H3 occurs first on chromosomal regions lacking SYP-1 in the him-3 ( me80 ) mutant ( K . Nabeshima , unpublished results ) , a result 1288 K . Nabeshima , A . M . Villeneuve and K . J . Hillers anticipated by the observations of Bean et al . ( 2004 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024639 SentenceID s77 SENTENCE : In support of the potential effectiveness of this approach , four mutations , defining three or four genes , that are synthetically lethal with sym-1 have been isolated ( R . K . Herman , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024640 SentenceID s66 SENTENCE : We thank all the workers listed in Table 1 for sharing both published and unpublished mutations and sequence information .
PaperID WBPaper00024662 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : In our unpublished abstracts describing these genes , hsf-1 was referred to as sag-3 , cyl-1 as sag-4 , and sup-45 as sag-5 .
PaperID WBPaper00024662 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : -M . Kim , R . A . Stirbl , J . Bruck and P . W . Sternberg ( unpublished results ) to extract 2024 individual still images from each worm ' s video recording .
PaperID WBPaper00024924 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : X chromosome, chromosome Given that these three mutants ( of seven obtained from a forward genetic screen covering 11 , 586 genomes that were screened in a way that could identify putative severe proliferation defective mutants ; Pepper et al . 2003a ; E . J . A . Hubbard , unpublished data ) uncovered autosomal copies of duplicated genes with the same kind of autosome / X chromosome distribution , we speculate that other genes essential for early germ-line proliferation may be encoded by the autosome duplicate of autosome / X-linked pairs of genes encoding proteins essential for cell proliferation .
PaperID WBPaper00024924 SentenceID s2 SENTENCE : To investigate zygotic requirements for the reestablishment and maintenance of early germ-line proliferation , we performed an EMS mutagenesis screen and looked for adult worms that , as judged by Nomarski optics , had a normal somatic gonad but displayed little or no germ line ( Pepper et al . 2003a ; E . J . A . Hubbard , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024924 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : A large-scale screen to pinpoint more precisely the defects that cause sterility in C . elegans ( e . . , proliferation defects vs . gametogenesis defects ) is underway ( E . J . A . Hubbard , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024924 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : Other genes required for germ-line proliferation have been identified using RNAi ( Hanazawa et al . 2001 ; Maeda et al . 2001 ; Colaiacovo et al . 2002 ) , and a largescale analysis of RNAi-mediated germ-line proliferation defects is in progress ( E . J . A . Hubbard , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024965 SentenceID s12 SENTENCE : mitochondria, mitochondrial Msh1 proin all three domains of life , suggesting ancient origins teins are involved in maintaining mitochondrial genome ( Eisen and Hanawalt 1999 ) . stability in S . cerevisiae ( Chi and Kolodner 1994 ) , but The mismatch repair ( MMR ) pathway corrects a wide msh1 orthologs have not been detected in any metazoan range of base-base mismatches ( some involving damgenomes surveyed thus far ( Eisen 1998 ; unpublished aged bases ) and small loop-outs in DNA molecules and genome database searches ) and it is often assumed that has been extensively studied in multiple systems using MMR is absent from mitochondria in metazoans .
PaperID WBPaper00024965 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : In Saccharomyces cerevisiae , tween S . cerevisiae and humans , msh3 orthologs are not detected in the genomes of C . elegans or Drosophila melanogaster ( Eisen 1998 ; unpublished genome database searches ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024965 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : Both sets of MMR-deficient MA lines displayed severe fitness declines by the end of the mutation-accumulation phase ( our unpublished data ) , consistent with a previous analysis of fitness declines in a separate set of msh-2 C . elegans MA lines ( Estes et al . 2004 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024985 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : Indeed , when we placed wild-type worms on plates containing various concentrations of membrane-permeable cAMP analogs , we were unable to induce hyperactive locomotion and , in fact , high concentrations resulted in sluggish locomotion or paralysis ( K . G . Miller , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024986 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : Although our experiments do not ad- ) is required for the hyperactive locomotion response induced by phorbol esters ( Tabuse et al . 1989 ; K . G . dress how these two G protein pathways are linked at the molecular level , recent studies provide evidence for Miller , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025044 SentenceID s63 SENTENCE : We thank B . Bowerman , C . Hunter , G . Ellis , and A . Wright for communicating unpublished results , J . Phillips for sharing reagents , and F . McNally and members of the Mains , McGhee , Brook , and Gaudet labs for helpful discussion .
PaperID WBPaper00025085 SentenceID s9 SENTENCE : In fact , data from a natural population of a different Caenorhabditis species show no correlation between these traits ( P . C . Phillips and B . C . Ajie , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025146 SentenceID s63 SENTENCE : We thank Y . Shibata , S . Takagi , M . Hino , and K . Matsumoto for strains ; Y . Shibata and S . Takagi for permission to use their unpublished data ; Nippon Avionics for thermal video system TVS-610 ; Y . Ohshima for help at the initial stage of this work ; N . Nishio for photographs of animal tracks ; H . Inada and other members of the Mori laboratory for stimulating discussion ; and O . Hobert , M . Okumura , A . Kuhara , and H . Inada for comments on the manuscript .
PaperID WBPaper00025147 SentenceID s21 SENTENCE : Indeed , when directed codepletion experiments were performed with mus-101 and a number of different DNA replication factors , we failed to detect any interactions ( A . Holway and C . Hung , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025147 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : nuclear The embryos depicted in IIV are representative of a larger ( 25 ) sample set that was analyzed for each condition . notype is the observation that RNAi by feeding depletion of the replication initiation factor ORC-2 causes an identical sterility / abnormal nuclear morphology defect ( A . Holway , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025147 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : We have observed this phenotype after RNAi against other DNA replication proteins , such as subunits of the origin recognition complex ( A . Holway , unpublished data ) , and thus we suspect that the phenotype is connected to a defect in the initiation of DNA replication .
PaperID WBPaper00025148 SentenceID s167 SENTENCE : We thank S . Mango and D . Updike for communicating unpublished results , I . Nuez and H . Gendrot for technical support , M . W . Davis for isolation of bli-1 ( ox283 ) , and K . Yook for isolation of unc-13 ( e2914 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025208 SentenceID s120 SENTENCE : chromatin -H . Lee , V . Reinke and T . Schedl , unpublished data ) , and EGO-1 activity also regulates chromatin structure ( see discussion ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025208 SentenceID s9 SENTENCE : chromatin EGO-1 functions in chromatin assembly ( E . Maine , J . Hauth , T . Ratliff and W . Kelly , unpublished data ) , and preliminary microarray analysis suggests that a large number of genes are misregulated in the ego-1 ( 0 ) mutant ( V . Vought , V . Reinke and E . Maine , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026594 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : On the basis of sequence alignment and phylogenetic trees , SR superfamily members fall into at least a dozen families ( H . Robertson , personal communication , and our unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026594 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : More limited analysis of other SR families strongly suggests that a similar frequency of defective genes will 1996 M . K . Stewart et al . characterize the SR superfamily as a whole ( H . Robertson , personal communication ; our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026594 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : For the srh family we carried out an annotation of all putative functional C . briggsae genes by a combination of tblastn searches and implementation of a novel motif-searching method described elsewhere ( J . H . Thomas , J . L . Kelley , H . Robertson , K . Ly and W . Swanson , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026688 SentenceID s103 SENTENCE : The n3355 allele contains an early nonsense mutation within the lin-56 coding sequence ( E . M . Davison , A . M . Saffer , L . S . Huang , J . DeModena , P . W . Sternberg and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished results ) . synMuv A and B Proteins LIN-8 and LIN-35 Rb Interact
PaperID WBPaper00026688 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : E-mail : horvitz @ mit . edu Genetics 171 : 10171031 ( November 2005 ) lin-36 , lin-37 , lin-52 , lin-53 , lin-54 , lin-61 , dpl-1 , efl-1 , hda- 1 , hpl-2 , let-418 , mep-1 , and tam-1 ; and four class C synMuv genes : trr-1 , mys-1 , epc-1 , and ssl-1 ( Horvitz and Sulston 1980 ; Ferguson and Horvitz 1985 , 1989 ; Lu and Horvitz 1998 ; Hsieh et al . 1999 ; Solari and Ahringer 2000 ; von Zelewsky et al . 2000 ; Ceol and Horvitz 2001 , 2004 ; Couteau et al . 2002 ; Unhavaithaya et al . 2002 ; Thomas et al . 2003 ; X . Lu , M . M . Harrison , P . W . Sternberg and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026688 SentenceID s30 SENTENCE : nuclear Class A synMuv genes may regulate transcription : The two previously cloned synMuv A genes--lin-15A and lin-56--encode novel nuclear proteins that share a novel C2CH motif also found in the synMuv B proteins LIN-15B and LIN-36 , as well as in HIM-17 , a protein required for meiotic recombination and histone H3 lysine-9 methylation in the germline ( Reddy and Villeneuve 2004 ; E . M . Davison , A . M . Saffer , L . S . Huang , J . DeModena , P . W . Sternberg and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026688 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : chromatin This C2CH motif is likely related to the THAP domain ( Roussigne et al . 2003 ; Clouaire et al . 2005 ) and has been proposed to mediate interaction with chromatin or chromatinassociated proteins ( Reddy and Villeneuve 2004 ; E . M . Davison , A . M . Saffer , L . S . Huang , J . DeModena , P . W . Sternberg and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026688 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : It has therefore been proposed that the synMuv A proteins inhibit vulval development through the regulation of transcription ( E . M . Davison , A . M . Saffer , L . S . Huang , J . DeModena , P . W . Sternberg and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026688 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : nuclear Of the four known class A synMuv genes , two--lin-56 and lin-15A--have been cloned and encode novel nuclear proteins that likely associate in a functional complex in vivo ( Clark et al . 1994 ; Huang et al . 1994 ; E . M . Davison , A . M . Saffer , L . S . Huang , J . DeModena , P . W . Sternberg and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026688 SentenceID s39 SENTENCE : Furthermore , LIN-56 and LIN-15A share a novel C2CH motif related to the THAP domain , shown in the human protein THAP1 to possess zinc-dependent sequence-specific DNA-binding activity in vitro ( Clouaire et al . 2005 ; E . M . Davison , A . M . Saffer , L . S . Huang , J . DeModena , P . W . Sternberg and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026688 SentenceID s42 SENTENCE : As RNAi analysis has thus far not revealed a role for any of these shared interactors in the class A or class B synMuv pathways or in antagonism of these pathways ( C . J . Ceol and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished results ) , the significance of this observation remains unclear .
PaperID WBPaper00026688 SentenceID s55 SENTENCE : Furthermore , lin-8 ( n2376 ) retains wild-type lin-8 function in another assay ( H . T . Schwartz and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026688 SentenceID s58 SENTENCE : processes 1028 E . M . Davison et al . Although current evidence suggests that lin-8 does not function with lin-35 Rb in the regulation of either cell cycle progression or transgene expression ( Hsieh et al . 1999 ; Boxem and van den Heuvel 2002 ; Garbe et al . 2004 ; E . C . Andersen and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished observations ) , the possibility remains that lin-8 and lin- 35 Rb act together in the developing pharynx or in processes not yet analyzed .
PaperID WBPaper00026688 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : LG X : lin-15B ( n744 , n2245 ) . pPK5363 is a Tc1-transposon insertion polymorphism on LG II found in the NL7000 but not in the N2 strain ( Korswagen et al . 1996 ) . nIs128 contains a GFP transgene integrated into LG II ( H . T . Schwartz and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026688 SentenceID s70 SENTENCE : 1022 E . M . Davison et al . lin-38 , for wild-type levels ( E . M . Davison , A . M . Saffer , L . S . Huang , J . DeModena , P . W . Sternberg and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026688 SentenceID s73 SENTENCE : Interactions within the class A synMuv pathway : LIN- 56 and LIN-15A are dependent on each other for wildtype protein levels and likely form a functional complex in vivo ( E . M . Davison , A . M . Saffer , L . S . Huang , J . DeModena , P . W . Sternberg and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026735 SentenceID s100 SENTENCE : Wild-type male worms are more severely affected than wild-type hermaphrodites by M . nematophilum ( M . J . Gravato-Nobre and J . Hodgkin , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026735 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : Different selection protocols and different mutagens will probably yield yet more classes of mutants ; indeed , experiments using Mos transposon mutagenesis ( Bessereau et al . 2001 ) have already defined further bus genes ( K . J . Yook and J . Hodgkin , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026735 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : These screens were carried out with the intention of finding mutants with enhanced susceptibility to M . nematophilum ( D . Whittington and J . Hodgkin , unpublished results ) , but the screens also yielded some apparently resistant mutants .
PaperID WBPaper00026735 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : This pathogen has been isolated on at least four independent occasions as a chance contaminant of laboratory cultures of nematodes , as a result of the striking morphological deformation that it induces in the tail of infected worms ( Hodgkin et al . 2000 , T . Akimkina , K . J . Yook , S . Curnock and J . Hodgkin , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026735 SentenceID s30 SENTENCE : Three other mutations ( e2706 , e2701 , e2725 ) gave initially misleading mapping results , for which reason they were at first assigned to distinct complementation groups ( bus-7 , bus-9 , bus-11 ) , but further characterization showed that e2701 was a bus-5 allele , and the other two were alleles of known genes [ sur-2 ( e2706 ) ( Nicholas and Hodgkin 2004 ) and egl-5 ( e2725 ) ( H . R . Nichols and J . Hodgkin , unpublished results ) ] .
PaperID WBPaper00026735 SentenceID s49 SENTENCE : We thank Creg Darby for communicating unpublished data and Freddie Partridge for comments on the manuscript .
PaperID WBPaper00026735 SentenceID s52 SENTENCE : However , this explanation can be excluded in the case of bus-1 , because subsequent molecular analysis of this gene has shown that the 10 retained mut-7 alleles all carry different insertion events of either Tc1 or Tc3 ( M . J . Gravato- Nobre and J . Hodgkin , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026735 SentenceID s71 SENTENCE : The gene bus-8 , defined by a single EMS allele , is demonstrably of this type , because a noncomplementation screen for further alleles yielded multiple additional mutations , some of which are lethal as homozygotes ( J . Hodgkin , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026789 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : chromosomes The following genetic markers , mutations , deficiencies , and balancer chromosomes were used : fem-3 ( q23gf ) IV ( Barton et al . 1987 ) , fem-1 ( hc17 ) IV ( Nelson et . al . 1978 ) , spe-10 ( hc104 ) V ( Shakes and Ward 1989 ) , sma-1 ( e30 ) V ( Brenner 1974 ) , him- 5 ( e1490 ) V , him-8 ( e1489 ) IV ( Hodgkin et al . 1979 ) , sDf35 V ( McKim et al . 1988 ) , mIs10 V ( K . Liu and A . Fire , unpublished ) , nT1 [ unc- ?
PaperID WBPaper00026789 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : ] IV ; 1 / nT1 V ( also known as DnT1 ; Ferguson and Horvitz 1985 ) and DnT1 [ qIs50 ] ( F . H . Markussen and J . Kimble , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026789 SentenceID s61 SENTENCE : spe-10 encodes a DHHCCRD zinc-finger protein : The ORF AC3 . 10 , which encodes a 351 aa protein , was predicted by Genefinder ( C . Wilson , L . Hilyer and P . Green , unpublished ; see WormBase , http : / / www . wormbase . org ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026789 SentenceID s67 SENTENCE : Lossof-function phenotypes are known for four of the genes that encode DHHCCRD proteins that match this consensus : ERF2 from yeast ( Bartels et al . 1999 ) , GODZ from mouse ( Figure 6C ; Keller et al . 2004 ) , SPE-10 ( this work ; Shakes and Ward 1989 ) , and SPE-21 ( W . C . Lindsey and S . W . L ' Hernault , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026799 SentenceID s101 SENTENCE : We note that the higher percentage of egg-laying-competent hermaphrodites observed for lin-12 ( n302 ) / unc-32 ( e189 ) grown on feeding vector ' ' bacteria as opposed to OP50 may be attributed to the RNAi conditions ( I . Katic , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026799 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : However , pilot experiments have suggested that there is a high rate of false positives when RNAi is used in a 0 AC-Egl suppressor screen ; so in this case , it is probably not a useful adjunct to the conventional suppressor screen ( I . Katic , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026799 SentenceID s49 SENTENCE : Although lin-12 ( d ) alleles are constitutively active in the absence of ligand ( Greenwald and Seydoux 1990 ) , they remain sensitive to ligand , as can be seen when their activity or expression is low ( Sundaram and Greenwald 1993b ; C . Wen and I . Greenwald , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026842 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026842 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026963 SentenceID s49 SENTENCE : In addition to the LIN-15B homology domain , four C . elegans LIN-15B paralogs contain one or more THAP motifs ( Reddy and Villeneuve 2004 ; Clouaire et al . 2005 ; this work ; M . Chesney , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026963 SentenceID s51 SENTENCE : We analyzed the sequences flanking lin-15B family genes and did not detect TIRs or target site duplications ( M . Chesney , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026963 SentenceID s52 SENTENCE : Notably , the C . elegans genome contains other genes that are putative hAT family members ; these have both TIRs and target site duplications and encode proteins with stronger similarity to hAT transposases ( Bigot et al . 1996 ; Rubin et al . 2001 ; M . Chesney , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027040 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : Expression of a fourth gcy gene , gcy-12 , was observed in the AFD thermosensory neurons ( H . Inada , H . Komatsu , M . Kosaki and I . Mori , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027172 SentenceID s65 SENTENCE : him-9 is the ortholog of the human XPF gene ( N . J . O ' Neil , unpublished data ) , which is implicated in homologous recombination in yeast and in gene targeting in mammalian cells , as well as in crosslink repair ( Klein 1988 ; Schiestl and Prakash 1988 , 1990 ; Sargent et al . 2000 ; Niedernhofer et al . 2001 , 2004 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027204 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : However , the upregulation of a number of antimicrobial factors appears critical for host survival ( R . C . May and M . C . W . van den Berg , unpublished results ) , and many of these factors appear to be constitutively upregulated in long-lived strains ( Murphy et al . 2003 ; McElwee et al . 2004 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027204 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : daf-2 animals are remarkably long lived and , in addition , highly resistant to a number of pathogens , including C . neoformans ( R . C . May , unpublished data ) and the bacteria Enterococcus faecalis , Staphylococcus aureus , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( Garsin et al . 2003 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027335 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : postsynaptic While the set of ray neurons of each type appears to consist of nine subtypes differing from each other with respect to neurotransmitters , receptors , and postsynaptic targets , the response to cues guiding growth cones to the PAG could be the same for all subtypes ( Troemel et al . 1995 ; Lints et al . 2004 ; M . Xu , D . H . Hall and S . W . Emmons , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027335 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : postsynaptic The A-type and B-type neurons in different rays are both specialized into subtypes with distinct molecular properties and postsynaptic targets ( Troemel et al . 1995 ; Lints et al . 2004 ; M . Xu , D . H . Hall and S . W . Emmons , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027335 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : synaptic After they arrive at the PAG they insinuate into the preexisting and probably evolving neuropil , sending out branches that eventually locate appropriate synaptic targets ( M . Xu , D . H . Hall and S . W . Emmons , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027335 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : Rays 8 and 9 enter the PAG following the lumbar commissures previously established by the non-sexspecific lumbar neurons ( White et al . 1986 ; Hall and Russell 1991 ; M . Xu , D . H . Hall and S . W . Emmons , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027335 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : postsynaptic, synapse Although the ray neurons are essentially of only two ultrastructural types ( Sulston et al . 1980 ) , ray neurons of a single type in different rays are molecularly differentiated and synapse onto different postsynaptic target cells ( Chow and Emmons 1994 ; Troemelet al . 1995 ; Zhang and Emmons 1995 ; Salser and Kenyon 1996 ; Ferreira et al . 1999 ; Lints and Emmons 1999 ; Portman and Emmons 2000 ; Lints et al . 2004 ; M . Xu , D . H . Hall and S . W . Emmons , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027335 SentenceID s55 SENTENCE : Indeed , we have found that a reporter gene for the Hox gene egl-5 fails to be expressed in the ray lineages in rax-2 ( bx131 ) , implicating a role of rax-2 in regulation of Hox gene expression ( H . Zhang and S . W . Emmons , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027335 SentenceID s56 SENTENCE : axons In an egl-5 loss-offunction mutation , ray axons fail to turn toward the ventral side similar to that seen in rax-2 ( bx131 ) , so this phenotype might be a consequence of loss of egl-5 expression ( L . Jia and S . W . Emmons , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027335 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : axons Electron microscopy reveals that axons of both A- and B-type neurons can be found within the same commissures ( M . Xu , D . A . Hall and S . W . Emmons , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027335 SentenceID s74 SENTENCE : axons, synaptic Upon entering the PAG , ray axons branch repeatedly in their apparent search for appropriate synaptic targets ( M . Xu , D . H . Hall and S . W . Emmons , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027335 SentenceID s87 SENTENCE : We thank T . Allen , O . Hobert , E . M . Jorgensen , and M . Barr for sharing reporters and unpublished data ; Sanger Center ( Cambridge , UK ) for cosmids ; Caenorhabditis Genetics Center ( funded by National Institutes of Health National Center for Research Resources ) for strains ; members of the Emmons laboratory for assistance and 1256 L . Jia and S . W . Emmons guidance ; D . H . Hall , R . Lints , and Z . Kaprielian for their comments on the manuscript .
PaperID WBPaper00027336 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : chromosomal In addition , we used strains containing 710 C . J . Ceol et al . the following chromosomal aberrations : mnDf57 II ( Sigurdson et al . 1984 ) , mnDf90 II ( Sigurdson et al . 1984 ) , mnDf29 II ( Sigurdson et al . 1984 ) , mnDf87 II ( Sigurdson et al . 1984 ) , mIn1 [ dpy-10 ( e128 ) mIs14 ] II ( Edgley and Riddle 2001 ) , mnC1 [ dpy-10 ( e128 ) unc-52 ( e444 ) ] II ( Herman 1978 ) , nDf40 III ( Hengartner et al . 1992 ) , qC1 [ dpy-19 ( e1259 ) glp-1 ( q339 ) ] III ( Austin and Kimble , 1989 ) , sDf63 IV ( Clark and Baillie 1992 ) , sDf62 IV ( Clark and Baillie 1992 ) , sDf10 IV ( Rogalski et al . 1982 ) , hT2 [ qIs48 ] ( I ; III ) ( L . Mathies and J . Kimble , personal communication ) , eT1 ( III ; V ) ( Rosenbluth and Baillie 1981 ) , nT1 ( IV ; V ) ( Ferguson and Horvitz 1985 ) , nT1 ( n754 ) ( IV ; V ) , and nT1 [ qIs51 ] ( IV ; V ) ( L . Mathies and J . Kimble , personal communication ) . n754 causes a dominant Unc phenotype , allowing nT1 ( n754 ) -containing larvae and adults to be scored ( E . L . Ferguson and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished results ) . mIs14 , an integrated transgene linked to the chromosomal inversion mIn1 ( Edgley and Riddle 2001 ) , and qIs48 and qIs51 , integrated transgenes linked to the reciprocal translocations hT2 ( I ; III ) and nT1 ( IV ; V ) , respectively ( L . Mathies and J . Kimble , personal communication ) , consist of GFP-expressing transgenes that allow mIs14 , qIs48 , or qIs51-containing animals to be scored beginning at the four-cell stage of embryogenesis .
PaperID WBPaper00027336 SentenceID s137 SENTENCE : Protein complexes purified from Drosophila extracts and analogous to a class B synMuv complex ( M . M . Harrison and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished observations ) have not been reported to contain LIN-65-like proteins ( Korenjak et al . 2004 ; Lewis et al . 2004 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027336 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : Five of these mutations affect the synMuv gene lin-61 and will be described elsewhere ( M . M . Harrison , X . Lu and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027336 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : 3 vulval fates ( n ) Ave . no . vulval fates ( 6SE ) 0 ( 34 ) 3 . 0 ( 60 ) 0 ( 36 ) 3 . 0 ( 60 ) 5 . 6 ( 36 ) 3 . 03 ( 60 . 02 ) 48 ( 29 ) 3 . 48 ( 60 . 11 ) 46 ( 35 ) 3 . 51 ( 60 . 11 ) 719 H . R . Horvitz , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027336 SentenceID s48 SENTENCE : Other class B synMuv proteins also are components of this complex ( M . M . Harrison and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished observations ) , and complexes purified from Drosophila extracts containing DP , E2F , and Rb homologs contain homologs of the synMuv proteins LIN-9 , LIN-37 , LIN- 52 , LIN-53 RbAp48 , LIN-54 , and LIN-61 ( Korenjak et al . 2004 ; Lewis et al . 2004 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027336 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : LGIV : lin-1 ( e1275 ) , unc-5 ( e53 ) , unc-24 ( e138 ) , mec-3 ( e1338 ) , lin- 3 ( n378 ) , sem-3 ( n1900 ) ( M . J . Stern and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished results ) , dpy-20 ( e1282 ) , unc-22 ( e66 ) , dpy-26 ( n198 ) , ark-1 ( sy247 ) ( Hopper et al . 2000 ) , unc-31 ( e169 ) , unc-30 ( e191 ) , lin-54 ( n2231 ) ( Thomas et al . 2003 ) , and dpy-4 ( e1166 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027336 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : LGX : egl-17 ( e1313 ) , sli-1 ( sy143 ) , aex-3 ( ad418 ) , unc-1 ( e1598 n1201 ) ( E . C . Park and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished results ) , dpy- 3 ( e27 ) , gap-1 ( ga133 ) ( Hajnal et al . 1997 ) , unc-2 ( e55 ) , lon- 2 ( e678 ) , unc-10 ( e102 ) , dpy-6 ( e14 ) , unc-9 ( e101 ) , unc-3 ( e151 ) , lin-15B ( n744 ) , lin-15A ( n767 ) , and lin-15AB ( n765 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027337 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : The C . elegans Dunce cAMP Phosphodiesterase 125 embryogenesis ( K . G . Miller , unpublished results ) , it seems likely that the pde-4 ' s null phenotype will be confined to the disruption of neurons .
PaperID WBPaper00027337 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : By immunostaining , using the anti-PDE-4 antibody described below , we found no difference in the levels of PDE-4 protein produced by wild type and the pde-4 ( ce268 ) mutant or in its localization pattern ( N . K . Charlie and K . G . Miller , unpublished results ) , which is consistent with the mutation affecting the protein ' s function rather than its production or localization .
PaperID WBPaper00027337 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : By immunostaining we found no difference in the levels of protein produced by wild type and the pde-4 ( ok1290 ) mutant or in its localization ( N . K . Charlie and K . G . Miller , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027337 SentenceID s72 SENTENCE : We verified that this splicing pattern does in fact occur by comparing pde-4 ( 1 ) and pde-4 ( ok1290 ) mRNA products in the region of the deletion using RTPCR followed by gel and sequence analysis ( N . K . Charlie and K . G . Miller , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027337 SentenceID s73 SENTENCE : However , we also found that the pde-4 ( ok1290 ) uses at least three other cryptic splice sites between the end of the deletion and the first unaffected exon that are not used by the pde-4 ( 1 ) locus ( N . K . Charlie and K . G . Miller , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027359 SentenceID s111 SENTENCE : Several different vectors are available that seem to partially limit germline silencing of injected C . elegans transgenes ; intriguingly the majority of these vectors are derived from genes with substantial periodicity scores ( let-858 , mex-3 , pie-1 , smu-2 , smu-1 , and ama-1 ) ( Kelly et al . 1997 ; Reese et al . 2000 ; Sparz et al . 2004 ; M . Montgomery , S . Xu , W . Kelly and A . Fire , unpublished data ; M . Dunn and G . Seydoux , personal communication ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027359 SentenceID s117 SENTENCE : Through the heroic efforts of the Genome BC C . elegans Gene Expression Consortium and their various collaborators , the C . elegans community is fortunate to have access to an extensive set of published and unpublished SAGE data ( McKay et al . 2003 ; Blacque et al . 2005 ; Chen et al . 2005b ; B . Goszczynski and J . McGhee , personal communication ; K . Wong , M . Marra , S . Jones , D . Baillie and D . Moerman , personal communication ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027359 SentenceID s2 SENTENCE : Unusual character of some C . elegans DNA fragments : This work started from an observation that certain DNA sequences from C . elegans exhibited unusual electrophoretic mobility on agarose gels at low temperature ( S . White-Harrison , J . Fleenor and A . Fire , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027360 SentenceID s149 SENTENCE : DAF-10 contains WD and WAA repeats : The fact that DAF-10 corresponds to IFT122 , a complex A IFT of Chlamydomonas , has been previously reported ( Qin et al . 2001 ) , in part on the basis of unpublished work of S . Stone and J . E . Shaw .
PaperID WBPaper00027360 SentenceID s176 SENTENCE : OSM-1 and DAF-10 are structurally similar : It has been previously reported ( Cole et al . 1998 ) , in part on the basis of unpublished work of S . Stone and J . E . Shaw , that the gene product of osm-1 , which is composed of 1737 amino acids , corresponds to IFT172 , a complex B IFT of Chlamydomonas .
PaperID WBPaper00027360 SentenceID s3 SENTENCE : Only five genes in the C . elegans genome appear to encode proteins containing WAA repeats ( J . E . Shaw , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027694 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : The C . elegans genome is peculiar among eukaryotes , however , as nth-1 is only one of two DNA glycosylases encoded : oxoguanine DNA glycosylases , formamidopyrimidine glycosylases , and methyladenine glycosylases are not detected in the C . elegans genome using a variety of BLASTsearching approaches ( Denver et al . 2003 ; our unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027695 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : By comparison , the outcrossing C . remanei appears to harbor many times higher levels of genetic variation ( Graustein et al . 2002 ; Jovelin et al . 2003 ; A . D . Cutter , unpublished data ) , as do other nematode and Drosophila species ( Table 6 ) ( Anderson et al . 1998 ; Andolfatto 2001 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027695 SentenceID s49 SENTENCE : Anderson et al . ( 1993 ) Graustein et al . ( 2002 ) Graustein et al . ( 2002 ) ; Jovelin et al . ( 2003 ) ; this study Graustein et al . ( 2002 ) 0 . 62 Graustein et al . ( 2002 ) ; Sivasundar and Hey ( 2003 ) ; Barriere and Felix ( 2005 ) ; Haber et al . ( 2005 ) ; Cutter ( 2006 ) Graustein et al . ( 2002 ) Graustein et al . ( 2002 ) ; Jovelin et al . ( 2003 ) ; Haag and Ackerman ( 2005 ) ; A . D . Cutter ( unpublished data ) Hu et al . ( 2002 ) 0 . 47 Picard et al . ( 2004 ) Beech et al . ( 1994 ) Blouin et al . ( 1995 ) Blouin et al . ( 1995 ) Nieberding et al . ( 2005 ) 0 . 58 Plantard and Porte ( 2004 ) Blouin et al . ( 1999 ) Jaenike ( 1996 ) Ye et al . ( 2004 ) Ye et al . ( 2004 ) Ye et al . ( 2004 ) Ye et al . ( 2004 ) Brant and Orti ( 2003 ) Blouin et al . ( 1995 ) Hugall et al . ( 1994 ) Hawdon et al . ( 2001 ) Keddie et al . ( 1999 ) Blouin et al . ( 1992 ) ; Blouin et al . ( 1995 ) Anderson et al . ( 1998 ) Blouin et al . ( 1995 ) Braisher et al . ( 2004 ) Leignel and Humbert ( 2001 ) Ye et al . ( 2004 ) Ye et al . ( 2004 ) Ye et al . ( 2004 ) 0 . 39 He et al . ( 2003 ) that interspecific hybrid compatibility differs for temperate ( HK104 ) and tropical ( AF16 ) strains of C . briggsae mated to C . remanei strain EM464 ( Baird 2002 ) and that these C . briggsae strains exhibit heritable differences in male ray pattern development ( Baird et al . 2005 ) suggest that a variety of biological attributes may be amenable to dissection with genetic analysis .
PaperID WBPaper00027695 SentenceID s65 SENTENCE : 5 , JU727 ; M . A . Felix , unpublished data ) , for which molecular data indicate a closer relationship with C . briggsae than with other members of this genus ( Braendle and Felix 2006 ; Kiontke and Sudhaus 2006 ) , will greatly facilitate comparative studies of development , breeding systems , speciation , and molecular evolution .
PaperID WBPaper00027723 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : The latter possibility is favored by the observations that UBL-5 interacts physically with a transcription factor whose encoding gene is required for signaling the UPRmt in worms ( C . M . Haynes , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028287 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : Mapping and characterization of these genes is in progress , and preliminary results suggest the existence of at least two pathways as defined by epistatic interactions ( L . Chang and K . C . Burtis , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028339 SentenceID s59 SENTENCE : dendrites In addition , visualization of the sensory neurons using various gfp fusion constructs showed that the dendrites of the sensory neurons of dyf-8 animals are truncated ( H . Lans , J . Burghoorn and G . Jansen , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028339 SentenceID s79 SENTENCE : However , preliminary data suggest that expression of the diacetyl receptor odr-10 is regulated by G proteins via different mechanisms ( H . Lans , G . Jansen , A . Kahn , and C . Bargmann , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028339 SentenceID s83 SENTENCE : We thank Amanda Kahn-Kirby and Cori Bargmann for communication of unpublished results , critical reading of the manuscript , and plasmids and strains ; the Caenorhabditis Genetics Center and the C . elegans Gene Knockout Consortium for strains ; and Andy Fire for plasmids .
PaperID WBPaper00028373 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : The hightemperature environment clearly imposes a fitness cost on C . elegans that it does not impose on C . briggsae , consistent with previous reports ( M . Ailion , unpublished data ) , although the temperature sensitivity itself appears to differ between strains of C . elegans .
PaperID WBPaper00028373 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : 25 ) are stressful ' ' for C . elegans in the sense that survivorship and fecundity are substantially reduced relative to cooler temperatures , whereas fitness in C . briggsae is not reduced until temperatures reach $ 2829 ( M . Ailion , unpublished data ; also see below ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028373 SentenceID s58 SENTENCE : 40 microsatellite loci revealed no ancestral heterozygotes in the HK104 controls ( N . Phillips , C . Baer and A . Custer , unpublished data ) , so the among-line component is unlikely to be a result of ( much ) residual genetic variation .
PaperID WBPaper00028373 SentenceID s90 SENTENCE : -A . Felix , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028373 SentenceID s93 SENTENCE : Interestingly , the standing molecular and quantitative variation in C . briggsae is greater than that in C . elegans ( Graustein et al . 2002 ; Jovelin et al . 2003 ; C . F . Baer and M . Salomon , unpublished data ) , consistent with a higher mutation rate in C . briggsae ( Kimura 1983 ; Lynch and Hill 1986 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028462 SentenceID s174 SENTENCE : Thus , the G-tracts adjacent to breakpoints of deletions that occurred in the mrt-2 background may have been fortuitous , although G-tracts greater than nine nucleotides in length are rare in the C . elegans genome ( Figures 1 and 4 ; S . Ahmed , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028499 SentenceID s17 SENTENCE : Consistent with this possibility , we have observed that RNAi knockdown of many genes , including several ribosomal proteins , causes a Dec phenotype ( J . M . Wheeler , unpublished results ) , suggesting that the defecation clock is affected by general metabolic stress .
PaperID WBPaper00028499 SentenceID s2 SENTENCE : Osr phenotype of osm-7 and osm-11 : osm-7 ( n1515 ) and osm-11 ( n1604 ) were originally identified in a screen for mutants with defective osmotic avoidance ( Osm ) ( J . Thomas , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028568 SentenceID s186 SENTENCE : Mutations in another gene , eri-1 , also cause an Eri phenotype and behave similarly in this assay , indicating that this is not a special property limited to the rrf-3 mutations ( T . Ratliff and W . Kelly , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028568 SentenceID s21 SENTENCE : In addition , defects in H4K8acetyl removal correlate with few obvious germline defects , indicating a nonessential role for the deacetylation mechanism ( P . Checchi and W . Kelly , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028568 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : chromatin All other mutants thatwe have identified as essential for Z2 / Z3 chromatin remodeling exhibit highly penetrant embryonic lethality , indicating that the mechanism of remodeling employs generally essential factors that may be specifically regulated by the NOS proteins in the embryonic germline ( P . Checchi , H . Furuhashi and W . Kelly , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028568 SentenceID s40 SENTENCE : It should be noted that when including a number of further studies , we have on rare occasion observed H3K4me2 in Z2 / Z3 in later-stage wild-type embryos , but the frequency was very low and was not deemed to be significant ( P . Checchi , H . Furuhashi and W . Kelly , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028568 SentenceID s43 SENTENCE : 1904 P . M . Checchi and W . G . Kelly may be functioning upstream of zif-1 ( P . Checchi and W . Kelly , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028568 SentenceID s60 SENTENCE : chromatin A role for EMB-4 in efficient transcription activation is consistent both with its subtle role in Notch signaling activity and with recent results from our lab that indicate a requirement for transcription in PGC chromatin remodeling ( H . Furuhashi , P . Checchi and W . Kelly , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028568 SentenceID s62 SENTENCE : In contrast , RNAi of a number of other essential factors , including essential splicing factors , has no impact on PGC remodeling ( H . Furuhashi , P . Checchi and W . Kelly , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028568 SentenceID s70 SENTENCE : The authors thank Iva Greenwald and Iskra Katic for sharing unpublished data , intellectual guidance during the course of this work , and for critical reading of the manuscript .
PaperID WBPaper00028569 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : The GLP-1 protein , a previously identified target of POS-1 repression , is ectopically expressed in the posterior blastomere of pos-1 ( ) mutant embryos ( Ogura et al . 2003 ; B . D . Page , unpublished observation ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028569 SentenceID s80 SENTENCE : Although their asymmetric patterns were not altered at the two-cell stage in pos-1 or mex-5 mutant embryos , the expression of MEX-5 or POS-1 is more likely to become symmetric with each subsequent germline division in the respective mutant embryo ( J . A . Schisa and B . D . Page , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028578 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : Recent work from the Kelly lab ( H . Furahashi , P . Checchi and W . Kelly , unpublished results ) shows that RNAi depletion of ama-1 , the gene coding for the large subunit of RNA polymerase II , phenocopies a histone modification defect associated with emb-4 ( 0 ) , suggesting a link between emb-4 and transcription .
PaperID WBPaper00028578 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : We gratefully acknowledge Paula Checchi and William Kelly for many fruitful discussions , comments on the manuscript , and sharing unpublished data .
PaperID WBPaper00028578 SentenceID s91 SENTENCE : The vector PIN2 ( D . Levitan and I . Greenwald , unpublished observations ) drives inserted sequences under the control of sel-12 regulatory sequences .
PaperID WBPaper00028738 SentenceID s57 SENTENCE : 6 ; our unpublished observations ) , but not for Mps1 .
PaperID WBPaper00028739 SentenceID s127 SENTENCE : They also contain the proteins synaptotagmin ( Nonet et al . 1993 ) , syntaxin ( Saifee et al . 1998 ) , and UNC-13 ( J . Moresco , A . M . Jose , and M . R . Koelle , unpublished observations ) that function in neurotransmitter release .
PaperID WBPaper00028739 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : However , we failed to obtain current with wild-type OCR-2 Mixed Heteromeric TRPV Channels 95 using several stimuli known to open other TRPV channels ( J . Chang , L . Heginbotham , A . M . Jose and M . R . Koelle , unpublished results ) , as had been seen previously by ( Tobin et al . 2002 ) , even upon coexpression of OSM-9 , a subunit that functions with OCR-2 in sensory neurons .
PaperID WBPaper00028877 SentenceID s122 SENTENCE : Nematode Infection Genetics 687 general , rather than a result of its resistance to M . nematophilum ( G . Preston and J . Hodgkin , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028877 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : Among the 15 novel bus genes identified , only 6 to date have been cloned ( M . Gravato-Nobre , D . O ' Rourke , F . Partridge and J . Hodgkin , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028877 SentenceID s88 SENTENCE : Jean- Louis Bessereau provided essential guidance with Mos1 mutagenesis , Creg Darby generously shared unpublished results on Yersinia , and Chris Ponting supplied useful thoughts on BUS-19 .
PaperID WBPaper00028924 SentenceID s164 SENTENCE : This construct , which was driven by the vha-8 promoter , is described as ABDTYFP in Figure 8 ( it was validated as an actin-binding protein using an embryonic epidermal promoter ; F . Landmann , C . Gally and M . Labouesse , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029005 SentenceID s163 SENTENCE : ced-9 ( n1653 ) ced-4 ( n2273 ) synthetic maternaleffect lethality can be suppressed by mutations that otherwise cause a very weak cell-death defect ( E . Speliotes and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished results ) , suggesting that cells that normally live are poised between life and death in these animals .
PaperID WBPaper00029005 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : The following mutations were used : LGI : lin-61 ( n3446 ) , dpy-5 ( e61 ) , lin-35 ( n745 ) , lin-35 ( n2239 , n2242 ) ( Lu and Horvitz 1998 ) , unc-13 ( e1091 ) , unc-29 ( e1072 ) , lin- 53 ( n833 ) ( Lu and Horvitz 1998 ) , unc-75 ( e950 ) , ced-1 ( e1735 , n3390 , n3402 ) ( Hedgecock et al . 1983 ) , hT2 [ qIs48 ] ( Mathies et al . 2003 ) , nIs128 ( H . Schwartz and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029006 SentenceID s63 SENTENCE : It is possible that mutations that result in defective apoptosis could rescue mdf-1 lethality and progress through mitosis normaly ; however , ced-3 and cep-1 mutants are not capable of rescuing the mdf-1 ( gk2 ) lethality in C . elegans ( our unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029086 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : The 72-hr hermaphrodites used in this study are probably an extreme case of what is the most efficient copulation partner for C . elegans males , since cross-fertilized hermaphrodites at that age are not as fertile as younger cross-fertilized hermaphrodites ( L . R . Garcia , unpublished observation ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029251 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : As reported elsewhere , RNAi directed against R06C7 . 7 caused a synMuv phenotype in animals mutant for the class A synMuv gene lin-15A but not in wild-type animals ( Poulin et al . 2005 ; our unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029251 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : Additional synMuv proteins have been identified , including LIN-8 , LIN- 15A , LIN-15B , LIN-36 , LIN-38 , LIN-56 , and TAM-1 ( Clark et al . 1994 ; Huang et al . 1994 ; Hsieh et al . 1999 ; Thomas and Horvitz 1999 ; Thomas et al . 2003 ; Davison et al . 2005 ; A . Saffer , E . Davison and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029251 SentenceID s52 SENTENCE : for the interactions shown are as follows : LIN-15ALIN-56 ( E . Davison and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished observations ) ; LIN-8LIN-35 ( Davison et al . 2005 ) ; DRM complex ( Harrison et al . 2006 ) ; NuRD-like complex ( Unhavaithaya et al . 2002 ; Harrison et al . 2006 ) ; HDA-1LIN-35 ( Lu and Horvitz 1998 ) ; LIN-13--HPL-2 ( Coustham et al . 2006 ) ; Tip60-like complex ( Ceol and Horvitz 2004 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029292 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : Other PUFA- deficient mutants , fat-2 and fat-3 , also show decreased survival at low temperatures ( Watts et al . 2003 and our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029303 SentenceID s146 SENTENCE : centrioles, poles, spindles As in the wild type , ZYG-1 staining indicated that all spindles in the double mutants contained centrioles at the poles ( Figure 4B and our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029303 SentenceID s193 SENTENCE : Live-imaging analysis revealed that this defect arises from cytokinesis failure ( our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029303 SentenceID s196 SENTENCE : centriole Interestingly , in both szy-5 ( bs7 ) and szy-20 ( bs52 ) animals , centriole proteins , such as SPD-2 ( Figure 5F ) and ZYG-1 ( our unpublished observations ) , also appear in aggregate form .
PaperID WBPaper00029303 SentenceID s217 SENTENCE : Similarly , we found that the underlying cause of this phenotype is an S-phase delay ( our unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029303 SentenceID s220 SENTENCE : centrosome This detached centrosome ' ' defect was observed in 54 % ( n 28 ) of sun-1 ( bs12 ) embryos ( Figure 5K ) , in 64 % ( n 11 ) of szy- 8 ( bs15 ) embryos ( Figure 5L ) , and in 23 % ( n 22 ) of szy-5 ( bs7 ) embryos ( our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029303 SentenceID s303 SENTENCE : centrosomes, nucleus In most of the zyg-12 ( RNAi ) zyg-1 ( it25 ) embryos examined ( n 18 ) we observed a dramatic loss of association between the centrosomes and the nucleus , indicating that we had significantly inhibited zyg-12 activity ( our unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029303 SentenceID s317 SENTENCE : For instance , collagen mutations have been found to suppress temperature-sensitive glp-1 mutations in C . elegans ( Maine and Kimble 1989 ) , and indeed in the course of our work we found that some collagen mutations also provide modest suppression of zyg-1 ( our unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029303 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : None of the isolated lines , however , contained a reversion of the zyg-1 ( it25 ) mutation ; when challenged to grow at 25 all of the lines exhibited significant levels of embryonic lethality ( our unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029303 SentenceID s96 SENTENCE : The zyg-1 ( or409 ) allele confers a temperature-sensitive phenotype similar in severity to that of the zyg-1 ( it25 ) allele ( our unpublished data ) , yet , at the molecular level , zyg-1 ( or409 ) is distinct from zyg-1 ( it25 ) , resulting in a ZYG -1 protein with an amino acid substitution that differs from zyg-1 ( it25 ) ( Figure 3 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029341 SentenceID s114 SENTENCE : Consistent with this , we were not able to detect any neuromodulatory activity of Acp62F in several independent electrophysiological and behavioral assays ( O . Lung , unpublished results ) . hibitor ( ICE1_ASCU ; Huang et al . 1994 ) and trypsin inhibitor ( ITR1_ASCU ; Grasberger et al . 1994 ) have been solved by X-ray crystallography and NMR , respectively .
PaperID WBPaper00029341 SentenceID s70 SENTENCE : The curves are significantly different ( P 0 . 0001 ) based on a log-rank test . ner 1995 ) , Acp32CD ( Y . Heifetz and M . F . Wolfner , unpublished results ) , and GFP after either single or multiple heat shocks ( Yeh et al . 1995 ; Edwards et al . 1997 ) in adults is not toxic , suggesting that Acp62F ' s toxicity to adults is specific .
PaperID WBPaper00029341 SentenceID s76 SENTENCE : Western blotting with anti- Acp62F antibody shows that Acp62F is also present in the other sperm storage organs , the spermathecae ( M . Bloch Qazi , S . Cleland and M . F . Wolfner , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029396 SentenceID s107 SENTENCE : We thank Joe Culotti for communicating unpublished observations , Yuji Kohara for cDNA clones , Andrew Fire for GFP expression vectors , Ian Chin-Sang for the EFN-4 expression construct , Mizuno ( Tohoku University ) for pCEP-SYFcAP , Yoichi Oda for encouragement , and past and present members of our laboratories for discussion and advice throughout this work .
PaperID WBPaper00029396 SentenceID s17 SENTENCE : For the partial translational fusion construct , a PCR fragment corresponding to the plx-2 genomic DNA , 20 , 5176426 nt of K04B12 , was cloned into BamHISalI- digested pFXneEGFP ( S . Mitani , unpublished results ) , resulting in the translational fusion of the N-terminal half of PLX-2 ( residues 1888 ) with enhanced GFP ( EGFP ) ( Living Colors Fluorescent Proteins , CLONTECH ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029396 SentenceID s39 SENTENCE : It is unlikely that the only other C . elegans plexin , PLX-1 , functions in MAB-20 signaling , as PLX-1 does not interact with MAB-20 physically or genetically ( Fujii et al . 2002 ) , and plx-1 plx-2 double mutants do not exhibit ray fusion defects ( S . Takagi , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029396 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : Using mammalian cell culture , we have been unable to detect binding between MAB-20 and EFN-4 ; we also do not detect any effect of the coexpression of EFN-4 on the ability of PLX-2 to bind MAB-20 ( S . Takagi , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030822 SentenceID s30 SENTENCE : Axonal, axonal, synapses, synaptic, synaptic vesicle, vesicle Axonal transport of CHO-1 to synapses is dependent on UNC-104 ( Matthies et al . 2006 and our unpublished results ) , a kinesin-like motor protein required for axonal transport of synaptic vesicle proteins ( Hall and Hedgecock 1991 ; Otsuka et al . 1991 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030822 SentenceID s82 SENTENCE : Although the C . elegans oct-1 gene does not appear to be a significant contributor to this lowaffinity transport activity ( our unpublished results ) , further studies on other members of the OCT family could clarify their potential roles in choline uptake .
PaperID WBPaper00030823 SentenceID s203 SENTENCE : Two different transgenic arrays , omEx35 and omEx36 , were crossed into the ego-2 ( tm2272 / 1 ) background , and ego-2 ( tm2272 ) ; omEx35 and ego-2 ( tm2272 ) ; omEx36 adult hermaphrodites were recovered ( Y . Liu and E . Maine , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030823 SentenceID s30 SENTENCE : To identify factors that regulate Notch-type signaling in the gonad , our laboratory previously recovered ego ( enhancer of glp-1 ) mutations that enhanced the germline phenotype of a weak glp-1 loss-of-function mutation ( Qiao et al . 1995 ; J . Spoerke , P . Shu and E . Maine , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030882 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : All isolates of C . elegans grow at temperatures from $ 10 to 27 ( M . Ailion and J . H . Thomas , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030912 SentenceID s52 SENTENCE : Both these mutants are slow growing at 30 and cold sensitive and sensitive to neomycin , but only one of the two was sensitive to osmotic stress or oxidative stress ( our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030929 SentenceID s92 SENTENCE : We thank Dan Williams , Wayne Davis , Marc Hammarlund , and Erik Jorgensen for sharing unpublished information ; Jeb Gaudet and numerous rotation students for help with the genetics ; and Michel Labouesse and the National Bioresource Project for reagents .
PaperID WBPaper00030930 SentenceID s112 SENTENCE : However , we detected no suppression by the dosage compensation mutants dpy-28 ( y1 ) or dpy-21 ( e428 ) ( B . L . Nelms and W . Hanna-Rose , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030930 SentenceID s59 SENTENCE : chromosome pop-1 ( q624 ) mutants are 61 % ( n 319 ) L1 lethal and pop-1 ( q624 ) ; him-8 ( e1489 ) double mutants are 62 % ( n 719 ) L1 lethal . Mutation of him-8 suppresses non-null mutations in an Sp1-related zinc-finger protein and a Hox domain transcription factor : SPTF-3 , which is encoded on chromosome I , is a transcription factor with three C2H2 zinc fingers related to Sp1 ( S . F . Sleiman and H . M . Chamberlin , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030931 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : The X : A signal includes two other partially characterized components , the XSE sex-2 ( J . Powell , C . Y . Loh and B . Meyer , unpublished results ) and the ASE sea-2 ( P . Nix and B . Meyer , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030931 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : chromosome, condensin The DCC includes two other SDC proteins and at least seven other dosage compensation proteins , five of which resemble the components of condensin , a conserved protein complex required for mitotic and meiotic chromosome compaction , resolution , and segregation ( Villeneuve and Meyer 1987 , 1990 ; Nusbaum and Meyer 1989 ; Nonet and Meyer 1991 ; Delong et al . 1993 ; Chuang et al . 1994 ; Hsu and Meyer 1994 ; Lieb et al . 1996 , 1998 ; Davis and Meyer 1997 ; Kimura and Hirano 1997 ; Dawes et al . 1999 ; Hirano 1999 ; Chu et al . 2002 ; Yonker and Meyer 2003 ; M . Albrecht , C . Hassig , C . Tsai and B . Meyer , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030931 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : LG X : dpy-3 ( e27 ) , unc-2 ( e55 ) , ceh-39 ( y414 ) , ceh-39 ( gk296 ) ( Vancouver group of the C . elegans Gene Knockout Consortium ) , fox-1 ( y303 ) ( Nicoll et al . 1997 ) , sex-2 ( y324 ) ( J . Powell and B . Meyer , unpublished results ) , lon-2 ( e678 ) , xol-1 ( y9 ) ( Miller et al . 1988 ) , dpy-6 ( e14 ) , sex-1 ( y263 ) ( Carmi et al . 1998 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030931 SentenceID s80 SENTENCE : Loss of the two known ASEs ( sea-1 and sea-2 ) reduces xol-1 transcript levels , suggesting that a significant component of the autosomal signal activates xol-1 through transcriptional mechanisms ( Powell et al . 2005 ; P . Nix and B . J . Meyer , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030973 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : ASEL and ASER are the main taste receptor neurons of C . elegans and sense multiple chemosensory cues in a left / right asymmetric manner ( Bargmann and Horvitz 1991 ; Pierce- Shimomura et al . 2001 ) ( our unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030973 SentenceID s224 SENTENCE : Further analysis of the 39-UTR revealed that a region apart from this second site , also contained within the ot123 deletion , appears to be required for downregulation of the 39-UTR ( D . Didiano and O . Hobert , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030983 SentenceID s121 SENTENCE : These are R05D11 . 1 , which is Daf-8 ( D . Riddle , unpublished data ) , and F01G10 . 8 , which is Daf-14 ( J . Thomas , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030983 SentenceID s166 SENTENCE : The accession numbers are as follows : Smad1 , PIR S68987 ; Smad2 , GenBank U59911 ; Smad3 , GenBank U76622 ; Smad4 , GenBank U44378 ; Smad5 , GenBank U73825 ; Smad6 , GenBank AF043640 ; Smad7 , GenBank AF015261 ; Smad8 , Gen- Bank AF012347 ; Mad , SWISS-PROT P42003 ; Med , GenBank AF027729 ; Dad , DDBJ AB004232 ; DSmad2 , GenBank AF101386 ; Sma-2 , SWISS-PROT Q02330 ; Sma-3 , SWISS-PROT P45896 ; Sma-4 , SWISS-PROT P45897 ; Daf-3 , GenBank AF005205 ; R05D11 . 1 ( Daf-8 ; D . Riddle , unpublished data ) , EMBL Z75546 ; F01G10 . 8 ( Daf-14 ; J . Thomas , unpublished data ) , EMBL Z81055 ; F37D6 . a , our GenScan / GeneFinder prediction from genomic sequence .
PaperID WBPaper00030983 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : ALK1 has recently been shown to be a TGF- receptor ( P . ten Dijke , unpublished data ) and ALK2 is an activin receptor ( ten Dijke et al . 1994b ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030983 SentenceID s73 SENTENCE : The accession numbers are as follows : ALK1 , SWISS-PROT P37023 ; ALK2 , SWISS-PROT Q04771 ; ALK3 , SWISS-PROT P36894 ; ALK4 , SWISS-PROT P36896 ; ALK5 , SWISS-PROT P36897 ; ALK6 , GenBank U89326 ; DmATR-1a , GenBank U04692 ; DmATR-1b , M . O ' Connor , unpublished data ; Sax , PIR I45712 ; Tkv , GenBank L33475 ; Daf-1 , SWISS-PROT P20792 ; C32D5 . 2 ( Sma-6 ; Krishna et al . 1999 ) , SWISS-PROT Q09488 . receptors .
PaperID WBPaper00030983 SentenceID s87 SENTENCE : The accession numbers are as follows : ACTR- IIA , SWISS-PROT P27037 ; ACTR-IIB , SWISS-PROT Q13705 ; BMPR-II , GenBank U78048 ; MIST-II , PIR JC4335 ; TBR-II , SWISS-PROT P37173 ; Punt , GenBank L38495 ; Daf-4 , GenBank L23110 ; Wit ( M . O ' Connor , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031119 SentenceID s53 SENTENCE : The material forming birefringent crystals is unlikely to be cholesterol or a cholesterol derivative , as C . elegans contains extremely low levels of sterols ( Entchev and Kurzchalia 2005 ) and none of the Glo mutants are sensitive to low cholesterol growth conditions ( E . Currie and G . J . Hermann , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031119 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : granule From an analysis of embryos containing mutations or RNAi against 49 of 61 predicted ABC transporter genes in C . elegans ( this work ; Schroeder et al . 2007 ; and L . K . Schroeder , A . L . Lawrenson and G . J . Hermann , unpublished data ) , we think it likely that within the C . elegans ABC superfamily , mrp-4 and wht-2 have unique functions in gut granule differentiation .
PaperID WBPaper00031120 SentenceID s44 SENTENCE : We are grateful to Dave Markwardt and Phil Anderson for communications and sharing unpublished data regarding smg-1 regulation , as well as Grzegorz Sabat at the University of Wisconsin Molecular Interaction Facility for analysis of the pull-down assay .
PaperID WBPaper00031120 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : Fluorescent imaging was done using either a multiphoton microscope as described previously ( Wokosin et al . 2003 ; M . Z . Nazir , K . W . Eliceiri , A . Ahmed , E . Hathaway , A . Hashmi , V . Agarwal , Y . Rao , S . Kumar , T . Lukas , K . M . Riching , C . T . Rueden , Y . Wang and J . G . White , unpublished results ) or a spinningdisk confocal ( QLC100 ; Visitech International ) and collected with Open Lab 4 . 0 .
PaperID WBPaper00031121 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : nuclear SEX-1 ( a nuclear hormone receptor ) , CEH- 39 ( a ONECUT homeodomain protein ) , SEX-2 , and the region 1 XSE act synergistically to control xol-1 at the transcript level ( Akerib and Meyer 1994 ; Nicoll et al . 1997 ; Carmi et al . 1998 ; Gladden and Meyer 2007 , accompanying article ; J . Powell , C . Y . Loh and B . Meyer , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031121 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : SEA-1 ( a T-box transcription factor ) and SEA-2 oppose XSEs by activating xol-1 transcription ( Powell et al . 2005 ; P . Nix and B . Meyer , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031121 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : LG X : dpy-3 ( e27 ) , unc-2 ( e55 ) , ceh-39 ( y414 ) , ceh-39 ( gk296 ) ( Vancouver group of the C . elegans Gene Knockout Consortium ) , fox-1 ( y303 ) ( Nicoll et al . 1997 ) , sex-2 ( y324 ) ( J . Powell and B . Meyer , unpublished results ) , lon-2 ( e678 ) , xol-1 ( y9 ) ( Miller et al . 1988 ) , dpy-6 ( e14 ) , sex-1 ( y263 ) ( Carmi et al . 1998 ) , unc-3 ( e151 ) , meDf5 X ( Villeneuve 1994 ) , and yDf17 and yDf20 ( Akerib and Meyer 1994 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031318 SentenceID s54 SENTENCE : -H . Lee and T . Schedl , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031318 SentenceID s58 SENTENCE : However , in recent work in identifying phosphorylation substrates of MPK-1 , we have separated the functions by discovering substrates that display only one or the other mutant phenotype , thus indicating that MPK-1 has at least two pachytene functions : one controlling pachytene progression and the other controlling pachytene cellular organization ( S . Arur , M . Ohmachi , S . Nayak and T . Schedl , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031318 SentenceID s71 SENTENCE : cytoplasmic These include germ cell apoptosis ( Gumienny et al . 1999 ; Kritikou et al . 2006 ; S . Arur , C . Schertel , B . Conradt and T . Schedl , unpublished observations ) , cytoplasmic streaming , and changes in transcription and translation that are important for later aspects of oogenesis in the proximal germline ( Lee and Schedl 2001 ; Kelly et al . 2002 ; Leacock and Reinke 2006 ; Wolke et al . 2007 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031319 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : In contrast , mutations in isp-1 and daf-2 are nonadditive ( Feng et al . 2001 ) , suggesting that mutations in these genes affect life span by a mechanism that is similar , although loss-of-function mutations in daf-16 , which abolish the increased life span of daf-2 mutants , do not abolish the increased life span of isp-1 ( Feng et al . 2001 ) or isp-1 daf-2 mutants ( J . Feng and S . Hekimi , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031319 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : We thank Jinliu Feng for unpublished results and Robyn Branicky for helpful comments on the manuscript .
PaperID WBPaper00031437 SentenceID s63 SENTENCE : centromere As yet there is no evidence for a SUMO-1 modification of TOP-2 acting in centromere resolution in C . elegans ( L . Moore , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031437 SentenceID s67 SENTENCE : centromere RNAi of TOP-2 inhibited centromere resolution , as did the use of topoisomerase II inhibitor drugs ( L . Moore , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031484 SentenceID s123 SENTENCE : However , we have observed similar temperature-sensitive RNAi defects from unc-22 food in rsd-2 and rsd-6 mutants ( W . Han , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031484 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : Additionally , even though ABCRNAi transporter mutants display temperature-sensitive defects in transposon silencing , they do not interact genetically with other mutants that display temperature-sensitive transposon silencing defects ( rsd-6 ) ( Han et al . , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031484 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : Similarly , while mut-7 / rde-2 mutants have increased rates of nondisjunction , ABCRNAi transporter mutants did not interact with other mutants that display dsRNA-inducible nondisjunction phenotypes ( rsd-2 ) ( Han et al . , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031484 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : On the other hand , Him and Mutator phenotypes can be induced in rsd-2 and rsd-6 mutants ( Han et al . , unpublished results ) , which is consistent with the possibility that RSD-2 and RSD-6 proteins are limiting .
PaperID WBPaper00031484 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : On a related note , we recently reported temperature-sensitive defects in transposon silencing in rsd-6 mutants , and rsd-6 also displays temperature-sensitive RNAi defects when reared on unc-22 food ( W . Han , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031485 SentenceID s12 SENTENCE : For example , when XX animals are rendered truly female by the germline feminizing mutation nm38 , such that no self sperm are present , XX Cb-tra-1 ( nm2 ) males sire Cb-tra-1 ( nm2 ) / 1 progeny ( A . V . Doty , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031485 SentenceID s167 SENTENCE : soma A detailed analysis of germline development in Cb-tra-1 ; Cb-fem-2 / 3 XX double mutants will be presented elsewhere ( R . C . Hill , unpublished data ) , but they have the strongly masculinized soma predicted from C . elegans research ( Hodgkin 1986 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031485 SentenceID s60 SENTENCE : In addition , similar suppressors of Cb-tra-3 ( ed24ts ) have also been identified ( C . E . de Carvalo and D . Pilgrim , unpublished data ) , at least some of which fail to suppress Cb-tra-2 .
PaperID WBPaper00031485 SentenceID s62 SENTENCE : For example , we and others are currently identifying loci that feminize the C . briggsae hermaphrodite germline ( A . V . Doty and E . S . Haag , unpublished results ; R . Ellis , personal communication ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031485 SentenceID s65 SENTENCE : We thank Bhagwati Gupta and Paul Sternberg for sharing valuable unpublished marker mutants , Zigrida Smith and Edward Large for the deletion mutant library , Brittany Trogen for sequencing assistance , and Steve Mount and various members of the Haag and Pilgrim labs for fruitful discussions .
PaperID WBPaper00031487 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : E-mail : christian . rocheleau @ mcgill . ca Genetics 178 : 14311443 ( March 2008 ) 00031487 be the relevant signaling ligand , as lin-3 mutants lack an excretory duct cell , and lin-3 is expressed in nearby embryonic cells at the relevant time ( M . Sundaram , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031487 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : Furthermore , when we tested our ekl RNAi clones against a panel of other Ras pathway mutants ( materials and methods ) , including hypomorphic alleles of lin-45 raf and mek-2 , we found that only 2 RNAi clones caused rod-like lethality in those backgrounds as would be expected if Ras signaling or the excretory duct fate were perturbed directly ( data not shown ) ; these corresponded to the known Ras pathway scaffold cnk-1 ( Rocheleau et al . 2005 ) and the GTPase rab-7 ( L . Chotard and C . E . Rocheleau , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031487 SentenceID s53 SENTENCE : chromosome In addition to sharing the Ekl and RNAi-defective phenotypes , these four genes all share a similar chromosome segregationdefective and embryonic-lethal phenotype ( Duchaine et al . 2006 ; Yigit et al . 2006 ; K . M . Pang and C . C . Mello , personal communication and our unpublished observa- C . elegans ekl Genes 1435 tions ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031488 SentenceID s67 SENTENCE : In hbl-1 mutants , ectopic rays are generated by anterior seam cells in males and rays are also formed in hermaphrodites ( Q . C . Cai and H . Zhang , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031858 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : LGIV : lin-24 ( n432 , n1057 ) , lin-24 ( n1821 , n2050 ) ( S . G . Clark and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished results ) , lin-24 ( n2258 , n2333 , n4294D , n432 n1503 ) ( this study ) , lin-33 ( n1043 , n1044 ) , lin-33 ( n1110 ) ( M . K . Edwards and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished results ) , lin-33 ( n1302 ) ( J . H . Thomas and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished results ) , lin-24 ( n1968 , n2003 , n4514D , n1043 n1502 ) ( this study ) , ced-3 ( n717 ) , ced-2 ( e1752 ) , ced-5 ( n1812 ) , ced-10 ( n1993 ) , dpy-4 ( e1166 ) , dpy-26 ( n199 ) , unc-22 ( s7 ) , unc-30 ( e191 ) , unc-31 ( e169 ) , unc-44 ( e362 ) , and lntl-1 ( n4763D ) ( this study ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031858 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : chromosomal In addition , we used strains containing the following chromosomal aberrations : sDf21 ( Clark and Baillie 1992 ) , nDf41 ( S . Kim and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished results ) , and yDp1 ( Delong et al . 1987 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031911 SentenceID s54 SENTENCE : The completely sequenced C . elegans genome encodes predicted proteins with similarity to zinc transporters , including 14 ZIP proteins and 13 CDF proteins ( Gaither and Eide 2001 ; K . Ananth and K . Kornfeld , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032089 SentenceID s101 SENTENCE : The mutation hda-1 ( e1795 ) causes a recessive Muv phenotype ( Dufourcq et al . 2002 ) , and the Muv phenotype is enhanced by both class A and class B synMuv mutations ( E . C . Andersen and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032089 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : Complex Class A gene lin-8 n2731 Q113ochre Yes lin-15A n767 Deletion Yes lin-15A n433 A250Va No lin-38 n751 R517Cb Noc lin-56 n2728 Deletion Yes Class B gene ark-1 sy247 Q528ochre No dpl-1 n3316 Deletion Yesd DP / E2F / Rb , DRM efl-1 RNAie NA No DP / E2F / Rb , DRM hda-1 e1795 G182E Noc NuRD let-418 n3536 P675L Noc NuRD lin-9 n112 G341E Noc DRM lin-15B n744 W485opal Yes lin-35 n745 W151opal Yes DP / E2F / Rb , DRM lin-36 n766 Y796ochre No lin-37 n4903 Deletion Yes DRM lin-52 n771 E36K Noc DRM lin-53 n833 L292F Noc DRM , NuRD lin-61 n3809 Q159ochre Yes lin-61 n3447 S354N No met-1 n4337 Deletion Yes met-2 n4256 Deletion Yes mys-1 n3681 G341R Noc NuA4 trr-1 n3712 W2593amber Yesd NuA4 a E . Davison and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished results . b A . M . Saffer , E . Davison and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished results . c This mutation is nonnull .
PaperID WBPaper00032089 SentenceID s25 SENTENCE : We used a partial loss-of-function allele of lin-38 , because a null mutation caused larval lethality , which precluded scoring of the vulval phenotype ( A . M . Saffer and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032089 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : This observation is consistent with recent molecular data that indicate LIN-56 and LIN-15A are each required for the stability of the other in vivo and bind each other in vitro , supporting the hypothesis that LIN-15A and LIN-56 function in a protein complex ( E . M . Davison and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032090 SentenceID s53 SENTENCE : This is in agreement with what has been seen in studies of embryonic development ( M . C . Soto , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032128 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : lim-7-promoter driven FLP-out construct ( pGC240 ) : pGC238 was used as a destination vector in an LR reaction to introduce the lim-7 promoter from the pGC235 entry clone . pGC235 was created by PCR amplification of the first intron of lim-7 ( sequences that drive expression in the gonadal sheath ; R . Voutev , R . Keating , E . J . Hubbard and L . G . Vallier , unpublished results ) with Gateway primers GGGGACAAG TTTGTACAAAAAAGCAGGCTacttgtgccttgattctc and GGGGA CCACTTTGTACAAGAAAGCTGGGTcggtggttggtgctgacg and inserted in pDONR221 by BP reaction .
PaperID WBPaper00032168 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : Unfortunately , glo-3 is not deleted by nDf19 ( our unpublished observations ) , the only reported deletion spanning the glo-3 genomic region , preventing an analysis of glo-3 ( ) phenotypic changes when individual alleles are placed over a deficiency .
PaperID WBPaper00032168 SentenceID s57 SENTENCE : C . elegans lacks obvious homologs of mannose-6-phosphate ( Drickamer and Dodd 1999 ) and sortilin receptors ( our unpublished results ) , the two best-characterized receptors for lysosomal cargo ( Ghosh et al . 2003 ; Ni et al . 2006 ) , indicating that the mechanisms in C . elegans selecting soluble lysosomal contents utilizes unidentified and possibly novel proteins .
PaperID WBPaper00032170 SentenceID s131 SENTENCE : Further , recent analysis of chr IV suggests that $ 10 % of all recombinants had DCOs ( J . Henzel and K . Hillers , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032170 SentenceID s146 SENTENCE : During the first 24 hr of egg laying ( days 0 / 1 ) at 20 , $ 2 % of eggs are laid ; during days 6 / 7 , , 1 % of eggs are laid ( J . Lim and J . Yanowitz , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032171 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : chromosome The subtelomeric sequence abutting the right end of chromosome IV ( IVR ) has a tract of DNA composed of 49 copies of a 25-bp direct repeat ( Wicky et al . 1996 ) , which makes it difficult to PCR through ( M . Lowden , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032183 SentenceID s78 SENTENCE : We thank Kathleen Mach and Stuart Kim for sharing unpublished data on C . elegans PDZ proteins and Lisa Timmons , Ann Rougvie , and David Greenstein for constructive comments on the manuscript .
PaperID WBPaper00032242 SentenceID s70 SENTENCE : The expression of different subsets of CR genes has been shown to be regulated by population density , food availability , developmental stage of the animal , and neuronal activity ( Peckol et al . 2001 ; Nolan et al . 2002 ; A . van der Linden and P . Sengupta , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032345 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : For example , a-methyl-5-HT , a potent agonist of mammalian 5-HT2 receptors is also a potent agonist of SER-7 , while ketanserin , a 5-HT2 antagonist , binds with very low affinity to invertebrate 5-HT2-like receptors ( Hamdan et al . 1999 ; R . J . Hobson and R . Komuniecki , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032345 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : We consider this to be a remote possibility , given ( 1 ) the close alignment of the new SER-5 predicted amino acid sequence with other 5-HT receptors ; ( 2 ) the utility of the tree in predicting the G-protein coupling of all previously characterized 5-HT receptors ; and ( 3 ) the identification of a second 5-HT-stimulated behavior that is also dependent on SER-5 , i . . , 5-HT-dependent increases in aversive responses to dilute octanol ( Figures 2 and 3 ; G . Harris and R . Komuniecki , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032345 SentenceID s52 SENTENCE : C . elegans ( Ce ) in red : CeSER1 ( NP_001024728 ) , CeSER4 ( NP_497452 ) , CeSER7 ( NP_741730 ) , and CeSER5 ( our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032345 SentenceID s52 SENTENCE : endoplasmic reticulum On the basis of the immunolocalization of the FLAG-tagged receptor , SER-5 appears to be expressed at low levels and retained in the endoplasmic reticulum ( R . Komuniecki , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032345 SentenceID s57 SENTENCE : In addition , both mutant animals appeared to acutely upregulate egg laying when starved animals are placed on bacteria in a manner similar to that observed in wild-type animals ( R . Komuniecki , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032346 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : Each new C . elegans strain was derived from a single individual . C . briggsae and C . remanei ortholog identification : We searched the C . briggsae ( STEIN et al . 2003 ) and C . remanei ( GSC , Washington University , St Louis , unpublished ) genome assemblies for orthologs of the C . elegans genes using the TBLASTN program ( ALTSCHUL et al . 1990 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032356 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : However , although CEP-1 induces transcription of the proapoptotic gene egl-1 ( Hofmann et al . 2002 ; Schumacher et al . 2005 ; Quevedo et al . 2007 ) , preliminary evidence indicates that ing-3 ( tm2830 ) does not reduce the level of the egl-1 transcript ( S . Shah , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032438 SentenceID s62 SENTENCE : PP4 Regulation of MEI-1 Function 941 regulatory redundancy with MEI-1 degradation systems , which we recently found to be active at low levels during meiosis to prevent excess MEI-1 / MEI-2 activity at that time ( J . L . Johnson , C . Lu , E . Raharjo , K . McNally , F . J . McNally and P . E . Mains , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032439 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : Since supplementation of the medium with Mg21 , but not Ca21 , can suppress the enhancement of gon-2 ( lf ) by gem-1 ( 0 ) ( E . Lambie , unpublished observations ) , it seems most likely that Mg21 is the critical substrate .
PaperID WBPaper00032439 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : The following mutations and rearrangements were used in this study : LGI--unc-29 ( e1072 ) , gon-2 ( q388 ) , and gon-2 ( ok465 ) ; LGIII--dpy-17 ( e164 ) ; LGIV-- him-8 ( e1489 ) ; LGV--mIs10 [ myo-2Tgfp pes-10Tgfp ] ( K . Liu and A . Fire , unpublished results ) ; and LGX--unc-9 ( e101 ) , unc- 84 ( e1410 ) , and unc-3 ( e151 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032879 SentenceID s130 SENTENCE : For deep sequencing one can sequence first , but one then has to determine which of several hundred changes in the genome is the causative change ( Hillier et al . 2008 and our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032912 SentenceID s206 SENTENCE : We conclude that GLD-2 is capable of polyadenylation without accessory RNA-binding proteins , even though accessory proteins can enhance its PAP activity ( K . W . Kim , K . Nykamp , N . Suh , J . L . Bachorik , L . Wang and J . Kimble , unpublished results ; Wang et al . 2002 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032912 SentenceID s39 SENTENCE : FBF and the GLD proteins control meiotic entry in both XX hermaphrodites and XO males and in both spermatogenic and oogenic germlines ( Kadyk and Kimble 1998 ; Crittenden et al . 2002 ; Eckmann et al . 2004 ; Hansen et al . 2004a , b ; S . Crittenden , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032931 SentenceID s83 SENTENCE : We thank Primo Schar for sharing unpublished data with us .
PaperID WBPaper00033166 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : The fully sequenced C . elegans genome contains 14 predicted genes that encode CDF proteins ( Kambe et al . 2004 ; K . Deshmukh and K . Kornfeld , unpublished observation ) .
PaperID WBPaper00033469 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : In contrast , only 43 % ( 6 / 14 ) of enhancers were specific , and only 14 % ( 2 of 14 ) strongly enhanced embryonic lethality ( Figures 2 and 3 and Table S1 and Table S2 ) Indeed , enhancers identified in modifier screens with other conditional mutants also exhibit , with very few exceptions , a high degree of nonspecificity when tested with multiple conditionally lethal mutants ( M . Dorfman and S . O ' Rourke , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00034719 SentenceID s112 SENTENCE : nuclei Adult glp-1 ( bn18 ) animals raised at 20 and shifted to 25 for 6 hr have minimal proliferative zones and an absence of nuclei in M-phase ( as shown by a lack of pH 3-positive nuclei ) because removal of glp-1 / Notch signaling induces all germ cells to enter meiosis ( Kodoyianni et al . 1992 ; Qiao et al . 1995 ; P . M . Fox and T . Schedl , unpublished data ; Figure 6 , E , F , and J ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035070 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : bodies, cell bodies, microtubules, process, puncta, synapses Despite the general effects of mec-15 mutations on the cell bodies and synapses of the TRNs , other features of these cells appear normal . MEC-2 , a mechanosensory channel subunit , is distributed as regular puncta throughout the TRN process ( Huang et al . 1995 ; Zhang et al . 2004 ) that relies on intact microtubules ( A . Bounoutas et al . , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035070 SentenceID s17 SENTENCE : Primary rabbit polyclonal antibody against MEC-18 ( S . Zhang and M . Chalfie , unpublished data ) , MEC-7 ( Mitani et al . 1993 ) , and GFP ( Invitrogen ) as well as T6739 monoclonal antiacetylated tubulin ( Sigma ) were used at a dilution of 1 : 1000 ; rabbit polyclonal MEC-2 antibody ( Zhang et al . 2004 ) was used at a dilution of 1 : 200 .
PaperID WBPaper00035070 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : Microscopy : For fluorescence microscopy , animals were anesthetized using 0 . 3 m 2-3 butanedione monoxime in 10 mm HEPES ( M . Goodman and M . Chalfie , unpublished data ) and were observed using a Zeiss Axiophot microscope .
PaperID WBPaper00035070 SentenceID s68 SENTENCE : axonal, microtubules, synapses Loss of large-diameter microtubules in mec-7 mutants produces general defects in axonal transport and TRN gene expression ( Bounoutas et al . 2009 ; A . Bounoutas , L . Emtage and M . Chalfie , unpublished data ) , so reduction of visible GFP : : RAB-3 at synapses may be attributable to these defects .
PaperID WBPaper00035086 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : Several lines of evidence suggest that the mutation rate in C . briggsae is greater than that of C . elegans for these traits ( Baer et al . 2005 , 2006 ; Ostrow et al . 2007 ) and for microsatellites ( Phillips et al . 2009 ) and perhaps for single nucleotide substitutions ( D . Denver , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035166 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : We note that failure to enhance each other ' s null phenotype is not due to a ceiling effect , ' ' as other mutant combinations of maintenance factors display much stronger phenotypes ( C . Benard and O . Hobert , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035166 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : A preliminary analysis of double mutant combinations indeed points to such a redundant scenario ( C . Benard and O . Hobert , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035166 SentenceID s61 SENTENCE : axon Indeed we have found that a simultaneous deletion of two other PVT-expressed and apparently redundantly acting zig genes also results in axon maintenance defects ( C . Benard and O . Hobert , unpublished data ) , suggesting that PVT does provide multiple zig genes that act nonredundantly to control axon maintenance at the midline .
PaperID WBPaper00035228 SentenceID s79 SENTENCE : We thank Colin Thacker for training provided during the screen , use of equipment including the Copas Biosort , and preparation of RNAi colonies from the Ahringer RNAi library ; Robb Cundick for the development and use of a C . elegans RNAi database ; Susan Mango for the use of lab space and equipment during the first pass of screening ; Julie Ahringer for unpublished information on the imb-2 , imb-3 , and imb-5 PGL-1 phenotypes ; Xingyu She and Eleanor Maine for providing ego-1 strain EL500 ; Andreas Rechtsteiner for comparison of germ-line data sets ; and the National Bioresource Project at Tokyo Women ' s Medical College for providing the FX892 strain .
PaperID WBPaper00035423 SentenceID s73 SENTENCE : The more acidic isoelectric species of paramyosin are absent from extracts of unc-82 mutant worms ( unpublished data cited in Schriefer and Waterston 1989 ) , suggesting that the headpiece is a direct or indirect target of UNC-82 .
PaperID WBPaper00035521 SentenceID s83 SENTENCE : X chromosome, chromosome On the other hand , while ATR is required for DNA damage checkpoint signaling in C . elegans ( Garcia-Muse and Boulton 2005 ) it does not accumulate on the single X chromosome of males ( A . Jaramillo-Lambert and J . Engebrecht , unpublished results ) and H2AX is not found in C . elegans ( Boulton 2006 ; Kelly and Aramayo 2007 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035530 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : The C . briggsae mutants were generated using 25 mm EMS ( see below ; B . Gupta , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035530 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : Mutants can be isolated either through conventional means ( D . Baillie , personal communication ; B . Gupta , unpublished results ; Inoue et al . 2007 ) or by PCR-based screening methods ( Hill et al . 2006 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035530 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : A rudimentary genetic map has been constructed through conventional mapping of mutants ( B . Gupta , unpublished results ) and this has been supplemented with a SNP-based map assayed through PCR-based methods ( Hillier et al . 2007 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035530 SentenceID s37 SENTENCE : C . briggsae has one advantage over C . elegans in comparative analysis : four species now exist with varying evolutionary distance from C . briggsae , ranging from the very closely related species 9 , which can produce fertile offspring in some crosses , to species 11 , which apparently branched off from C . briggsae shortly after the branch from C . elegans ( K . Kiontke and D . Fitch , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035530 SentenceID s42 SENTENCE : EMS was the sole mutagen , as opposed to UVtrimethylpsoralen ( TMP ) ( see materials and methods ) , to avoid the variability associated with the latter ( D . Moerman and M . Edgley , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035530 SentenceID s79 SENTENCE : The reporter constructs were derived from C . elegans genomic fosmid clones containing an entire transcription factor gene plus its flanking sequences ( J . Perkins and D . Moerman , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035530 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : A total of 9701 SNPs were selected among several hundred thousand detected by comparing the genomic sequences of HK104 obtained by Illumina sequencing methods with the AF16 sequence ( Stein et al . 2003 ; D . Spencer , Z . Zhao , R . H . Waterston , M . Olson and L . Hillier , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035530 SentenceID s9 SENTENCE : We obtained HK104 genomic sequence using next-generation sequencing to call SNPs across the genome ( D . Spencer , Z . Zhao , M . Olson , R . H . Waterston and L . Hillier , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035864 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : 10 C . elegans strains defective in neuronal development and homeostasis ( V . Bertrand , unpublished data ; M . Doitsidou , unpublished data ; E . Flowers , unpublished data ; S . Sarin , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036019 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : Further analysis of egl-5 in gonadal development will be presented elsewhere ( A . K . Kalis and D . Zarkower , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036019 SentenceID s37 SENTENCE : These are candidates to impose sex specificity on the common gonadal program and indeed one of them , egl-5 , is required for sex-specific POP-1 activity ( A . K . Kalis and D . Zarkower , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036019 SentenceID s42 SENTENCE : The reporters used in this screen can readily detect XX gonadal masculinization caused by ectopic EGL-5 expression ( A . K . Kalis and D . 532 A . K . Kalis et al . Zarkower , unpublished results ) , favoring the view that disruption of gonadal differentiation has different consequences in the two sexes .
PaperID WBPaper00036195 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : -S . Park and D . S . Portman , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036195 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : Most other a- and b-tubulin genes , including the neuronally expressed tubulins mec-7 , mec-12 , and ben-1 ( D . D . Hurd , unpublished data ) , did not show consistent enrichment in these studies .
PaperID WBPaper00036200 SentenceID s77 SENTENCE : The new analysis program correctly identified the single-base insertion relative to the reference genome in all 12 data sets , including in both wild-type strains ( our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036201 SentenceID s151 SENTENCE : Transcript mapping shows that the lsy-12 locus extends in the more upstream located mys-3 gene , a histone acetyltransferase ( M . M . O ' Meara and O . Hobert , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037118 SentenceID s209 SENTENCE : All 23 markers were confirmed to be dimorphic in C . briggsae AF16 and VT847 , and no interstrain segregation distortion was seen ( Figure S1 ; J . A . Ross , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037118 SentenceID s65 SENTENCE : V . Doty , unpublished results ) , indicating they are not individually dose sensitive in present-day hermaphrodites .
PaperID WBPaper00037649 SentenceID s128 SENTENCE : We thank Herve Gendrot for technical help and Marc Hammarlund and Erik Jorgensen for kindly providing unpublished reagents .
PaperID WBPaper00037649 SentenceID s17 SENTENCE : Interestingly , catp-1 , daf-12 , and other DMPP-resistant mutants ( our unpublished results ) all interact with the genetic network controlling entry into the dauer stage .
PaperID WBPaper00037650 SentenceID s61 SENTENCE : In early C . elegans embryos , FZY-1 / Cdc20 levels might be more stable , as both interphase and M phase cells stain brightly for FZY- 1 ( A . Bezler and P . Go nczy , unpublished observation ; Kitagawa and Rose 1999 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037651 SentenceID s102 SENTENCE : Since die-1 autoregulates its own transcription ( L . Cochella and O . Hobert , unpublished data ) , the HAT complex also impinges on die-1 expression itself .
PaperID WBPaper00037651 SentenceID s129 SENTENCE : We thank Baris Tursun for the die-1 fosmid reporter line , Sumeet Sarin for the ot563 allele , Richard J . Poole and Enkelejda Bashllari for sharing the first evidence of a die-1 maintenance role , Luisa Cochella for communicating unpublished results , the C . elegans Gene Knockout Consortia in Oklahoma and Tokyo for the ok1475 and tm2530 alleles , Yuji Kohara for EST clones , and Qi Chen for expert assistance in generating transgenic strains .
PaperID WBPaper00037652 SentenceID s65 SENTENCE : We thank H . R . Horvitz , in whose lab the n4132 mutant was isolated ; P . Swoboda and G . Senti for sharing unpublished data and stimulating discussions ; P . Anderson , J . Kimble , Q . Mitrovich , and P . W . Sternberg for critical intellectual input in the early stages of this work ; Barr and Swoboda lab members for constructive criticism of the manuscript ; A . Hart , M . Leroux , D . Riddle , P . W . Sternberg , and the Caenorhabditis Genetics Center , which is funded by the National Institutes of Health ( NIH ) National Center for Research Resources ( NCRR ) for strains .
PaperID WBPaper00037671 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : Characteristically , the temperature-sensitive APC / C mutants isolated to date enhance each other when combined at the permissive temperature and double mutants are sterile or produce broods of unhatched embryos ( Shakes et al . 2003 ; our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037671 SentenceID s42 SENTENCE : In addition , we generated a double mutant with emb- 1 ( hc62ts ) , an allele that also exhibits a one-cellarrest phenotype ( Miwa et al . 1980 ; Schierenberg et al . 1980 ; our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037686 SentenceID s121 SENTENCE : surface A different aspect of motility , which is significant because it differentiates among the different surface glycosylation mutants , was discovered during a survey of interactions between C . elegans and plant-pathogenic pathovars of Pseudomonas ( G . Preston and J . Hodgkin , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037686 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : Such investigations , using highperformance mass spectrometry , have been carried out in parallel work on mutants of bus-2 ( Palaima et al . 2010 ) and of bus-4 ( R . M . Mizanur , E . Jankowska , D . O ' Rourke , D . Stroud , J . Hodgkin and J . F . Cipollo , unpublished results ) , revealing significant although complex alterations in glycans .
PaperID WBPaper00037686 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : Recent advances in whole-genome sequencing ( Sarin et al . 2008 ) have allowed us to identify a number of previously uncloned bus and srf genes , which may provide clues to possible substrates ( D . O ' Rourke , D . Stroud , M . J . Gravato-nobre and J . Hodgkin , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037686 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : Indeed , the biochemical alterations in glycans so far detected by analysis of 2004 ) , bus-2 mutants ( Palaima et al . 2010 ) , and mutants ( R . M . Mizanur , E . Jankowska , D . O ' Rourke , D . Stroud , J . Hodgkin and J . F . Cipollo , unpublished results ) appear to be quantitative rather than qualitative , in contrast to the more readily interpretable changes seen for sqv and bre mutants .
PaperID WBPaper00037686 SentenceID s44 SENTENCE : The most similar of these , C16D9 . 6 ( BLAST score 2e-66 relative to bus-4 ) , has a genomic location very close to that predicted for the functionally similar gene bus-6 , but it does not correspond to this gene ( D . O ' Rourke and J . Hodgkin , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037686 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : Surface Nematode Surface Glycosylation Genes srf-3 mutants ( Cipollo et al . bus-4 bus-2 , bus-4 , and bus-12 ) is that seam cells , at least as srf-3 ( Ho flich et al . 2004 ) , bus-8 bus-17 srf-3 Glycosyltrans ferase UDP-sugar transporter Surface Surface Slow Normal Bus Bus Bah Bah Skd Normal Very good Very good Defective Defective Very severe Severe 153 ( Partridge et al . 2008 ) , and bus-17 ( K . J . Yook and C . Darby , unpublished observations ) , as well as for glf-1 ( Novelli et al . 2009 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037686 SentenceID s56 SENTENCE : We thank Adam Irvine for assistance in the identification of bus-4 ; Gail Preston for providing bacterial strains ; Karen Yook , Simon Haenni , and Andre Furger for communicating unpublished results ; John Cipollo for discussion ; and Frederick Partridge for comments on the manuscript .
PaperID WBPaper00037906 SentenceID s98 SENTENCE : lin-38 ( n751 ) is a non-null allele , as null mutations in lin- 38 are inviable ( A . M . Saffer and H . R . Horwitz , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037960 SentenceID s51 SENTENCE : chromatin, chromosomal Furthermore , H3K9me2 also accumulates preferentially on unsynapsed chromosomal regions in certain meiotic mutants ( Bean et al . 2004 ; K . Nabeshima , unpublished results ) , supporting the hypothesis that chromatin is modified in response to a lack of pairing and / or synapsis .
PaperID WBPaper00038142 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : This population-based assay is also well suited to forward genetic approaches , in which polyclonal populations can be rapidly screened for heat insensitive individuals ( D . A . Glauser and M . B . Goodman , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00038142 SentenceID s66 SENTENCE : -W . Tan , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00038142 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : -W . Tan , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00038150 SentenceID s152 SENTENCE : L . 2009 ( unpublished ) Broadbent and Pettitt 2002 Vanderzalm et al . 2009 McKay et al . 2003 Wang et al . 2006 Mango 2007 Seydoux and Fire 1994 .
PaperID WBPaper00038150 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : We thank D . Pavelec and S . Kennedy for providing strains and mapping data for the unpublished eri-11 gene .
PaperID WBPaper00038150 SentenceID s66 SENTENCE : N2 Bristol Wild type GR1373 eri-1 ( mg366 ) Kennedy et al . 2004 NL2099 rrf-3 ( pk1426 ) Simmer et al . 2002 YY13 rrf-3 ( mg373 ) Pavelec et al . 2009 WM172 eri-3 ( tm1361 ) Duchaine et al . 2006 WM171 eri-5 ( tm1705 ) Duchaine et al . 2006 FX01917 eri-6 / 7 ( tm1917 ) Fischer et al . 2008 YY168 eri-8 ( gg100 ) Pavelec et al . 2009 WM158 eri-8 ( tm1860 ) Pavelec et al . 2009 YY216 eri-9 ( gg106 ) Pavelec et al . 2009 YY209 eri-11 ( gg99 ) Unpublished .
PaperID WBPaper00038245 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : To address if the same regulatory mechanism exists in the most clinically prevalent form of C . neoformans ( VNI ) , we bioinformatically identified several predicted catabolic genes belonging to the uric acid degradation pathway in the unpublished H99 genome and employed qRT-PCR to analyze their transcriptional regulation : URO1 ( encoding urate oxidase ) , DAL1 ( encoding allantoinase ) , and URE1 ( encoding the virulence factor urease ) ( Figure 1A ) .
PaperID WBPaper00038341 SentenceID s17 SENTENCE : ced-5 , which encodes a DOCK180-like guanine exchange factor for Rac ( Wu and Horvitz 1998 ) and hmr-1 , which encodes a classical cadherin ( Costa et al . 1998 ) , function redundantly in C . elegans gastrulation ( G . Shemer , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00038341 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : However , gastrulation is often delayed , with the E cells internalizing as four cells , in double hmr-1 ; ced-5 embryos ( G . Shemer , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00038408 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : Deletion of VPCact along with VPCrep in the context of the full-length reporter ( Figure 2H ) or lag-2p ( min ) ( our unpublished observations ) abolishes expression in P6 . p as well as the other VPCs , suggesting that positive input through VPCact is required for transcription even in the absence of repression through VPCrep .
PaperID WBPaper00038408 SentenceID s92 SENTENCE : Sequences similar to VPCact were not identified in the 59 flanking regions of other C . elegans dsl genes ( X . Zhang , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00038408 SentenceID s96 SENTENCE : lateral However , it seems unlikely that HLH-2 is a general transcriptional activator of the lateral signal genes because the E-box consensus sequence is not present in the VPCacthomologous region of apx-1 ( Figure 4B ) and a fosmid-based translational reporter for the C . elegans E ortholog HLH-2 , the obligatory dimerization partner for class II bHLH proteins , is not detectable in the VPCs in the L3 stage ( J . Ohlmeyer and I . Greenwald , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00039858 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : Conversely , in studying ts alleles of other APC / C subunits , only a subset of alleles exhibit defects in spermatocyte meiosis , while all except one exhibit defects in oocyte meiosis ( P . L . Sadler , D . Fox , A . Pletcher , and D . Shakes , unpublished observations ; Tarailo et al . 2007 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00039858 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : Though all the existing ts APC / C subunit mutants are viable and healthy at 15 , we have been unable to construct a double mutant of two APC / C subunits that could be maintained at the permissive temperature of 15 ( Shakes et al . 2003 ; Stein et al . 2007 ; our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00039858 SentenceID s2 SENTENCE : Our unpublished observations also suggest that EMB-1 is required for the late developmental events of male tail and hermaphrodite vulva formation .
PaperID WBPaper00039858 SentenceID s54 SENTENCE : chromosome As cid-1 was recently shown to play a role in chromosome segregation ( van Wolfswinkel et al . 2009 ) , we suspect that the L2 arrest phenotype results from a synthetic interaction between emb-1 and cid-1 ( cid-1 deletion alleles alone do not display a L2 arrest phenotype ( our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040126 SentenceID s44 SENTENCE : Depending on the type of mutant being sequenced , using WGS strategies will be more straightforward ( and more time- and cost effective ; M . Doitsidou and O . Hobert , unpublished results .
PaperID WBPaper00040222 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : mev-1 lines were cryopreserved at generations 25 , 50 , 90 , and 125 , and N2 lines were cryopreserved at generations 50 and 125 ( Baer et al . , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040222 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : Additionally , DNA repair capabilities of UV-induced mutations in mev-1 and N2 are indistinguishable when the worms are maintained at atmospheric O2 levels ( N . Ishii and T . Ohnishi , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040222 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : Additionally , DNA repair capabilities of UV-induced mutations in mev-1 and N2 are indistinguishable when the worms are maintained at atmospheric O2 levels ( unpublished data , N . Ishii and T . Ohnishi ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040222 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : Moreover , small differences in temperature ( $ 1 ) can result in large differences in absolute fitness in C . elegans ( Anderson et al . 2011 ; C . F . Baer , unpublished results ) , which suggests that at least some alleles must have very sharp temperature thresholds .
PaperID WBPaper00040544 SentenceID s63 SENTENCE : A two-tailed Fisher exact test was performed on each sao-1 ( ik1 ) or sao-1 ( ok3335 ) value relative to the equivalent sao-1 ( + ) value in the same row ; an asterisk indicates a difference between the wild-type and sao-1 mutant that is statistically signi a The glp-1 ( q35 ) allele causes a loss-of-function germline phenotype that is cold sensitive : animals are fertile at 25 unc-32 ( e189 ) glp-1 ( q35 ) . b Temperature-sensitive glp-1 alleles for which 25 is the restrictive temperature at which virtually all animals are sterile ( Priess et al . 1987 ; Kodoyianni et al . 1992 ; Pepper et al . 2003 ) . c Fertile animals differed in appearance of gonads : for example aberrant gonads were visible under the dissecting microscope in 17 % of the fertile glp-1 ( ar202 ) mutants ( n 201 ) vs . 71 % of the fertile glp-1 ( ar202 ) ; sao-1 ( ok3335 ) double mutants ( n 182 ) ; such gonad abnormalities were not observed among the sao-1 ( ok3335 ) single mutants . some embryos resembling glp-1 lin-12 deficient embryos , and others exhibiting less distinct phenotypes ( unpublished observations ) , suggesting that a variety of specific causes for embryonic lethality exists in these double mutants .
PaperID WBPaper00040572 SentenceID s76 SENTENCE : SC The destabilization of the SC that is observed in him-5 and xnd-1 mutants is not accompanied by a large increase in apoptosis expected from activation of the synapsis or DNA damage checkpoints ( Table 2 and J . Yanowitz , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040598 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : We thank Masaki Kakehi for sharing unpublished results .
PaperID WBPaper00040818 SentenceID s2 SENTENCE : We thank H . Robert Horvitz , in whose laboratory the n2915 mutant was isolated , and Josh Kaplan for help during the screen ; Gary Ruvkun , in whose laboratory the allele mg41 was isolated ; Steve L ' Hernault , for sharing unpublished results ; and Andy Fire and Christian Frkjr-Jensen for plasmids .
PaperID WBPaper00040818 SentenceID s749 SENTENCE : We also thank Steve LHernault for sharing unpublished results , and Andy Fire and Christian Frkjr-Jensen for plasmids .
PaperID WBPaper00040819 SentenceID s2 SENTENCE : We thank Erik Jorgensen for providing unpublished data and the vha-12 transgene , Shozo Yokoyama for help in deciphering the evolutionary relationship between spe-5 and vha-12 , Richard Meagher for selecting the peptide sequence used to generate the SPE-5 monoclonal antibody , Andy Golden for mat-1 strains , and Vince LaTerza for useful discussions and facilitating S .
PaperID WBPaper00041001 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : We note that we have verified this genetic interaction but did not observe pharyngeal defects in rap-1 ( tm861 ) ; sup-37 ( RNAi ) mutants , nor does rap-1 ( RNAi ) suppress pha-1 ( e2123ts ) defects ( D . S . Fay , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041001 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : We note , however , that we have not observed obvious effects of PHA-1 activity on the timing of SUP-35 translocation ( D . S . Fay and S . R . G . Polley , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041364 SentenceID s159 SENTENCE : Feminization with strong loss-of-function mutations in the sex determination pathway , fog-2 ( oz40 ) , fem-3 ( e1996 ) , fog-1 ( e2121 ) , or fog-3 ( q470 ) , delayed the time of onset and the severity of oocyte degeneration in sacy-1 ( tm5503 ) females ( Figure 8 and Figure S3 ; S . Kim and D . Greenstein , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041364 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : The first is the wide availability of deletion alleles isolated by the C . elegans Knockout Consortia ( Moerman and Barstead 2008 ; S . Mitani , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041364 SentenceID s238 SENTENCE : We observed apparently identical expression patterns in the wild type and spr-5 mutants and in no case did we observe expression of an adenylate cyclase other than acy-4 in the gonadal sheath cells ( S . Kim and D . Greenstein , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041364 SentenceID s32 SENTENCE : It proved difficult to fine map many of the Sacy mutations in the Hawaiian background , possibly because complex genetic interactions between Bristol and Hawaiian loci modified the penetrance of acy-4 ( lf ) ( S . Kim , J . A . Govindan , and D . Greenstein , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041364 SentenceID s39 SENTENCE : inx-22 ( tm1661 ) , ceh-18 ( mg57 ) , and vab-1 ( dx31 ) do not suppress acy-4 ( lf ) sterility ( Govindan et al . 2009 ; S . Kim , J . A . Govindan , and D . Greenstein , unpublished results ) . b tom-1 encodes the C . elegans tomosyn ortholog ( Dybbs et al . 2005 ; Gracheva et al . 2006 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041364 SentenceID s42 SENTENCE : junctions A key question is how Gasadenylate cyclase signaling in gonadal sheath cells promotes oocyte meiotic maturation in response to the MSP signal . Part of the answer to this question is that the gonadal sheath cells form gap junctions with oocytes ( Hall et al . 1999 ) , and these gap junctions function to inhibit meiotic maturation when sperm are absent ( Govindan et al . 2006 , 2009 ; Whitten and Miller 2007 ; T . Starich and D . Greenstein , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041364 SentenceID s542 SENTENCE : Oocytes undergo maturation and ovulation at an increased frequency and are 1 ( tm5503 ) females exhibit a similar phenotype ( S . Kim and D . Greenstein , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041364 SentenceID s575 SENTENCE : Oocytes undergo maturation and ovulation at an increased frequency and are 1 ( tm5503 ) females exhibit a similar phenotype ( S . Kim and D . Greenstein , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041364 SentenceID s70 SENTENCE : The gonadal sheath cells inhibit meiotic maturation in part via gap-junctional communication involving the innexins INX-8 and INX-9 in the gonadal sheath cells ( T . Starich and D . Greenstein , unpublished data ) and INX-14 and INX-22 in oocytes ( Govindan et al . 2009 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041384 SentenceID s2 SENTENCE : We thank Jun Kelly Liu for sharing unpublished results from a parallel RNAi enhancer screen ; Rich McCloskey , Alex Beatty , Jun Kelly Liu , and the Cornell Worm Group for helpful discussions ; Daryl Hurd for par-1 and par-4 RNAi feeding constructs ; and Mona Hassab for media preparation .
PaperID WBPaper00041384 SentenceID s9 SENTENCE : Plates were scored 4 days later for production of unhatched embryos and results were compared to those of Kamath et al . ( 2003 ) for N2 , and to a parallel screen performed by J . Liu using emr-1 and lem-2 mutant strains , which do not affect embryo viability ( J . Liu , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041573 SentenceID s176 SENTENCE : We find that the causal variant typically resides in the largest 1-Mb frequency bin ( unpublished data ; 5 / 5 cases where single gene mutants have been mapped using CloudMap and rescued by expressing wildtype ( WT ) copies of the gene , $ 50 recombinants used ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041573 SentenceID s177 SENTENCE : chromosome In cases where two or more mutations reside on a single chromosome , or a mutation and a transgene on the same chromosome are selected during picking of F2 ' s , users should expect to see a LOESS line that approximates a zero ratio for a long physical distance and a corresponding broad peak for the frequency plots ( G . Minevich , R . J . Poole , and O . Hobert , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041573 SentenceID s186 SENTENCE : 10 strains , G . Minevich , R . J . Poole , and O . Hobert , unpublished data ) and in terms of locating the correct mapping region , contribute to noise in both the scatter plots and frequency plots of pure parental alleles .
PaperID WBPaper00041597 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : 1374 L . Sundararajan and E . A . Lundquist Isolation of mig-21 alleles and characterization of the mig-21 locus The mig-21 alleles lq37 , lq78 , and lq84 were isolated in an EMS screen for new mutations that affect the positions of the Q cell descendants AQR and PQR ( E . A . Lundquist , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041921 SentenceID s2 SENTENCE : We thank Andrew Fire , Yishi Jin , Joshua Kaplan , Michael Nonet , James Rand , and Kang Shen for generously providing some of the plasmids and strains we used in this study ( indicated in C . elegans Strains and Plasmids in File S6 ) and Sandhya Koushika for sharing unpublished data related to unc-16 .
PaperID WBPaper00042371 SentenceID s111 SENTENCE : GLH-1 also has recently been found to have both a physical and a genetic relationship to DCR-1 ( E . Racen and K . Bennett , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00042371 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : The rde- 3 / mut-2 mutation on its own causes 100 % sterility at 26 ( Q . Boese and J . Collins , personal communication ; C . Spike , unpublished results ) , making it difficult to assess the impact of bn103 on germline development .
PaperID WBPaper00042371 SentenceID s59 SENTENCE : P-granule Since glh-1 ( ok439 ) germlines have P-granule assembly defects even at low temperatures ( this work ) , we performed a genomewide microarray analysis to look at mRNA accumulation patterns in glh-1 ( ok439 ) MZ germlines at 20 ( C . Spike and V . Reinke , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00042371 SentenceID s80 SENTENCE : P granules, granules In contrast , glh-1 mutants display partial dispersal of the PGL proteins , and glh-4 glh-1 double mutants display full dispersal . We think the latter is probably a direct effect of loss of both GLH-1 and GLH-4 function and not an indirect effect of germline sickliness , as analysis of many sterile mutants , including pgl-1 ; pgl-2 ; pgl-3 triple mutants , demonstrates that P granules retain their granular nature even in severely compromised germlines ( Kawasaki et al . 2004 ; S . Strome , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00042371 SentenceID s81 SENTENCE : P granules, granules The finding that RNAi depletion of GLH-1 from L4-stage worms results in dispersed GFPTPGL-1 within 24 hr ( C . Spike , unpublished results ) suggests that P granules are likely to be dynamic structures and that GLH-1 is continuously required for PGL-1 retention .
PaperID WBPaper00044065 SentenceID s12 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045516 SentenceID s107 SENTENCE : Both proteins are normally 28 expressed in Q . p and its daughter cells ( unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045516 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : Isolation and cloning of grp-1 ( gm350 ) : We mutagenized zdIs5 [ mec-4 : : gfp ] ; ced-3 ( n2436 ) hermaphrodites with 50 mM ethylmethylsulfonate and screened F2s for mutations that strongly enhanced the penetrance of extra AVMs , PVMs , and PLMs above the level observed in ced-3 ( n2436 ) ( Talavera , Cordes , and Garriga , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045618 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : A second part is the core ERK / MAPK pathway ( Sundaram 2013 ) , which terminates with MPK-1 / ERK to promote the sperm fate via unknown substrates ( Figure 7A , bottom ) ( Lee et al . 2007b ; Arur et al . 2009 ; Arur et al . 2011 ) ; FOG- 1 and FOG-3 both possess motifs typical of ERK / MAPK substrates and therefore are candidate substrates ( Lee et al . 2011 ; E . Sorokin , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045637 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : C . Schematic for unc-58 ( e665 ) DdeI site in italics and causative lesion ( e665 , Leu- > Phe ) noted ( Hartman , PS et . al . , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045637 SentenceID s208 SENTENCE : C . Schematic for unc-58 ( e665 ) DdeI site in italics and causative lesion ( e665 , Leu- > Phe ) noted ( Hartman , PS et . al . , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045691 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : processes, puncta In the proximal arm puncta size was more variable , with many appearing to be considerably larger than the fine puncta seen in the distal arm other innexins in that its expression level was relatively higher in the distal gonad 20 In addition to gonadal expression , antibody staining of whole mounts suggested that unpublished results ) , but because the antibody reacted primarily with processes and not promoter in a small set of neurons has previously been described ( Altun et al . 2009 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045691 SentenceID s202 SENTENCE : 87 88 immunostaining ( T . Starich , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045691 SentenceID s54 SENTENCE : Theoretically all Starich , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045802 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : Total protein stains indicate that numerous proteins independent purifications ( Figure 2 , B and C ; C . Spike , unpublished results ) , suggesting reproducible purification of the same collection of proteins .
PaperID WBPaper00045802 SentenceID s162 SENTENCE : cytoplasmic Nature 64 Table 1 Proteins that copurify with OMA-1 and either interact with OMA-1 or regulate mRNA translation , cytoplasmic polyadenylation , or deadenylation Protein Coverage ( % ) a Known physical interaction or phenotypic similarity PQN-59 9 Interacts with OMA-1 ( Figure 7 ) mRNA TRANSLATION GLD-1 24 Interacts with OMA-1 ( Figure 7 ) LIN-41 19 Represses OMA targets ( Figure 8 ) MEX-3 47 Interacts with OMA-1 ( Figure 7 ) OMA-2 21 Interacts with OMA-1 ( Figure 7 ) MEX-1 26 None PUF-5 10 Enhances oma-2 ( te51 ) and represses glp-1 translation in oocytes ( this work ; Lublin and Evans 2007 ) SPN-4 6 Interacts with OMA-1 ( Figure 7 ) IFG-1 10 None IFE-3 14 Interacts with IFET-1 ( Li et al . 2009 ) IFET-1 6 Interacts with OMA-1 and represses OMA targets in oocytes ( Li et al . 2009 , Guven-Ozkan et al . 2010 , Oldenbroek et al . 2013 ) POS-1 21 Interacts with SPN-4 ( Ogura et al . 2003 ) and is expressed in oocytes ( T . Guven-Ozkan and R . Lin , unpublished results ) b CYTOPLASMIC POLYADENYLATION GLD-3 21 None GLD-2 16 None DEADENYLATION LET-711 4 None CCF-1 18 None NTL-9 11 None aPeptide coverage in a single gel slice assessed by mass spectrometry in an OMA-1 purification after RNase treatment .
PaperID WBPaper00045802 SentenceID s163 SENTENCE : OMA-1 was purified from a fog-1 ( ts ) female lysate . bPOS-1 expression was detected in oocytes by antibody staining ( using antibodies described in Tabara et al . 1999 ) , albeit at a level lower than in embryos ( T . Guven-Ozkan and R . Lin , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045802 SentenceID s186 SENTENCE : 76 77 Lin , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045802 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : In order to examine the 23 oocytes and maternally provided to embryos ( Baugh et al . 2003 ; Reinke et al . 2004 ; true ( D . Coetzee and C . Spike , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045802 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : A similar ( see below ) , but this probe is predicted to be highly specific ( D . Coetzee , unpublished modestly altered , however , because older Oma oocytes are somewhat difficult to image 28 after FISH and the localization patterns of both mRNAs change when meiotic maturation is ( Figure 5 , G and H ) , similar to what has been described for total RNA and a few specific mRNAs in female germ lines ( Schisa et al . 2001 ; Jud et al . 2008 ; Noble et al . 2008 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045802 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : Genetic analysis has identified many of the key genes that control sex determination in C . elegans ( reviewed by Ellis and germ line ( Figure 5 , F and I ; D . Coetzee , unpublished results ) , but the OMA proteins are first 29 earlier in germline development . large number of peptides in both purifications ( > 60 peptides ; File S2 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045802 SentenceID s40 SENTENCE : Primary antibodies 15 and D . Greenstein , unpublished results ; 1 : 30 , 000 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045802 SentenceID s44 SENTENCE : ( 2 ) Proteins eluted from this mock from young adult hermaphrodites ( i . . , abundant proteins ; I . Yamamoto and D . Greenstein , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045802 SentenceID s52 SENTENCE : We examined other 3 ' UTR reporters strongly regulated ( C . Spike , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045803 SentenceID s12 SENTENCE : We examined in the adult germ line by immunofluorescence ( Figure 3L , C . Spike , unpublished data ) . is independent of the heterochronic gene pathway .
PaperID WBPaper00045803 SentenceID s136 SENTENCE : We also identified three viable and fertile alleles ( tn1485 , 73 tn1493 , and tn1503 ) and one sterile allele ( tn1494 ) for which we did not find a molecular lesion for in exons , introns , or 3 ' UTR sequences ( C . Eichten , C . Spike , and D . Greenstein , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045803 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : Males are most evident among the progeny of two relatively weak suppressors of tn1487ts tn1487tstn1539 ) , but are also noticeable among the progeny of two stronger suppressors o ( Figure 3L ) . germ lines at both 22o and 25o , although there appears to be a gradual , rather than S3G ; C . Spike , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045803 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : nuclei Contrary to our expectation , when we examined the germ 29 did not observe strong EdU incorporation in nuclei in the proximal arm either near the loop or more proximally near the spermatheca ( Figure S9D ; C . Spike , unpublished results ) . shortly after the end of pachytene ( Figure S9D ) . nuclei immediately after pachytene likely reflects repair DNA synthesis .
PaperID WBPaper00045803 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : Consistent with the idea that these cells lose the oocyte fate , we observed that a minority of the most growth medium and bacterial food source ; D . Greenstein , unpublished results and as described below ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046166 SentenceID s12 SENTENCE : We found that 2 ml ethanol alone had no obvious effects on the behaviors of wild-type , npr-1 , and npr-2 animals ( J . Luo and L . Ma , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046166 SentenceID s30 SENTENCE : fat-4 ( wa14 ) , odr-4 ( n2144 ) , egl-4 ( n478 ) , odr-3 ( n2150 ) , and che-1 ( e1034 ) mutants were found to be significantly different from wild-type animals in the MeSa avoidance response by Student t-test at the error rate of 1 % ( J . Luo and L . Ma , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046166 SentenceID s71 SENTENCE : In C . elegans , FLPs and PVDs are the sensory neurons that mediate harsh touch stimuli ( Way and Chalfie 1989 ) . npr- 2 ( ok419 ) mutants exhibited a grossly normal response to harsh touch ( J . Luo and L . Ma , unpublished observations ) , suggesting that npr-2 might not be essential for harsh touch sensation .
PaperID WBPaper00046199 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : Indeed , our unpublished results are consistent with LIN-40 and BLMP-1 acting together through direct interaction in stress conditions to regulate common targets for dauer formation ( M . Hyun , personal communication ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046301 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : We have also found that ChAT enzymatic activity is elevated in cn355 mutants ( J . Rand , unpublished ) indicating an increased level of functional ChAT .
PaperID WBPaper00046301 SentenceID s74 SENTENCE : Approximately 300 genes in the C . elegans genome encode putative RNA-binding proteins ( R . Barstead and J . Rand , unpublished observations ) ; such proteins might be involved in recognizing and / or stabilizing RNA secondary structures ( to promote production of cha-1 mRNA ) , or denaturing these structures ( to promote production of unc-17 mRNA ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046386 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : membranes C . elegans membranes are not amenable to the perforated patch technique ( Bellemer et al . , 2011 ) , and our unpublished studies using fluorescent Cl- reporter proteins in C . elegans muscles have so far shown results too variable to make conclusions .
PaperID WBPaper00046460 SentenceID s110 SENTENCE : Although the requirement for a 3 ' GG in the protospacer and guide RNA places some constraint on the location of the DSB cleavage site within a locus , this constraint should pose little problem for inserting specific DNA changes at desired locations , because double-stranded DNA repair templates can be used to repair in a desired sequence at a desired location , even if somewhat distant ( 500 bp , unpublished ) from the DSB .
PaperID WBPaper00046820 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : Spencer and Waterston ( unpublished ) catalogued more than 100 , 000 SNVs using an early version of massively parallel shotgun ( WGS ) approach , and deposited these kilobase ( kb ) regions of poor read alignment , possibly due to high sequence divergence .
PaperID WBPaper00046820 SentenceID s43 SENTENCE : But in addition , inspection of the deep WGS coverage revealed some regions of the genome that apparently were so divergent that aligned reads were sparse to absent ( Spencer , Thompson and Waterston , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046879 SentenceID s132 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046879 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046879 SentenceID s93 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046956 SentenceID s32 SENTENCE : body Consistent with this , we found that reversal duration and frequency of 583 body bends during reversals were significantly correlated with abamectin resistance in the 584 RIAILs ( unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046975 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : We isolated unc-104 ( ce515 ) in an unrelated forward genetic screen ( K . G . Miller , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046976 SentenceID s96 SENTENCE : dendritic, lysosomes Like the sad-1 single mutant , strd-1 single mutants in an unc-16 ( + ) background showed no significant increase in dendritic lysosomes for either parameter ( S . L . Edwards and K . G . Miller , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00047008 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : Instead we used changes in GLD-1 levels as an indirect readout , as GLP-1 signaling indirectly inhibits accumulation of GLD-1 protein in distal germ cells ( HANSEN et al . 2004b ) ; following shift of glp-1 ( bn18 ) to 25 , distal GLD-1 levels are elevated at the 2 hour time point ( P . Fox and T . Schedl , unpublished results ) indicating that GLP-1 activity has decreased significantly before the 2 hour point , which is propagated to alter GLD-1 protein levels through changes in translational regulation of the gld-1 mRNA ( LEE AND SCHEDL 2001 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00048392 SentenceID s60 SENTENCE : Similar somatic and germline localization was observed with an anti-LSD-1 antibody ( Beese- Sims and Colaiacovo , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00048499 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : nuclear Similarly , defective segregation Given the fact that all the suppressor mutations found so far appear to support the direct inhibitory function in addition to its role in FB formation as originally proposed by UHLRAD 2001 ; MUHLRAD AND WARD a halo around the nuclear material ( Diane Shakes and Jackson Peterson , personal suggesting that the two proteins interact directly ( our lab , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00048636 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : In our experience , injection of dsRNAs often results in penetrant phenotypes , phenocopying null mutants more often than does RNAi-by-feeding ( preliminary unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00048691 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : synaptic Moreover , this elevated apoptosis is suppressed in pch-2 ; spo-11 triplo-X worms ( BR , unpublished ) , consistent with the idea that loss of spo-11 in the context of systemic aneuploidy increases the occurrence of synaptic defects that trigger the synapsis checkpoint ( Bhalla and Dernburg 2005 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00048709 SentenceID s3 SENTENCE : We thank M . Zetka for HIM-3 and HTP-3 antibodies ; J . Kimble for the GLD-1 antibody ; D . Houston for his help with membrane-staining reagents ; V . Prahlad , R . E . Malone , and members of the Smolikove lab for critical reading of this manuscript ; R . E . Malone and A . Wickenkamp for their help in sharing unpublished work that cultivated our interest in KIN-18 ; and R . E . Malone for discussion of our data .
PaperID WBPaper00048941 SentenceID s102 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) , whereas lon-2 can suppress sdn-1 phenotypes .
PaperID WBPaper00048941 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : Also , growth cones have already begun to migrate and encircle the developing pharynx at lima-bean stage , which is the earliest onset of P-ttx-3-GFP expression in AIY interneurons ( Christensen et al . 2014 plus our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00048941 SentenceID s59 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) whereas LON-2 functions from the epidermis to negatively regulate TGF signaling ( Gumienny et al . 2007 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00048941 SentenceID s63 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00048941 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : neurites They begin to extend their primary neurites anteriorly during the lima bean stage of embryonic development then dorsally at the 1 . 5 fold stage ( Christensen et al . 2011 and M . L . Hudson , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00049078 SentenceID s102 SENTENCE : To explore this further , we examined worms mutant for the mir-35 family and genes known to repress GLD-1 ( Figure S5 and J . L . Brenner and T . Schedl , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00049078 SentenceID s96 SENTENCE : While fbf-1 fbf-2 double mutants display premature meiotic entry defects , neither lst-1 ( ok814 ) ; fbf-2 ( q738 ) mutants or sygl-1 ( tm5040 ) ; fbf-2 ( q738 ) mutants displayed any severe premature meiotic entry defects ( J . L . Brenner and T . Schedl , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00049081 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : Our first approach was based on a collection of 1669 temperature-sensitive , embryonic lethal mutants and 4D-DIC recordings of embryos ( R . Schnabel and coworkers , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00049081 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : Twenty-eight temperaturesensitive mutants ( Table S1 ) were generated in the laboratory of R . Schnabel ( TU Braunschweig ; R . Schnabel and coworkers , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00049092 SentenceID s186 SENTENCE : First , selection-based strategies use the long-range HDR mechanism , which is insensitive to variations in sgRNA efficiency ( Dickinson et al . 2015 ) and to distance from the cut site up to at least 1 kb ( Dickinson et al . 2013 ; Das et al . 2015 ; Sullivan- Brown et al . 2016 ; and our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00049164 SentenceID s94 SENTENCE : nuclear To promote excision of the off cassette , we used a hyperactive variant of FLP recombinase ( FLP- D5 ( NERN et al . 2011 ) ) with two nuclear localization signals appended ( M . Wayne Davis , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00049375 SentenceID s146 SENTENCE : The terminal web is stained lightly in this section and surrounds the central lumen ( M . Buechner , D . Hall , E . Hedgecock , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00049375 SentenceID s148 SENTENCE : ( C ) DIC micrograph of a section of the posterior canal in N2 adult ( M . Buechner and E . Hedgecock , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00049375 SentenceID s152 SENTENCE : vesicle Each canalicular vesicle is surrounded by proteins protruding into the lumen , that appear reminiscent of the lollipop structure of ATPase ( M . Buechner , D . Hall , E . Hedgecock , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00049375 SentenceID s258 SENTENCE : endosomes Various marked endosomes can be viewed moving anteriorward and posteriorward throughout the length of the canals ( H . Al-Hashimi and M . Buechner , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00049375 SentenceID s261 SENTENCE : endosomes, filaments In addition , two sets of protein cascades promote trafficking through recycling endosomes : EXC-9 / CRIP ( Tong and Buechner 2008 ) , EXC-1 / IRG ( K . Grussendorf , D . Hall , M . Buechner , unpublished results ) , and EXC-5 / FGD ( Mattingly and Buechner 2011 ) activate CDC-42 ( Olson et al . 1996 ; Gao et al . 2001 ) to stimulate growth of actin filaments and / or transport of endosomes along those filaments .
PaperID WBPaper00049375 SentenceID s278 SENTENCE : intracellular, membrane EXC-1 , EXC-5 , and EXC-9 : EXC-1 is homologous to the mammalian immunity-related GTPase ( IRG ) family , a set of dynamin-related GTPases that are found at intracellular membrane compartments , some of which target parasitecontaining vacuoles for autophagy and destruction ( K . Grussendorf and M . Buechner , unpublished results ) ( Howard 2008 ; Petkova et al . 2012 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00049375 SentenceID s285 SENTENCE : Overexpression of exc-1 , exc-5 , or exc-9 all result in a convoluted-lumen phenotype ( Suzuki et al . 2001 ; Tong and Buechner 2008 ; Mattingly and Buechner 2011 ; K . Grussendorf and M . Buechner , unpublished results ) similar to that of constitutive CDC-42 activation .
PaperID WBPaper00049375 SentenceID s288 SENTENCE : Golgi, apical, apical membrane, membrane These results suggest that EXC-1 / 5 / 9 act upon CDC-42 in a common pathway for apical membrane recycling ( Mattingly and Buechner 2011 ; K . Grussendorf , C . Trezza , A . Salem , B . Mattingly , H . Al-Hashimi , D . Kampmeyer , L . Khan , V . Gbel , D . Hall , B . Ackley , M . Buechner , unpublished results ) , but do not affect trafficking to Golgi ( Figure 7 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00049375 SentenceID s309 SENTENCE : apical, membranes RDY-2 is a nematode-specific tetraspan protein located in apical membranes of the canal , duct , and pore cells ( Liegeois et al . 2007 ; H . Gill and M . Sundaram , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00049375 SentenceID s334 SENTENCE : Flow from the canal lumen into the lumens of the adjacent duct and pore tubes is also important for lumen shape , as mutations in genes such as let-4 and let-653 , which are not expressed in the canal cell , but affect duct and pore tube patency , cause severe dilations and cysts in the canal ( Buechner et al . 1999 ; Mancuso et al . 2012 ) ( H . Gill , J . Cohen and M . Sundaram , unpublished results ) ( Figure 9B ) .
PaperID WBPaper00049375 SentenceID s353 SENTENCE : body, cell body ( D ) Duct marked with lin- 48promoter : : mRFP ( cell body ) and LET-653 : : GFP ( lumen , line ) ( H . Gill , J . Cohen and M . Sundaram , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00049375 SentenceID s400 SENTENCE : nuclear NHR-23 and NHR-25 are nuclear hormone receptors expressed in most external ( cuticle-lined ) epithelia , including the duct and pore ( Gissendanner and Sluder 2000 ; Kostrouchova et al . 2001 ; Murray et al . 2012 ; M . V . Sundaram , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00049375 SentenceID s434 SENTENCE : EGF-Ras-ERK signaling promotes aff-1 expression to promote duct autofusion ( F . Soulavie and M . V . Sundaram , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00049375 SentenceID s445 SENTENCE : Several mutations that disrupt luminal matrix organization lead to duct lumen breaks and dilations ( Figure 9B ) and to physical separation of the duct and G1 pore cells around the time of hatch ( Mancuso et al . 2012 ; H . Gill , J . Cohen and M . Sundaram , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00049375 SentenceID s449 SENTENCE : LET-653 is one key component of the early luminal matrix in the duct and pore ( H . Gill , J . Cohen and M . Sundaram , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00049375 SentenceID s606 SENTENCE : The mechanism by which the ZP protein LET-653 and other luminal factors affect excretory duct tube integrity is not yet known , but studies in both C . elegans and Drosophila suggest that ZP proteins within luminal matrices are especially critical for maintaining patency of small unicellular tubes ( Jazwinska et al . 2003 ; H . Gill , J . Cohen and M . Sundaram , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00049476 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : Deleting individual cc1 and cc2 domains weakened or disrupted self-interaction ( our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00049476 SentenceID s65 SENTENCE : Quantitative PCR performed with RNA extracted from dissected gonads did not reproduce different RNA amounts of these ORFs and sun-1 itself in the mutant ( our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00049685 SentenceID s12 SENTENCE : In the rr94 larvae , the germ cells continue dividing at a higher rate throughout the L2d , which is also modestly extended compared to daf-2 animals ( unpublished results ) , but eventually they do arrest and 10 remain quiescent throughout the duration of the dauer stage ( Supplemental Fig . S4 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00049685 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : These additional cells arise during L2d , much like the extra germ cells that arise in these mutants ( unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00049685 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : It is unlikely that the sterility we observe in postdauer din-1S animals results exclusively from defects in the sperm since wild-type male sperm could not rescue the sterility of mated post-dauer din-1S hermaphrodites ( unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00050213 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : However , we did not 622 recover any APC subunit genes in our RNAi suppressor screen , and subsequent tests with mat- 623 1 ( RNAi ) did not reveal any suppression of memi-1 ( sb41 ) ( E . Sykes , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00050213 SentenceID s42 SENTENCE : As previously reported , strong loss-of-function phenotypes for gsp-3 / 4 include sterility 691 ( WU et al . 2012 ) , which we also observed when we maintained worms on gsp-3 / 4 ( RNAi ) feeding 692 plates for two generations ( J . Tegha-Dunghu , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00050213 SentenceID s49 SENTENCE : 702 However , we did not observe suppression of memi-1 ( sb41 ) with either gsp-1 ( RNAi ) or gsp- 703 2 ( RNAi ) ( E . Sykes , unpublished data ) , indicating that the genetic interaction was specific for gsp- 704 3 / 4 . 705 706 A model for a sperm-derived signal that initiates meiosis II 707 The nature of the sperm-derived signal that specifies post-fertilization events in the one-cell 708 zygote is still unclear , but our work presents strong evidence that PP1 phosphatase , in 709 combination with MEMI , represent part of the sperm-to-oocyte signal for female meiosis II 710 32 ( Figure 9 ) .

Development 392 papers with 1133 sentences.
PaperID WBPaper00001028 SentenceID s119 SENTENCE : Villeneuve & Meyer ( 1987 ) . and unpublished data from E . 3 Hedgecock .
PaperID WBPaper00001028 SentenceID s128 SENTENCE : . unpublished data ) ; it is therefore assigned to a new gene , dpy-27 .
PaperID WBPaper00001028 SentenceID s140 SENTENCE : 1985 and unpublished data ) . derived from dpy-26 homozygous mothers usually die as embryos or young larvae .
PaperID WBPaper00001028 SentenceID s142 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ; L . DeLong & B . ( Table 2 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001028 SentenceID s143 SENTENCE : Mutations of these genes , for example J . Meyer , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001028 SentenceID s165 SENTENCE : X-chromosome For both genes , The original analysis of X / A ratio by Madl & loss-of-function mutations lead to masculinization Herman ( 1979 ) and subsequent unpublished work by and elevated X-chromosome transcription in XX R . K . Herman ( personal communication ) , suggested animals , but have no obvious effect on XO ( or XY ) that there were at least four sites on the right half of animals .
PaperID WBPaper00001028 SentenceID s186 SENTENCE : 1980 and unpublished data ; mDfl is a deficiency that fails to complement her-l and flanking markers ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001028 SentenceID s192 SENTENCE : A A deficiency for the region , mDfl , has become large number of autosomal duplications and deficienavailable ( D . L . Riddle , unpublished data ) and has cies are now available in C . elegans , with approximate been used in complementation tests with these two extents shown in Fig . 3 .
PaperID WBPaper00001028 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : I am grateful to Ed Hedgecock , Bob Herman , Judith Kimble , Phil Meneely , Barbara Meyer , Michael Shen and Bill Wood for discussion , for communicating unpublished results , and for providing strains .
PaperID WBPaper00001057 SentenceID s260 SENTENCE : We have also used WGA binding to identify animals genetically mosaic for the tra-1 gene ( C . Link & C . Hunter , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001057 SentenceID s272 SENTENCE : cuticle W . from the National Institutes of Health . cuticle by several criteria ( Ambros & Horvitz , 1984 ) , it is not clear whether they produce adult male bursal cuticle specifically ( V . Ambros , personal communication and our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001057 SentenceID s54 SENTENCE : The following genetic markers were used in this work : LGI : him-1 ( e879 ) , him-2 ( elO65 ) ( Hodgkin el al . 1979 ) , lin17 ( n677 ) ( Horvitz et al . 1983 ; Ferguson & Horvitz , 1985 ) , Iin-28 ( n719 ) ( Ambros & Horvitz , 1984 ) , mab-1 ( el228 ) , mab-2 ( el241 ) ( Hodgkin , 1983a ) , bli-3 ( e767 ) ( Brenner , 1974 ) ; LGII : Un-4 ( e912 ) , Iin-29 ( n333 ) ( Ambros & Horvitz , 1984 ) , mab-3 ( el240 ) , mab-6 ( el249 ) , mab-8 ( 1250 ) , mab9 ( el245 ) , mab-10 ( el248 ) ( Hodgkin , 1983a ) , tra-2 ( b202 ) ( Klass et al . 1976 ) ; LGIII : tra-l ( elO99 ) ( Hodgkin & Brenner , 1977 ) , tra-l ( el488 ) ( Hodgkin , 1987 ) , mab-4 ( el252 ) ( Hodgkin , 1983a ) , mab-5 ( el239 ) ( Hodgkin , 1983a ; Kenyon , 1986 ) , bli-5 ( e518 ) , sma-2 ( e502 ) , sma-4 ( e729 ) ( Brenner , 1974 ) , daf-2 ( el370 ) ( Riddle et al . 1981 ) ; LGIV : him-8 ( el489 ) ( Hodgkin et al . 1979 ) , Hn-22 ( n372 ) ( Horvitz et al . 1983 ; Kenyon , 1986 ) ; LGV : him-5 ( el467 , el490 ) ( Hodgkin etal . 1979 ) , dpy-21 ( e428 ) ( Hodgkin , 1983b ; Meneely & Wood , 1984 , 1987 ) , her-l ( el561 ) ( Hodgkin , 1980 ) , herI ( n695 ) ( Trent et al . 1983 ) , her-1 ( ct22n695 ) ( C . Trent , unpublished ) , vab-8 ( e !
PaperID WBPaper00001057 SentenceID s55 SENTENCE : 017 ) ( J . Manser , unpublished ) , dpyIl ( e224 ) ( Brenner , 1974 ) ; LGX : Hn-14 ( nl79 ) , ( Ambros & Horvitz , 1984 , 1987 ) , mab-7 ( el599 ) ( Hodgkin , 1983a ) , vab3 ( e648 ) ( Lewis & Hodgkin , 1977 ) , Ion-2 ( e678 ) ( Brenner , 1974 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001153 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : The glp-1 gene has now been isolated and its DNA sequence obtained ( Austin & Kimble , unpublished ; J . Yochem & I . Greenwald , personal communication ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001240 SentenceID s101 SENTENCE : Isolation and genetic characterization o / cib-1 mutants The reference allele e2300 of cib-1 was isolated during a series of screens to isolate EMS-induced embryonic lethal mutations involved in the regulation of development of C . elegans ( unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001240 SentenceID s316 SENTENCE : body The antibody 48C7 stains all pharynx precursor cells and a subset of neurons , and the monoclonal antibody ICA4 stains only body wall muscle cells ( H . Okamoto , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001240 SentenceID s363 SENTENCE : We have identified two more genes with phenotypes similar to that of cib-1 ( unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001240 SentenceID s383 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001240 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : , unpublished .
PaperID WBPaper00001240 SentenceID s60 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001241 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : P-granule The existence of the proposed asymmetry determinant may explain the patterns of division and P-granule segregation observed in C . elegans embryos after centrifugation during the first cell cycle ( Cowan and McIntosh , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001370 SentenceID s269 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001370 SentenceID s53 SENTENCE : Since the unc-76 mutation causes a constitutive early egg-laying phenotype ( Hodgkin et al . 1988 ; R . Horvitz , personal communication ; unpublished observations ) , unc-76 adults were often allowed to develop past the onset of egg laying .
PaperID WBPaper00001398 SentenceID s252 SENTENCE : Temperature-sensitive period analysis of another Mup mutant mup-3 ( e2431ts ) also shows a maternal effect ( Goh and Bogaert , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001398 SentenceID s315 SENTENCE : We have observed this phenotype also in other Mup mutants ( Bogaert and Goh , unpublished data ) and consider it a secondary consequence of the absence of a patch of muscles on the hypodermis .
PaperID WBPaper00001398 SentenceID s372 SENTENCE : The suppression of mup-1 munication ; Bogaert and Goh , unpublished data ) . by dpy-2 , dpy-10 and dpy-11 may work through an analogous mechanism .
PaperID WBPaper00001398 SentenceID s388 SENTENCE : body -Y . Goh and T . Bogaert positions on the body wall , mup-1 may be a localized adhesion molecule required in early embryogenesis for attracting the formation of muscle attachments in the four rows of body wall muscles , corresponding to the narrow bands denned by MH4 and MH25 ( Francis and Waterston , unpublished data ; Waterston , 1989 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001398 SentenceID s398 SENTENCE : We also thank many other colleagues including L . Avery , D . Moerman , C . Kenyon and colleagues , J . Kramer , J . Priess , M . Stern , T . Schedl , B . Williams and colleagues in LMB for advice , comments on the manuscript , and / or sharing unpublished results .
PaperID WBPaper00001398 SentenceID s409 SENTENCE : Muscle therefore that this ' muscle attachment position ' phenotype is a distinct phenotype and not a consequence of a secondary displacement of muscle cells with abnormal myofilaments that are unattached , as has been observed in some other muscle mutants ( Waterston , 1989 ; Bogaert and Goh , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001398 SentenceID s413 SENTENCE : We have two not mutually exclusive explanations for the observed incomplete penetrance of the muscle attachment position phenotype in mup-1 embryos : The first explanation follows from the observation that incomplete penetrance of phenotypes is not uncommon in loss of function mutants in genes involved in cell guidance and migration , such as unc-5 , unc-6 , unc-40 ( Hedgecock et al . 1990 ) and unc-53 ( Bogaert and Goh , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001423 SentenceID s157 SENTENCE : Preliminary epistasis experiments show that lin-12 ( gf ) ; lag double mutants are Lag ( E . Lambie , unpublished observations .
PaperID WBPaper00001423 SentenceID s199 SENTENCE : Also , we thank Sean Carroll , Diane Church , Bill Dove and Ron Ellis for critical reading of this manuscript and Bob Johnsen , David Bailhe , Susan Strome , Iva Greenwald and the Caenorhabditis Genetics Center for providing strains , Jim Thomas , Franz Tax , Bob Horvitz , John Sulston and John White for communicating unpublished results , and David Miller and Robert Waterston for gifts of antibodies .
PaperID WBPaper00001433 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : chromosomes Because ces-l ( n703 ) maps much closer to fer-1 than it does to unc-29 ( only 1 / 33 recombination events in this interval separated fer-1 and ces-1 ( see above , also unpublished data ) ) , one or both of the two lin-10 daf-8 ( + ) fer-1 ( + ) unc-29 recombinant chromosomes probably carried the cesl ( n703 ) mutation .
PaperID WBPaper00001433 SentenceID s30 SENTENCE : We thank Nancy Tsung and Carol Trent for providing the mutations n703 and n732 , John Sulston for his generous help in studying the embryonic lineage of ces-l ( n703 ) animals , Phil Anderson and Jonathan Hodgkin for providing strains , and Hilary Ellis and Leon Avery for sharing unpublished observations .
PaperID WBPaper00001442 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : Since some degree of autosomal aneuploidy is known to be tolerated in C . elegans ( Sigurdson et al . 1986 ; C . P . H . unpublished ) , we can not rule out this possibility .
PaperID WBPaper00001469 SentenceID s174 SENTENCE : Hope , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001469 SentenceID s2 SENTENCE : Earlier attempts to develop a screen similar to the Drosophila enhancer trap but using Tel , the best characterized transposable element of C . elegans , were unsuccessful ( I . A . Hope , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001470 SentenceID s123 SENTENCE : body For these ' antisense ' constructions , we used an expression vector ( pPD12 . 01 : Fig . 3 and Fire and Harrison , unpublished ) containing the promoter , enhancer and 3 ' nontranslated elements from the gene encoding the major myosin heavy chain isoform expressed in body wall muscle ( Epstein et al . 1974 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001470 SentenceID s149 SENTENCE : F . unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001470 SentenceID s176 SENTENCE : In addition , the expression vector pPD12 . 01 carries a muscle specific enhancer element that can act in either orientation and can enhance expression from both correct and ectopic initiation sites ( Fire and Harrison , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001471 SentenceID s73 SENTENCE : The rays are used by the male to sense contact of its tail with another nematode , and are essential for successful copulation ( Hodgkin , 1983 ; J . Sulston , personal communication ; unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001484 SentenceID s62 SENTENCE : In these egl-15 and egl-17 mutants , ablation of any of the four signalling cells ( Zl . pp , Zl . pa , Z4 . aa and Z4 . ap ; see Fig . 3 ) or even of some of their descendants ( unpublished data ) consistently mitigates the SM ( A ) Wild type gonad P6 . p i i r i i i Genotype egl-15 egl-17 ( B ) dig-1 l willl !
PaperID WBPaper00001518 SentenceID s101 SENTENCE : cytoplasmic If injected , for instance , into the AB cell of a 2-celJ stage , LYVS ( in contrast to another Lucifer dye , LYCH ; our unpublished data ) binds quickly to cytoplasmic particles and remains in the descendants of the injected cell ( Fig . 5a , b ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001518 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : Further support for our idea that LYVS is bound to yolk components and marks their way into the gut is given by our finding that the patterns of LY-induced fluorescence in embryos ( Fig . 2 ) and maturing oocytes ( data not shown ) of C . elegans look very much like those after staining with an antibody against a major yolk protein ( Sharrock , 1983 ; our unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001518 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : granules This is also true for the late embryo , where the lipophilic weak base Neutral Red marks the same granules ( our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001637 SentenceID s128 SENTENCE : These findings indicate that the phenotypes of these mutants ( Ellis and Horvitz , 1986 ; J . Yuan , unpublished results ) result from a complete loss of ced-4 gene function .
PaperID WBPaper00001637 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : The ced-4 alleles n1894 , n1920 , n1947 , n1948 , n2247 and n2273 have been characterized by us ( unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001638 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : A more extensive examination of this question is now in progress ( Austin and Kenyon , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001638 SentenceID s88 SENTENCE : In these experiments V6 responded by generating ray instead of alae lineages ( 6 / 6 animals ; Waring and Kenyon , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001639 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : Northern analysis ( Costa and Kenyon , unpublished ) had shown that mab-5 mRNA is present in embryos .
PaperID WBPaper00001639 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : Low resolution RNA in situ hybridization experiments indicated that mab-5 expression is localized to one end of the embryo ( Loer and Kenyon , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001639 SentenceID s30 SENTENCE : This is not unexpected , since several genes that appear to affect mab-5 expression in subsets of its normal domain have been identified ( Waring and Kenyon , 1990 , 1991 ; Harris and Kenyon , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001639 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : In general , cells identified as expressing the fusion in the embryo were also stained in the newly hatched larva ( Salser and Kenyon , unpublished ) , with an interesting exception .
PaperID WBPaper00001639 SentenceID s42 SENTENCE : K . data not shown ; Hunter and Kenyon , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001670 SentenceID s12 SENTENCE : About 50 % of the embryos produced by these animals lose the yDp1 duplication and express the mutant phenotype ( F . Tax , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001670 SentenceID s60 SENTENCE : The observation that lag-2 mutants resemble lin-12 glp-1 double mutants ( Lambie and Kimble , 1991b ) and the observation that certain lag-2 alleles can suppress lin-12 mutations ( F . Tax , J . Thomas and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished data ) , suggest that the lag-2 gene product may function in several different cell interactions .
PaperID WBPaper00001670 SentenceID s86 SENTENCE : We thank Eric Lambie and Judith Kimble for providing lag-2 strains ; the Caenorhabditis Genetics Center for providing several strains ; Craig Mello and Bruce Draper for helpful discussions ; Karla Neugebauer , Susan Mango and Eric Lambie for comments on the manuscript ; and Craig Mello for unpublished information .
PaperID WBPaper00001719 SentenceID s101 SENTENCE : We are grateful to Scott Clark , Ed Hedgecock , Chris Li , James Manser and Michael Stern for kindly providing strains and materials used in this work and to Laird Bloom , Scott Clark , Erika Hartwieg , Chris Li and Michael Stern for sharing unpublished data .
PaperID WBPaper00001719 SentenceID s113 SENTENCE : Moreover , extra HSN branches are occasionally seen at the positions of ectopic vulval protrusions in the multivulva mutants lin-1 and lin-15 ( Li and Chalfie , 1990 ; Fig . 4A and unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001719 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001719 SentenceID s200 SENTENCE : axons , unpublished results ) . dSince lin-39 and lin-12 are linked , we generated animals missing VC neurons and containing only primary vulval cells by killing the neuroblast cells P3 . a-P8 . a , which generate the VCs , and all of the vulval precursor cells except P6 . p , which generates the primary vulval cells . eIt was not necessary to construct the lin-11 ; lin-39 double mutant , since the VC axons fail to defasciculate from the VNC in lin-11 animals .
PaperID WBPaper00001719 SentenceID s218 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001719 SentenceID s283 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001719 SentenceID s53 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001719 SentenceID s70 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001719 SentenceID s78 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001797 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : , unpublished observation ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001797 SentenceID s67 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001829 SentenceID s12 SENTENCE : for the mutations are : ced mutations : Ellis et al . ( 1986 ) ; egl and sem-4 mutations : Trent et al . ( 1983 ) and Desai et al . ( 1988 ) ; him-5 mutation : Hodgkin et al . ( 1979 ) ; mab-5 : Hodgkin ( 1983 ) ; mec , lin-32 and unc-86 mutations : Chalfie and Sulston ( 1981 ) and Chalfie and Au ( 1989 ) ; other lin mutations : Horvitz and Sulston ( 1980 ) , Ambros and Horvitz ( 1984 ) , Ferguson and Horvitz ( 1985 ) , and M . Chalfie ( unpublished data ) and E . Hedgecock ( personal communication ) ; and other unc and the dpy-11 mutations : Brenner ( 1974 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001829 SentenceID s167 SENTENCE : The double arrow from unc-86 denotes that this gene may act both in regulating mec-3 and , subsequently , with mec-3 , on target genes such as mec-7 and mec-4 ( A . Duggan and M . Chalfie , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001829 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : There are at least two stages in the specification of the touch cells : the expression of the regulatory gene m e c - 3 ( controlled by u n c - 8 6 and s e m - 4 ) and the expression of touch cell features [ controlled by m e c - 3 , l i n - 1 4 , e g l - 4 4 , e g l - 4 6 and u n c - 8 6 ( Hamelin et al . , 1992 ; present results ; A . Duggan and M . Chalfie , unpublished data ) ] .
PaperID WBPaper00001829 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : Samples were incubated with shaking for 24 hours at room temperature with a 1 : 450 dilution of a rabbit anti-mec-7 antibody ( C . Savage and M . Chalfie , unpublished data ) , washed 7 times with buffer AbA ( Finney and Ruvkun , 1990 ) , incubated with rhodamine isothiocyanate-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG antibody ( Cooper Biochemical ) and washed an additional 8 times with buffer AbB ( Finney and Ruvkun , 1990 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001829 SentenceID s60 SENTENCE : One paradox concerning the role of lin-14 as a coactivator in touch cell development is that lin-14 mutations do not apparently affect the function or development of the ALM and PLM cells ( lin-14 mutants are touch sensitive ; Ruvkun and Giusto , 1989 ; M . Chalfie , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001829 SentenceID s65 SENTENCE : It is likely that the ectopic cells are transformed FLP neurons , since they are in the normal FLP position and are the only cells in this position in egl-46 mutants to express a mec-3-lacZ fusion ( D . Xue and M . Chalfie , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001851 SentenceID s49 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) , we think that the lack of complete restoration of egglaying ability by chimeric genes reflects the absence of an essential sequence element ( s ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001909 SentenceID s124 SENTENCE : In addition , although V5 and its daughter V5 . p lie in the region of general mab-5 expression , these cells do not express mab-5 ( Cowing and Kenyon , 1992 ; Salser and Kenyon , 1992 ; S . Salser and C . Kenyon , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001909 SentenceID s139 SENTENCE : Based on genetic and molecular data , mab-5 ( e1239 ) appears to be a null allele ( Kenyon , 1986 ; S . Salser , C . Kenyon , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001909 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : Although the seam cells V5 and V6 both lie within the region of mab-5 expression , only V6 expresses mab-5 ( Cowing and Kenyon , 1992 ; S . Salser , C . Kenyon , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001909 SentenceID s96 SENTENCE : We thank John White for sharing unpublished information about V cell development prior to publication .
PaperID WBPaper00001954 SentenceID s120 SENTENCE : We have directly observed the anterior displacement of the presumptive phasmid socket cells in lin-44 animals in our studies of T cell lineages ( our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001954 SentenceID s202 SENTENCE : Similarly , males from a variety of him-5-containing strains - lin-44 ( n1792 ) , lin- 44 ( n1792 ) / hDf6 , lin-44 ( n1792 ) / hDf7 , lin-44 ( n2111 ) , lin- 44 ( n2111 ) / hDf7 and lin-44 ( n1792 ) / lin-44 ( n2111 ) - were examined using the dissecting microscope , and the range of male tail defects appeared similar ( unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001954 SentenceID s209 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) , suggesting the lin-44 locus is completely removed by hDf7 .
PaperID WBPaper00001954 SentenceID s65 SENTENCE : The remaining hDf7 homozygotes arrested after varying numbers of cell divisions ; based upon the number of cells and cell types produced , no animals progressed beyond the L1 stage ( our unpublished observations ; also Howell and Rose , 1990 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001975 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : Deficiency rescue with wild-type genomic hlh-1 Progeny phenotypes ( b ) : movement / morphogenesis weak twitch strong writhe strong writhe strong writhe Genotype of parent ( a ) early arrest 2-fold arrest 2-fold arrest 3-fold arrest hatch ccDf4 0 % ( 0 ) 29 % ( 16 ) 0 % ( 0 ) 2 % ( 1 ) 69 % ( 38 ) lin-31 bli-2 ccD4 3 % ( 4 ) 2 % ( 2 ) 3 % ( 4 ) 24 % ( 28 ) 68 % ( 79 ) lin-31 bli-2 lin-31 bli-2 ; ccIn413 2 % ( 4 ) 98 % ( 189 ) lin-31 bli-2 1 % ( 1 ) 99 % ( 73 ) The genotypes of adults used to generate the embryos analyzed are presented on the left ( a ) . ccDf4 / lin-31 ( n301 ) bli-2 ( e768 ) is a balanced strain yielding approximately 1 / 4 ccDf4 embryos . ccDf4 / lin-31 ( n301 ) bli-2 ( e768 ) ; ccIn413 is an equivalent strain carrying the unlinked transgene insertion ccIn413 . ccIn413 ( a gift of Susan White Harrison ) contains the hlh-1 genomic clone pPD38 . 61 and the selectable marker plasmid pRF4 ( which confers a dominant rolling phenotype ) . pPD38 . 61 has been fully sequenced and contains no coding regions except for hlh-1 ( Krause , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001975 SentenceID s17 SENTENCE : In addition , we have shown that expression of chicken myogenin cDNA from the hlh-1 promoter can partially suppress the hlh-1 ( cc450 ) phenotype ; these partially rescued animals slowly reach adulthood and are fertile ( L . Chen , B . Paterson and A . Fire unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001975 SentenceID s3 SENTENCE : The details of our device and procedure will be described elsewhere ( Fire , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001987 SentenceID s319 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001987 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001987 SentenceID s60 SENTENCE : desmosomes ( D , E ) Double staining with the mAb MH27 , which recognises hypodermal desmosomes at the margins of the cells ( Francis and Waterston , 1985 ; Priess and Hirsh , 1986 ) and the mAb NE2-1B4 , which stains a subset of hypodermal cells , the seam cells ( H . Schnabel , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001987 SentenceID s89 SENTENCE : We thank Heinke Schnabel and Richard Feichtinger for helpful discussions and Thierry Bogaert , Thomas Bosch , Gerard Marriot , Christiane Weigner and in particular Charles N . David for critically reading the manuscript , and C . Mello and J . Priess for communicating unpublished results .
PaperID WBPaper00002011 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002011 SentenceID s474 SENTENCE : Moreover , the mutation Bmut1 in this region , which eliminates in vivo activity of B , also decreases CEH-22 binding ( unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002011 SentenceID s503 SENTENCE : Three oligonucleotides ( B205 , Bmut2 and Bmut4 ) , which contain the CEH- 22-binding site and bind CEH-22 protein in vitro , fail to activate transcription in vivo ( unpublished observations ; Fig . 5 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002012 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : The monoclonal antibody J126 , from S . Strome , shows a staining pattern identical to that of the antibody 2CB7 described in Bowerman et al . , 1992a ( B . Bowerman and S . Mango , unpublished data ) and was used to detect intestinal-rectal valve cells and pharyngeal gland cells .
PaperID WBPaper00002012 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : NE2 / 1B4 ( Okamoto and Thomson , unpublished data ) was used to S . E . Mango and others Fig . 1 .
PaperID WBPaper00002012 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : These three genes encode candidate ligands for Notch-like receptors ( Artavanis- Tsakonas et al . , 1991 ; Tax et al . , 1994 ; Henderson et al . , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002012 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : body 3 ( Okamoto and Thomson , unpublished data ) was used to stain and count the body wall muscle cells produced by P3 and C in apx-1 ( or3 ) embryos .
PaperID WBPaper00002012 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : The glp-1 gene is a Notch homologue ( Austin and Kimble , 1989 ; Yochem and Greenwald , 1989 ) , and is required for the P2 / ABp interaction ( Mello et al . , 1994 ; Hutter and Schnabel , 1994 ; Moskowitz et al . , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002012 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : The promoter trap strain UL8 ( Hope , 1991 ; Young and Hope , 1993 ) was used to score for the production of rectal-epithelial cells ( Mango et al . , unpublished data ) by staining with X-GAL ( Fire , 1992 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002012 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : The glp-1 allele zu24 was isolated in a previous screen for maternal-effect mutants ( B . Bowerman and J . Priess , unpublished data ) . zu24 resembles the weak glp-1 allele e2142 ( Priess et al . , 1987 ; Kodoyianni et al . , 1992 ) in that many zu24 embryos hatch ( 89 / 112 ) but lack an anterior pharynx .
PaperID WBPaper00002012 SentenceID s44 SENTENCE : Consistent with this idea , cell lineages of the two anterior ABp grand-daughters ( ABpla and ABpra ) in apx- 1 ( or3 ) embryos did not appear to recapitulate ABa cell fates ( S . Mango and B . Bowerman , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002012 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : To test the ability of ABa and ABp to produce pharyngeal cells in response to a signal from MS in wild-type , apx-1 , and pie-1 embryos ( Fig . 3 , Tables 1 and 2 ) , all blastomeres other than either ABa and EMS , or ABp and EMS , were killed at the 4-cell stage , the E daughter of EMS was killed at the 8-cell stage , and the MS daughter of EMS was killed at the 12-cell stage , by which time one can no longer prevent the MS-dependent induction of ABa pharyngeal cells in wildtype embryos ( Hutter and Schnabel , 1994 ; Mango et al . , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002012 SentenceID s51 SENTENCE : However , laser ablation of MS at the 12-15 cell stage can not block ABa from producing pharyngeal cells ( Hutter and Schnabel , 1994 ; Mango et al . , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002012 SentenceID s97 SENTENCE : We thank J . Ahringer , J . Priess , D . Miller and S . Strome for antibodies ; the I . Hope , J . Priess and J . Thomas laboratories , and the Caehorhabditis Genetics Center at the University of Minnesota , for providing strains ; J . Rothman for use of his videomicroscopy equipment ; C . Mello , B . Draper , J . Priess , H . Hutter , R . Schnabel , I . Moskowitz , S . Gendreau and J . Rothman for communicating unpublished results ; S . Crittenden , J . Eisen , T . Evans , B . Pickett , H . Roehl and Chuck Kimmel ' s Bi 410 / 510 students at the University of Oregon for comments on the manuscript ; and J . Kimble for her generosity .
PaperID WBPaper00002013 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : cytoskeleton While anti-tubulin staining is slightly better when 100 % methanol is used as the sole fixative , we used Method II for antitubulin and anti-CP double stains because , without the formaldehyde step , methanol alone does not preserve components of the actin cytoskeleton ( Waddle and Waterston , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002013 SentenceID s21 SENTENCE : There are at least five conventional actin genes in C . elegans ; four described previously ( Krause et al . , 1989 ) and a newly identified member ( L . Schriefer , J . Waddle and R . Waterston , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002013 SentenceID s74 SENTENCE : We thank Ken Kemphues for providing the par-3 strain ; Tim Schedl , Ross Francis , Michelle Coutu Hresko , Dorothy Schafer and R . John Lye for critical reading of the manuscript ; and Larry Schriefer , Jim Lees-Miller , David Helfman , Dorothy Schafer and Trina Schroer for allowing us to cite unpublished data .
PaperID WBPaper00002025 SentenceID s58 SENTENCE : Further cDNA clones for the 1 . 4 / 1 . 45 / 1 . 5 kb RNAs were generated using reverse transcriptase and the polymerase chain reaction ( RT-PCR ; see Sambrook et al . , 1988 ) using oligonucleotides corresponding to the most 5 and 3 sequences of the 0 . 7 kb cDNA or from sequences that we tentatively predicted to be coding after inspection of putative splice donor and acceptor sites in the genomic sequence ( P . Dufourcq , M . Labouesse and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished observations ; a detailed account of our strategy will be presented elsewhere ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002026 SentenceID s119 SENTENCE : W . Emmons , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002026 SentenceID s123 SENTENCE : W . Emmons , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002026 SentenceID s126 SENTENCE : W . Emmons , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002026 SentenceID s3 SENTENCE : chromosomal Chisholm , 1991 ; Wang et al . , 1993 Chisholm , 1991 S . Salser and C . Kenyon , personal communication S . Salser and C . Kenyon , personal communication ; this work Salser and Kenyon , 1992 ; Salser et al . , 1993 ; K . L . Chow , unpublished observations Percentage ray transformation mab genotype 4 3 6 4 0 ( 0 / 229 ) 34 . 1 ( 78 / 229 ) 0 ( 0 / 227 ) 13 . 2 ( 30 / 227 ) 0 ( 0 / 243 ) 16 . 0 ( 39 / 243 ) 0 ( 0 / 272 ) 7 . 0 ( 19 / 272 ) 3 . 0 ( 7 / 228 ) 0 ( 0 / 228 ) 0 ( 0 / > 200 ) 0 ( 0 / > 200 ) 1 . 3 ( 5 / 377 ) 0 ( 0 / 377 ) 5 . 7 ( 20 / 351 ) 0 ( 0 / 351 ) 5 . 8 ( 13 / 223 ) 0 ( 223 ) 11 . 5 ( 29 / 254 ) 0 ( 0 / 254 ) 30 . 5 ( 87 / 285 ) 0 . 4 ( 1 / 285 ) 62 . 2 ( 191 / 307 ) 0 ( 0 / 307 ) mab-18 ( bx23 ) / + 2 . 2 ( 5 / 224 ) 29 . 2 ( 67 / 224 ) mab-18 ( bx23 ) / + 1 . 6 ( 4 / 254 ) 1 . 6 ( 4 / 254 ) mab-21 ( bx53 ) / + ; 2 . 7 ( 8 / 294 ) 6 . 1 ( 18 / 294 ) mab-18 ( bx23 ) / + mab-18 ( bx23 ) / + 15 . 3 ( 38 / 248 ) 3 . 6 ( 9 / 248 ) mab-21 ( bx53 ) / + 0 ( 0 / 221 ) 40 . 7 ( 90 / 221 ) mab-21 ( bx53 ) / + 0 ( 0 / 367 ) 31 . 6 ( 116 / 367 ) mab-21 ( bx53 ) / + 0 ( 0 / 272 ) 0 ( 0 / 272 ) mab-21 ( bx41 ) / + 0 . 6 ( 1 / 179 ) 0 ( 0 / 179 ) mab-21 ( sy155 ) / + 0 ( 0 / 152 ) 0 . 7 ( 1 / 152 ) mab-21 ( bx53 ) / + 0 . 9 ( 3 / 341 ) 3 . 5 ( 12 / 341 ) mab-21 ( bx53 ) / + 7 . 6 ( 24 / 316 ) 7 . 6 ( 24 / 316 ) mab-21 ( bx53 ) / + 12 . 3 ( 56 / 453 ) 0 ( 0 / 453 ) mab-21 ( bx53 ) / + 15 . 3 ( 34 / 219 ) 0 ( 0 / 219 ) mab-20 ( bx24 ) / + 0 . 8 ( 2 / 256 ) 0 . 8 ( 2 / 256 ) mab-20 ( bx24 ) / + 0 . 4 ( 1 / 232 ) 0 . 4 ( 1 / 232 ) mab-20 ( bx24 ) / + 12 . 4 ( 34 / 273 ) 0 ( 0 / 273 ) mab-26 ( bx80 ) / + 5 . 2 ( 13 / 251 ) 0 ( 0 / 251 ) mab-26 ( bx80 ) / + 24 . 7 ( 43 / 174 ) 0 ( 0 / 274 ) mab-26 ( bx80 ) / + 73 . 9 ( 190 / 257 ) 0 ( 0 / 257 ) 2583 Role of HOM-C / Hox genes in morphogenesis containing the duplication qDp3 , either the chromosomal mutation unc-36 ( e251 ) , which is covered by qDp3 , was used to score for the presence of the duplication ( Table 2 , lines 1 and 5 ) , or the presence of qDp3 was indicated by the presence of a full complement of rays and normal gross tail morphology ( Table 2 , lines 3 , 11 , and 12 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002026 SentenceID s73 SENTENCE : In fused rays , there were two ray openings , showing that the tip of ray 6 , which is not open in wild type , was transformed to one typical of the other rays ( Chow , Hall and Emmons , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002043 SentenceID s21 SENTENCE : , unpublished ; S . Clark and R . Horvitz , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002043 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : let-60 ( n2021 ) , ( sy95dn ) , ( sy100dn ) , ( n1046gf ) and ( sy103gf ) ( Beitel et al . , 1990 ; Han and Sternberg , 1991 ; G . Jongeward , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002043 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : PS1238 unc-31 ( e169 ) ; syEx23 ( hsp : : lin-3 ) ( R . J . Hill , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002045 SentenceID s25 SENTENCE : glp-1 ( q172 ) homozygous adults produce mitotic germ cells when doubly mutant with gld-1 ( q268 ) ( Francis , Maine , and Schedl , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002045 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : , unpublished observation ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002045 SentenceID s78 SENTENCE : We would like to thank David Hall for sharing unpublished electron micrographs of the DTC , Joel Rothman , Ralf Schnabel , Raphael Kopan , Harold Weintraub and particularly Tim Schedl for sharing unpublished data and strains .
PaperID WBPaper00002046 SentenceID s102 SENTENCE : However , lag-2 germline expression may not have been observed in these experiments because expression of -galactosidase from a transgene has never been detected in the C . elegans germ line ( Fire et al . 1990 ; our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002046 SentenceID s150 SENTENCE : We are grateful to R . Waterson and A . Coulson for providing C . elegans YAC and cosmid strains and unpublished sequence information in the lag-2 region .
PaperID WBPaper00002046 SentenceID s153 SENTENCE : We thank F . Tax and J . Thomas for sharing unpublished data on lag-2 , and T . Blumenthal for unpublished data on polyadenylation signals .
PaperID WBPaper00002046 SentenceID s52 SENTENCE : We find that lag-2 expression , as assayed by either expression of reporter constructs or by in situ hybridization , is limited to the DTC in adult hermaphrodites ; expression during larval development is more complex and will be described elsewhere ( S . Henderson and D . Gao , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002046 SentenceID s65 SENTENCE : By contrast , maternal lag- 2 is not required in the early embryo , lag-2 RNA is not present in oocytes , and lag-2 is apparently not expressed in early embryos ( E . Lambie and S . Henderson , unpublished ; this paper ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002047 SentenceID s73 SENTENCE : In this protein , the Robson Garnier algorithm only predicts for 10 out of the 22 residues an -helical structure ( Chung et al . unpublished 1993 , reference EMBL : M77167 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002048 SentenceID s103 SENTENCE : We are grateful to the Kimble lab , Bruce Bowerman , the Priess lab , Sean Carroll and John White for comments on the manuscript and discussions concerning this work ; Joel Rothman for the 4D microscope ; Craig Mello , Jim Priess , Harold Hutter , Rolf Schnabel , and Joel Rothman for unpublished information ; Pete Okkema , Andy Fire , Susan Strome , for unpublished antibodies ; Steve Limbach , Jim Priess , John White and Bruce Bowerman for help with electron microscopy .
PaperID WBPaper00002048 SentenceID s106 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002048 SentenceID s37 SENTENCE : 2 ] - octane ( DABCO ) and a pinch of p-phenylenediamine ( S . Strome , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002048 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : For example , in glp-1 mutant embryos , ABa descendants that would normally generate pharyngeal precursors , assume the identities of their cousins , which do not produce pharyngeal cells ( Hutter and Schnabel , 1994 ; Moskowitz , Gendreau and Rothman , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002048 SentenceID s39 SENTENCE : Magnification 5000 . 3023 pha-4 and organ development 3NB12 ( Priess and Thomson , 1987 ) and anti-ceh-22 ( P . Okkema and A . Fire , unpublished data ) , recognize cells that are destined to become pharyngeal muscle .
PaperID WBPaper00002048 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : Other antibodies used were anti-IFA ( pharyngeal marginal cells Pruss et al . , 1981 ; Priess and Thomson , 1987 ) , J126 ( pharyngeal glands , rectal valve cells , S . Strome , unpublished data ) , MH4 and MH5 ( marginal cells , Francis and Waterston , 1991 ) , 1CB4 ( pharyngeal glands , intestine , Il2 neurons , Okamoto and Thomson , 1985 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002048 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : Amphid neurons in pha-4 larvae were visualized with the vital dye DiOC18 ( Molecular Probes , E . Hedgecock , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002048 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002048 SentenceID s89 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002104 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : The mutation tra-2 ( q276 ) is an unusual mutation of tra-2 , which causes transformation of XX animals to a fertile male phenotype ( T . B . Schedl , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002104 SentenceID s209 SENTENCE : The fourth exceptional residue , H156 , is usually but not invariably F or Y . The underlined region marks a striking 13 / 14 match to an unpublished partial human cDNA , GenBank accession number HSBB6B042 . 3687 Nematode primary sex determination Xol effect might be recreated .
PaperID WBPaper00002104 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002104 SentenceID s3 SENTENCE : This duplication was isolated in the course of a search for new dominant feminizing mutations of this nematode ( Hodgkin and Albertson , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002106 SentenceID s115 SENTENCE : Since the ultimate fate of the AC is to fuse with the utse ( J . White and E . Southgate , unpublished observations ) , it would appear that the AC both induces the cells and fuses with their progeny .
PaperID WBPaper00002106 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : The axes of the subsequent divisions restore the symmetry , generating six intermediate precursors on each side of the animal . There exist specialized cell types in the ventral uterus of the mature animal ( J . White and E . Southgate , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002106 SentenceID s42 SENTENCE : However , the ventral uterine lineages that we observed in survivors of genotype lag-2 ( q393 ) failed to demonstrate a convincing defect in fate specification ( our unpublished results ) , leaving the identity of the ligand for fate induction an open question .
PaperID WBPaper00002106 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : The lin-3 alleles used were n378 , 1059 and n1058 . n378 / n1059 was maintained in PS1031 , a strain of genotype + let-312 ( s1234 ) lin-3 ( n378 ) + unc-22 ( s7 ) / unc- 24 ( e138 ) + lin-3 ( n1059 ) dpy-20 ( e1282 ) + ( J . Liu , unpublished ) . n1058 was maintained in the balanced line n1058 / DnT1 ( Ferguson and Horvitz , 1985 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002106 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : Finally , when the AC has completed all the above functions , it fuses with the ventral uterine cells of the utse , a cell which forms part of the specific connection between the mature uterus and vulva ( J . White and E . Southgate , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002106 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : PS1238 contains multiple copies of a transgene encoding the lin-3 EGF domain under control of a heat shock promoter ( genotype , unc-31 ( e169 ) ; syEx23 [ pRH51 C14G10 pMOB ] ; R . J . Hill and P . W . Sternberg , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002106 SentenceID s91 SENTENCE : 267 Uterine fate induction in Caenorhabditis isolation of the four VU cells abolished fates at the ends , we could not find any one type of blast cell whose ablation consistently gave this result ( unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002106 SentenceID s96 SENTENCE : lateral During the L4 stage , in wild-type animals , eight ventral uterine progeny fuse together and also fuse with the AC to make a large multinucleate cell , the uterine seam cell ( utse ) , which attaches to the lateral epithelial ( seam ) cells ( J . White and E . Southgate , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002156 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : centrosomes This has been established first by watching for overt signs of movement in high magnification time-lapse recordings ( Goldstein , 1993 ) and second by placing cells in contact and then looking at a marker for cell orientation , the position of the centrosomes in EMS and P2 in live cells and by anti-tubulin immunofluorescence in fixed cells ( unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002156 SentenceID s40 SENTENCE : Hypodermal differentiation was assayed using a polyclonal antibody to LIN-26 protein , which stains some descendants of isolated AB and P2 cells ( unpublished observations ) ; the antibody was kindly provided by Michel Labouesse .
PaperID WBPaper00002156 SentenceID s42 SENTENCE : 1 monoclonal antibody , which stains pharyngeal muscle cells ( see Mello et al . , 1992 ) , also work on formaldehyde-fixed cultured embryos ( unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002156 SentenceID s66 SENTENCE : The possibility remains that an isolated pie-1 P2 cell produces a signal on its future P3 side and induces its own future P3 side to produce gut cells ; this appears unlikely , however , since in several experiments no evidence has been found for a signal produced only on part of P2 ; P2 appears to present a signal on all sides ( Goldstein 1992 , 1993 , and unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002156 SentenceID s70 SENTENCE : granule Following granule movements in EMS in normal embryos and in P2-EMS combinations , as has been done for the segregation event occurring before first cleavage ( Hird and White , 1993 ) , showed no apparent directed granule movements ( unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002187 SentenceID s127 SENTENCE : There is evidence that two separable inductions modify the asymmetric parts of ABpra and ABplp ( Hutter and Schnabel , 1994 ; H . H . and R . S . unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002187 SentenceID s128 SENTENCE : One induction from the MS-lineage after the 12-cell stage specifies the left-right differences between ABplp and ABprp and another induction among the AB-descendants establishes the difference between ABpla and ABpra ( H . H . and R . S . unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002187 SentenceID s48 SENTENCE : S . unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002187 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : S . unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002210 SentenceID s364 SENTENCE : In recent years , it was well established that the AB lineage of the C . elegans embryo is specified by at least five different inductions following the embryonic axes ( Priess and Thomson , 1987 ; Schnabel , 1991 ; Wood , 1991 ; Bowerman et al . , 1992b ; Hutter and Schnabel , 1994 ; Mango et al . , 1994 ; Mello et al . , 1994 ; Moskowitz et al . , 1994 ; Hutter and Schnabel , 1995 ; Hutter and Schnabel , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002210 SentenceID s40 SENTENCE : Recent evidence has shown that the specification of the AB lineage depends on at least five inductions ( Priess and Thomson , 1987 ; Schnabel , 1991 ; Wood , 1991 ; Bowerman et al . , 1992b ; Hutter and Schnabel , 1994 ; Mango et al . , 1994 ; Mello et al . , 1994 ; Moskowitz et al . , 1994 ; Hutter and Schnabel , 1995 ; Hutter and Schnabel , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002222 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : Exhaustive genetic screening for suppressor mutations of lin-29 failed to identify any regulatory genes acting between lin-29 and the L / A switch ( Papp , Euling and Ambros , unpublished ; Bettinger and Rougvie , personal communication ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002222 SentenceID s3 SENTENCE : The events controlled by this regulatory pathway include the expression of stage-specific patterns of cell division ( Ambros and Horvitz , 1984 ) , dauer larva developmental arrest ( Liu and Ambros , 1989 ) , progress through the cell cycle ( Ambros and Horvitz , 1984 ; Euling and Ambros , unpublished ) and adult-specific terminal differentiation of hypodermal cells ( Ambros , 1989 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002223 SentenceID s69 SENTENCE : lin-28 and other heterochronic genes that apparently act between lin-14 and lin-29 in the genetic hierarchy ( Ambros 1989 ; Moss and Ambros , unpublished ) could include regulators of lin-29 , but their gene products and stage-specificity of action have not yet been characterized .
PaperID WBPaper00002224 SentenceID s120 SENTENCE : In C . elegans , as in most other organisms , there are at least two MEKs ( mek-1 , K . L . G . unpublished , and mek-2 ) and two MAPKs ( mpk-1 / sur-1 and mpk-2 ; Wu and Han , 1994 ; Lackner et al . , 1994 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002224 SentenceID s133 SENTENCE : We wish to thank Judith Kimble , in whose laboratory this work was initiated , Victor Ambros and Rosalind Lee for support , encouragement and critical reading of the manuscript , Mark McPeek for statistical advice , Ann Rose , Tim Schedl , Theresa Stiernagle and the Caenorhabditis Genetics Center ( supported by the NIH National Center for Research Resources ) for various strains , R . Waterston and A . Coulson for providing unpublished sequence information and assorted YAC and cosmid clones , Ron Ellis and Kerry Kornfeld for YAC DNA and oligonucleotide primers , and reviewers for helpful comments on the manuscript .
PaperID WBPaper00002224 SentenceID s69 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002224 SentenceID s74 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002225 SentenceID s81 SENTENCE : We thank D . Waring for the ncl-1 cosmid clone , R . Aroian , J . Mendel and P . Sternberg for let-23 mutant strains and communicating unpublished information , C . Kari and R . Herman for the ncl-1 mutant strain and M . Ohara for language assistance .
PaperID WBPaper00002225 SentenceID s83 SENTENCE : We especially thank S . Kim for unpublished results and suggestions about let-23 mosaic analysis .
PaperID WBPaper00002281 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : To construct the unc-4 ( + ) lacZ expression vector , pNC4-23Lz , unc-4 cDNA was obtained by reverse transcription PCR ( Kawasaki , 1990 ) using primers u4p9 to the first exon on the left in Fig . 2 and u4p10 which is complementary to unc-4 coding sequence near the 3 terminus of the translated region ( last exon on the right in Fig . 2 ) and includes an adaptor with a BamHI site ( Miller et al . , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002282 SentenceID s25 SENTENCE : In addition , mes-1 embryos that have been freed from the constraints of the eggshell display defects in the polarity of the P2 division ( unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002282 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : , unpublished result ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002283 SentenceID s17 SENTENCE : To construct pJK349 , a fragment containing a full-length wild-type 4 . 7 kb tra-2 cDNA with 5 bp of 5 UTR and the entire 3 untranslated region ( 3 UTR ) ( Kuwabara et al . , 1992 ) , flanked by XbaI and SmaI restriction sites , was ligated into the NheI- EcoRV site of pPD49 . 83 ( D . Dixon , S . White-Harrison , and A . Fire , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002283 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : A similar tra-2 expression clone was also constructed in the heat shock vector , pPD49 . 79 ( D . Dixon , S . White-Harrison , and A . Fire , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002283 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : The HS-TRA-2A transgene expresses a full-length TRA-2A protein driven by the C . elegans heat shock promoter hsp16 ( Stringham et al . , 1992 ; D . Dixon , S . White-Harrison , and A . Fire , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002283 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : All plasmids contain both a tra-2 and unc-54 3 UTR and an artificial intron between the promoter and coding region ( D . Dixon , S . White-Harrison , and A . Fire , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002283 SentenceID s25 SENTENCE : This construct has been named HS-TRA-2B , because it is predicted to have the same sequence as TRA-2B , the product of the 1 . 8 kb tra-2 mRNA ( Kuwabara , Okkema , and Kimble , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002302 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : -T . Chuang and B . J . Meyer , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002302 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : -T . Chuang and B . J . Meyer , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002302 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : -T . Chuang and B . J . Meyer , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002302 SentenceID s53 SENTENCE : -T . Chuang and B . J . Meyer , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002302 SentenceID s66 SENTENCE : -T . Chuang and B . J . Meyer , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002357 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002357 SentenceID s51 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002357 SentenceID s52 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002357 SentenceID s54 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) , and does not appear to function in the vulval precursor cells ( Tax et al . , 1994 ; S . Kaech and S . Kim , personal communication ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002357 SentenceID s54 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002357 SentenceID s58 SENTENCE : membrane , unpublished observations ) , suggests that inappropriate cellcell interaction may occur when a DSL protein is able to dissociate from the membrane .
PaperID WBPaper00002357 SentenceID s70 SENTENCE : We thank Craig Mello and Jim Priess , and Frans Tax and Jim Thomas , for their generosity with unpublished as well as published clones and information ; David Baillie , Sam Henderson and Judith Kimble for lag-2 alleles ; Andy Fire and Marty Chalfie for reporter genes ; Tim Schedl for helpful discussion ; Richard Ruiz and Denise Brousseau for valuable assistance ; and Mike Beck , Tim Doyle , Jane Albert Hubbard , Gary Struhl and Simon Tuck for critical comments on the manuscript .
PaperID WBPaper00002382 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002382 SentenceID s51 SENTENCE : No other mutations were found in the lin-2 genomic sequences representing the region common to lin-2A and lin-2B using single-stranded conformation polymorphism ( SSCP ) gels ( FMC ) to analyze PCR fragments derived from genomic DNA from wild-type , e1453 and n105 mutants ( data not shown ) . pKX3 and pKX4 contain 10 . 9 kb and 9 . 2 kb KpnI / XhoI genomic fragments , respectively , in the vector pBGST ( Spratt et al . , 1986 ; D . Alley , unpublished data ) . pSK7 contains a 7 . 0 kb StuI / KpnI genomic fragment in the vector pBluescript KS + .
PaperID WBPaper00002382 SentenceID s62 SENTENCE : Mosaic animals were identified and analyzed as described by L . M . Miller , D . A . Waring and S . K . Kim ( unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002382 SentenceID s9 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) , lin-2 ( n1610 , n2686 , n2687 ) ( gift from S . G . Clark and M . J . Stern ) , lin-2 ( ad527 ) ( gift from L . Avery ) , lin-2 ( ga59 , ga60 , ga61 ) ( gift from D . M . Eisenmann ) , unc- 9 ( e101 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002383 SentenceID s12 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002383 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : , unpublished result ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002383 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : , unpublished result ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002383 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : , unpublished result ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002383 SentenceID s62 SENTENCE : , unpublished observation ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002403 SentenceID s110 SENTENCE : axon, axons , unpublished results ) ; serotonin , immunocytochemical staining with an anti-serotonin antiserum ( Garriga et al . , 1993 ) ; AADC , immunocytochemical staining with an anti-serotonin antiserum of animals grown in 5-hydroxytryptophan to detect aromatic amino acid decarboxylase in dopaminergic neurons ( Loer and Kenyon , 1993 ) ; UL64A1 , -galactosidase immunocytochemical staining of animals bearing an integrated promoter trap transgene expressed in the excretory cell ( derived from line UL6 , Young and Hope , 1993 ) ; DIC , Nomarski differential interference contrast microscopy ; UNC-86 , immunocytochemical staining with an anti-UNC-86 antiserum ( Finney and Ruvkun , 1990 ) ; -tubulin , immunocytochemical staining with the anti-acetylated- -tubulin monoclonal antibody 611B1 ( Piperno and Fuller , 1985 ; Siddiqui et al . , 1989 ) ; DiO , epifluorescence of animals after soaking in the lipophilic dye DiO ( Hedgecock et al . , 1985 ) ; GABA , immunocytochemical staining with an anti- GABA antiserum ( McIntire et al . , 1992 ) . dThese axons extend together in a bundle ; we scored the axons as normal if any extended to the wild-type length . eFor glr-1 : : GFP , ceh-23 : : lacZ and UL64A1 , wild type ' indicates the phenotype of animals that carry the transgene , but no vab-8 mutation . fThe posteriorly directed axon outgrowth defects of CAN for e1017 and gm84 were more severe than those for ev411 .
PaperID WBPaper00002403 SentenceID s17 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) , and fails to complement vab-8 ( ct33 ) for the Unc phenotype ( Table 2 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002403 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002403 SentenceID s43 SENTENCE : body , unpublished results ) , and the ectopic ventral protrusions of vab-8 Muv animals are located posterior to the vulva in the withered body region .
PaperID WBPaper00002403 SentenceID s44 SENTENCE : chromosome , unpublished results ) , the forward mutation frequency was 3 . 810-4 and 1 . 910-4 / mutagenized chromosome , respectively .
PaperID WBPaper00002403 SentenceID s56 SENTENCE : We are grateful to Monica Driscoll , Mike Finney , Ed Hedgecock , Ian Hope , Chris Li , James Manser , Barbara Meyer , Gianni Piperno , Fred Wolf , Bill Wood , Jen Zallen , and the Caenorhabditis Genetics Center for kindly providing strains and materials used in this work and to David Eisenmann and Fred Wolf for sharing unpublished 682 results .
PaperID WBPaper00002403 SentenceID s9 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) . ev411 was identified in a screen for Unc mutants ( J . Culotti , personal communication ) and formerly defined the gene unc-107 .
PaperID WBPaper00002403 SentenceID s90 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002403 SentenceID s92 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002434 SentenceID s161 SENTENCE : granules The late somatic-cell granules are not stained by other anti-P-granule antibodies and are not visible in pgl-1 ( ct131 ) mutant embryos containing fluorescent OIC1D4 ( unpublished observation ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002434 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002434 SentenceID s54 SENTENCE : P granules, granules Interestingly , P granules are not visible until the four-cell stage in par- 1 ( Guo and Kemphues , 1995 ) , par-4 and some par-3 mutant embryos ( S . N . H . and K . J . Kemphues , unpublished observations ) and then are visible in multiple cells .
PaperID WBPaper00002434 SentenceID s68 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002434 SentenceID s93 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) and is a convenient marker for the approach of mitosis .
PaperID WBPaper00002451 SentenceID s37 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) . oocyte sperm * A B 1469 Axis specification in Caenorhabditis elegans an anaesthetised mother could be followed through gastrulation , whereas embryos dissected from the mothers ( in these , fertilisation could not be observed ) could be followed through a complete generation .
PaperID WBPaper00002452 SentenceID s25 SENTENCE : The finding that lag-1 antisense RNA injections in the adult hermaphrodite gonad results in embryonic lethality ( V . Kodoyianni , unpublished ) is consistent with the idea that lag-1 is required maternally for embryogenesis .
PaperID WBPaper00002452 SentenceID s42 SENTENCE : Second , LAG-1 appears to act downstream of the LIN-12 / GLP-1 receptors : genetically , a weak lag- 1 mutation is epistatic to a glp-1 gain-of-function mutation ( L . W . Berry and T . Schedl , personal communication ) and molecularly , lag-1 mRNA is present in the mitotic region of the germline , the receiving it issue of a glp-1-mediated interaction ( V . Kodoyianni , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002452 SentenceID s75 SENTENCE : We thank L . Berry and T . Schedl , and I . Moskowitz and J . Rothman for communicating unpublished results , Leanne Olds for her expertise with illustration , all the members of the Kimble laboratory for encouragement and discussions , and Lisa Kadyk for comments on the manuscript .
PaperID WBPaper00002458 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : Nucleotide sequence alterations responsible for several viable unc-52 mutations have been shown to affect subsets of the unc- 52-encoded isoforms generated by alternative RNA splicing ( Rogalski et al . , 1995 ; G . P . Mullen and D . G . Moerman , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002458 SentenceID s59 SENTENCE : These defects appear to be unrelated to unc-52 function because viable unc- 52 mutants exhibit a wild-type response to light touch response and show normal dye filling of chemosensory neurons ( unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002458 SentenceID s60 SENTENCE : In addition , staining of wild-type animals with the GM1 antibody has provided no evidence that any UNC-52 isoform is localized near the implicated mechanosensory or chemosensory neurons ( G . P . Mullen and D . G . Moerman , unpublished data ; Fig . 6 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002479 SentenceID s77 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002479 SentenceID s84 SENTENCE : pie-1 mutations affect APX-1 expression Previously described mutations in the pie-1 gene have incompletely penetrant defects in ABp development , such that ABp can fail to produce the cell types that normally result from P2 signalling ( Mango et al . , 1994 ; C . C . Mello , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002492 SentenceID s184 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002492 SentenceID s193 SENTENCE : All four cells are competent at an early stage to become the anchor cell ( Seydoux et al . , 1990 ) , and may become anchor cells in some reductionof-function mutants of C . elegans lin-12 ( Sternberg and Horvitz , 1989 ; P . W . S . and A . P . Newman , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002492 SentenceID s261 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002492 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002492 SentenceID s30 SENTENCE : -A . F . and P . W . S , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002492 SentenceID s301 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002492 SentenceID s325 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002492 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) ( PS1131 ) , collected in Tokyo , Japan , in July 1991 by W . Wood ; Acrobeloides sp . cf . amurensis ( Truskova , 1971 ) ( PS1146 ) , collected in Blythe , California in February 1992 by R . Wellman ; Cephalobus cubaensis ( Steiner , 1935 ) ( PS1197 ) , collected in Nadi , Fiji Islands by W . Boorstein ; Panagrolaimus sp .
PaperID WBPaper00002492 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002493 SentenceID s1 SENTENCE : DISCUSSION tra-2 ( eg ) alleles define a novel class of tra-2 feminising alleles that transforms XO males into hermaphrodites The molecular basis of the tra-2 ( eg ) mutation is distinct from that of previously characterised tra-2 ( gf ) and tra-2 ( mx ) feminising mutations ( Goodwin et al . , 1993 ; P . Kuwabara , P . Okkema and J . Kimble , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002493 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : It is not present in proteins encoded by other tra-2 mRNAs ( Fig . 2A ) ( Okkema and Kimble , 1991 ; P . Kuwabara , P . Okkema and J . Kimble , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002493 SentenceID s3 SENTENCE : By contrast , the tra-2 ( gf ) mutations disrupt a 28 nt repeat element in the 3 UTR ( Kuwabara et al . , 1992 ; Goodwin et al . , 1993 ) , and the tra-2 ( mx ) mutations encode missense changes in a carboxy terminal domain of TRA-2A ( P . Kuwabara , P . Okkema and J . Kimble , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002493 SentenceID s30 SENTENCE : The 1 . 8 kb tra-2 mRNA contains sequences found in the 3 5 half of the 4 . 7 kb tra-2 mRNA ( Okkema and Kimble , 1991 ; P . Kuwabara , P . Okkema and J . Kimble , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002493 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : To establish that the tra-2 ( eg ) mutations are not simply stronger tra-2 ( gf ) or tra-2 ( mx ) alleles , DNA was cloned from tra-2 ( e2046gf , e2531eg ) animals and the tra-2 ( gf ) ( Goodwin et al . , 1993 ) and tra-2 ( mx ) ( P . Kuwabara , P . Okkema and J . Kimble , unpublished data ) regions analysed .
PaperID WBPaper00002493 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : ( A ) Intron / Exon map of tra-2 locus ( Adapted from Kuwabara et al . , 1992 ; P . Kuwabara , P . Okkema and J . Kimble , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002494 SentenceID s39 SENTENCE : J126 and 2CB7 are similar in specificity to mAb ICB4 ( Kemphues et al . , 1988 ) but stain neuronal cells much less brightly ( B . Bowerman , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002521 SentenceID s57 SENTENCE : A detailed analysis of LIN-29 accumulation in the vulva and the somatic gonad will be presented elsewhere ( Rougvie et al . , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002521 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : The specificity of the antibody preparation was demonstrated by the lack of signal in three out of seven independent lin-29 mutants that are apparent null alleles by genetic criteria ( Ambros and Horvitz , 1984 ; A . Rougvie , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002551 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : First , we tested anti-LIN-26 antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence ( see below ) against embryos homozygous for the deficiency mnDf88 , which deletes lin-26 ( Labouesse et al . , 1994 ) , or for a recently isolated null allele of the gene , which generates a LIN-26 protein of only 45 amino acids ( M . Labouesse and R . Plasterk , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002551 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002551 SentenceID s63 SENTENCE : However , mutations in lin-26 cause cells to degenerate rather than to be transformed in their fates : ( 1 ) direct observation with Nomarski optics as well as staining with antibodies against the LIN-26 protein ( Labouesse et al . , 1994 and this study ) indicated that many hypodermal and glial-like cells degenerate in the strong lin-26 loss-of-function mutants mc1 and mc4 ; although the lin-26 ( mc1 ) and lin-26 ( mc4 ) alleles might not be null alleles , their genetic and phenotypic consequences are very similar to those of a recently isolated molecular null allele of lin-26 ( M . L . and R . Plasterk , unpublished observations ) ; ( 2 ) the weak lin-26 loss-of-function mutation n156 when heterozygous with a deficiency for lin-26 causes most hypodermal cells to degenerate ( Labouesse et al . , 1994 ) , and when homozygous caused neuronal support cells to be structurally abnormal ( this study ) ; ( 3 ) these defects were more severe late compared to early during development , as both the number of cells missing from lin-26 ( mc1 ) and lin-26 ( mc4 ) embryos and the proportion of neurons failing to take up the dye DiO in lin-26 ( n156 ) homozygous larvae increased as development proceeded .
PaperID WBPaper00002551 SentenceID s74 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002551 SentenceID s83 SENTENCE : We thank very much Cori Bargmann and Josh Kaplan for sharing unpublished results .
PaperID WBPaper00002552 SentenceID s115 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002552 SentenceID s119 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002552 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002552 SentenceID s25 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) , and lin-1 and lin- 31 encode putative transcription factors that may be regulated by the Ras pathway ( Beitel et al . , 1995 ; Miller et al . , 1993 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002552 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) , let-537 / mek- 2 ( h294 ) I ( McKim , 1990 ) , lin-1 ( ar147 ) IV ( Tuck and Greenwald , 1995 ) , lin-3 ( n1058 ) IV ( Ferguson and Horvitz , 1985 ) , lin-15 ( n765 ) X ( Ferguson and Horvitz , 1985 ) ; lin-31 ( n301 ) II ( Miller et al . , 1993 ) , lin-45 ( ku112 ) IV ( D . Green and M . H .
PaperID WBPaper00002552 SentenceID s32 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ; Sundaram and Han , 1995 ) , lin-45 ( sy96 ) ( Han et al . , 1993 ) , lon-2 ( e678 ) X ( Brenner , 1974 ) , ncl-1 ( e1865 ) III ( Hedgecock and Herman , 1995 ) , sem-5 ( n1779 ) X ( Clark et al . , 1992a ) , sur-1 / mpk-1 ( ku1 ) ( Wu and Han , 1994 ) , sur-1 / mpk-1 ( oz140 ) ( Church et al . , 1995 ) , ksr-1 ( ku68 ) X and ksr-1 ( ku83 ) X ( Sundaram and Han , 1995 ) , unc-22 ( s7 ) IV ( Moerman and Baillie , 1979 ) , unc-31 ( e169 ) IV and unc-36 ( e251 ) III ( Brenner , 1974 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002552 SentenceID s49 SENTENCE : We especially thank Michael Stern for sharing unpublished data and for critical reading of an earlier version of the manuscript and helpful discussions throughout the course of this work .
PaperID WBPaper00002552 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : , M . S . and M . H , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002581 SentenceID s118 SENTENCE : P granules, cortex, granules In wild-type embryos , the P granules become associated with the cortex in the posterior of P0 after prophase ( Strome and Wood , 1983 ; L . Boyd , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002581 SentenceID s53 SENTENCE : The asymmetric distributions of other components such as the SKN-1 protein , cell cycle length and developmental potential are also disrupted in par mutant embryos ( Bowerman et al . , 1993 ; Kemphues et al . , 1988 ; K . J . Kemphues , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002582 SentenceID s104 SENTENCE : Interestingly , mutations in egl-20 can reverse the A / P polarity of certain epidermal cells ( Jeanne Harris , Jennifer Whangbo and Cynthia Kenyon , unpublished data ) and cells in the Q lineage ( Fig . 3 , legend ) , much as mutations in segment polarity genes do in the fly ( Ma and Moses , 1995 ; Wehrli and Tomlinson , 1995 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002582 SentenceID s124 SENTENCE : The observation that intermediate levels of mab-5 ( as in a mab-5 / + heterozygote ) direct cells to intermediate positions ( Salser and Kenyon , unpublished data ) , also suggests that mab-5 may not act as a simple ON / OFF-type directional switch .
PaperID WBPaper00002582 SentenceID s153 SENTENCE : ( d ) cells , which migrate into the anterior stop expressing mab-5 ( Salser and Kenyon , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002582 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : egl-20 ( mu39 ) was isolated in a screen for EMS-generated mutations affecting the expression of a mab-5-lacZ fusion gene , which will be described elsewhere ( Maloof and Kenyon , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002582 SentenceID s213 SENTENCE : ( d ) migrations in a double mutant containing egl-20 ( n585 ) and a lin-39 null allele , mu26 ( Wang et al . , 1993 ; J . Maloof and C . Kenyon , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002582 SentenceID s25 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002582 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002582 SentenceID s58 SENTENCE : Filled symbols indicate mab-5 expression as determined by antibody staining ( S . Salser and C . Kenyon , unpublished data ; see also Fig . 4 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002582 SentenceID s79 SENTENCE : The positions of the QL . pa daughters are anterior to wild type in greater than 75 % of worms homozygous for the mig-1 alleles e1787 ( Fig . 3 ) , n687 and mu72 , but less than 2 % of worms homozygous for n1354 and n1652 ( data not shown ; Maloof and Kenyon , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002583 SentenceID s48 SENTENCE : P granules, granules Early disappearance and subsequent reappearance of P granules also occurs in par- 1 , par-3 and par-4 embryos ( Guo and Kemphues , 1995 ; K . J . Kemphues , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002607 SentenceID s128 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002607 SentenceID s145 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002607 SentenceID s2 SENTENCE : HAM-1 protein is asymmetrically distributed during mitosis The C . elegans ham-1 gene encodes a novel protein of 414 amino acids ( C . Guenther et al . , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002607 SentenceID s21 SENTENCE : This deletion drastically reduces the amount of ham-1 mRNA in ham-1 ( n1438 ) as compared to wild type ( C . Guenther et al . , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002607 SentenceID s43 SENTENCE : The discrepancy between the number of phasmid neurons identified using EGL-43 expression and DiI fil l i n g , however , appears to be caused by abnormal development of phasmid neuron sensilla in h a m - 1 mutants ( E . Hartwieg , G . G . and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002607 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ] ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002607 SentenceID s56 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002607 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : First , many cells in L1 larvae , including descendants of three of the twenty-eight divisions described above , express EGL-43 ( C . G . and C . Bargmann , unpublished observations ) , and ham-1 mutant larvae contain extra unidentified cells that express EGL-43 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002608 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : The late L4 uterus seems to be completely formed , being almost identical in structure and organization to that of the adult apart from the presence of eggs ( J . G . White and E . Southgate , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002635 SentenceID s88 SENTENCE : We thank Marcus Bosenberg , Henry Roehl , Voula Kodoyianni and Judith Kimble for sharing unpublished results and John Mimikakis , Steve Gendreau , and Judith Kimble for critical reading of the manuscript .
PaperID WBPaper00002636 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : During postembryonic development hyp9 shifts posteriorly ( our unpublished observations ) , so that in the adult both hyp9 and hyp10 form the tip of the tail .
PaperID WBPaper00002636 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : It will be interesting to determine whether the same holds true for the other cdh genes , since they too appear to encode similar large cadherins ( our unpublished results ; C . elegans Genome Sequencing Consortium data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002647 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002648 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002648 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) , and an uneven number of cells ( three ) are induced .
PaperID WBPaper00002648 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002648 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) was collected in Tokyo , Japan , in July 1991 by W . Wood .
PaperID WBPaper00002648 SentenceID s42 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002648 SentenceID s43 SENTENCE : We thank L . Carta , J . DeModena , D . Fitch , W . Sudhaus and W . Wood for worm strains , R . Sommer , K . Tietze and M . Wang for sharing unpublished observations , and T . Clandinin , D . Dimster- Denk , M . Friedrich , J . Liu and R . Sommer for comments on the manuscript .
PaperID WBPaper00002648 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : -A . Flix , P . W . Sternberg , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002660 SentenceID s42 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) , suggesting that protein turnover is important for regulating signal intensity .
PaperID WBPaper00002661 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : P granules, granules In mex-1 mutants , both the K76 antigen and the MEX-3 protein appear , by immunofluorescence , to be present in P granules at wildtype levels ( S . Guedes and J . Priess , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002661 SentenceID s40 SENTENCE : Embryos were stained for PIE-1 with a mouse monoclonal antibody , P4G5 , that was raised against PIE-1-specific peptides and that will be described elsewhere ( C . Schubert unpublished results ) ; we obtained similar embryonic staining patterns with a rabbit polyclonal antibody described by Mello et al . ( 1996 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002661 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : chromosome Cloning and molecular analysis of mex-1 A strain carrying the yeast artificial chromosome Y17G7 ( provided by A . Newman and P . Sternberg ) was shown by genetic crosses to complement mex-1 ( zu120 ) ( B . Draper , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002661 SentenceID s52 SENTENCE : centrosomes, spindles In mex-1 mutants , we have observed some mitotic spindles with PIE-1 at similar levels in both centrosomes ( S . Guedes , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002661 SentenceID s79 SENTENCE : We thank B . Draper , A . Newman , P . Sternberg for assistance in the cloning of mex-1 ; C . Sunkel , S . Parkhurst , M . Costa , R . Hill , B . Draper and W . Downs for comments on the manuscript , C . Schubert for communicating unpublished observations on pie-1 localization , and members of the Priess laboratory for advice and encouragement .
PaperID WBPaper00002662 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : The onset of hermaphrodite spermatogenesis also requires an apparently post-translational regulation of tra-2 ( P . Kuwabara , P . Okkema , and J . Kimble , unpublished data ) as well as regulation by fog-2 ( Schedl and Kimble , 1988 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002662 SentenceID s43 SENTENCE : However , it does not appear to be at the level of tra-2 translation since fog-2 mutants have no effect on the expression of a reporter transgene under control of the tra-2 3 UTR ( E . B . Goodwin , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002742 SentenceID s119 SENTENCE : The transcription start is indicated by an arrow ; exons are boxed , and the UNC-86 and MEC-3 binding sites ( Duggan and Chalfie , unpublished ) are indicated as circles containing 86 and rectangular boxes containing 3 , respectively .
PaperID WBPaper00002742 SentenceID s94 SENTENCE : The observations that mec-3 and mec-7 expression depend on unc-86 gene activity , that UNC-86 continues to be expressed in mature mechanosensory neurons ( Finney and Ruvkun , 1990 ; Hamelin et al . , 1992 ) , and that UNC-86 binds directly to the mec-7 promoter ( A . Duggan and M . Chalfie , unpublished results ) support a model of direct regulation .
PaperID WBPaper00002743 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : The SDC-3 antibody staining pattern in sdc-2 XX mutants is identical to that in XO animals , indicating that SDC-2 is required for the high level of SDC-3 in hermaphrodites and for its localization to X . Consistent with this finding , SDC-3 protein that is produced by transgenes in sdc-2 mutants fails to localize to X . Moreover , SDC-2 is the only known XX-specific dosage compensation protein that is produced solely by the zygote and only in XX animals ( Nusbaum and Meyer , 1989 ; D . Lapidus , H . E . Dawes and B . J . Meyer , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002743 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : Consistent with this view , recent experiments indicate that ectopic expression of SDC-2 in XO animals allows SDC-3 to accumulate and to associate with X ( T . L . Davis , H . E . Dawes and B . J . Meyer , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002743 SentenceID s39 SENTENCE : An amino-terminal region of SDC-3 including amino acids 442-978 is also critical for the dosage compensation activity of SDC-3 and for its localization to X . Overexpression of a truncated protein that contains this region causes dominant dosage compensation defects , suggesting that this region interacts with at least some part of the dosage compensation machinery ( R . Klein and B . J . Meyer , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002743 SentenceID s63 SENTENCE : In this integrated transgenic array ( yIs30 ) , transcription of sdc-2 is controlled by the dpy-30 promoter ( H . E . Dawes and B . J . Meyer , unpublished observations ) . yIs30 ; him-8 ( e1489 ) ; unc-76 ( e911 ) XO males were mated to unc-61 ( e228 ) unc-76 ( e911 ) XX hermaphrodites . yIs30 / + ; him-8 ( e1489 ) / + ; unc-61 ( e228 ) unc-76 ( e911 ) / unc-76 ( e911 ) cross progeny males were mated to sdc-3 ( y52 ) unc-76 ( e911 ) XX hermaphrodites .
PaperID WBPaper00002743 SentenceID s86 SENTENCE : process Of these regulatory genes , the likely gene to confer sex specificity to the dosage compensation process is SDC-2 , because it accumulates solely in hermaphrodites ( D . Lapidus and B . J . Meyer , unpublished observations ) and is also required for the X association of DPY-26 and DPY-27 ( Chuang et al . , 1996 ; Lieb et al . , 1996 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002795 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : The mig-2 allele gm38 is recessive , whereas both the new allele gm103 and the previously reported mig-2 allele rh17 are semidominant ( W . C . Forrester et al . , unpublished data ; I . Zipkin and C . Kenyon , personal communication ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002795 SentenceID s2 SENTENCE : 14 genes function in CAN cell migration To identify genes involved in cell migration , we conducted two screens for mutants with misplaced or abnormal CANs ( W . C . Forrester et al . , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002795 SentenceID s3 SENTENCE : LGI : dpy-5 ( e61 ) , unc-73 ( gm67 ) , unc-73 ( gm123 ) , cam-2 ( gm124 ) , syc-3 ( gm135 ) LGII : cam-1 ( gm105 ) , cam-1 ( gm122 ) LGIII : ceh-10 ( gm58 ) , ceh-10 ( gm71 ) , ceh-10 ( gm100 ) , ceh- 10 ( gm120 ) , ceh-10 ( gm127 ) , ceh-10 ( gm131 ) , ceh-10 ( gm133 ) , syc- 2 ( gm132 ) , fam-1 ( gm85 ) , ina-1 ( gm144 ) , syc-1 ( gm126 ) LGIV : dpy-20 ( e1282ts ) , unc-30 ( e191 ) , epi-1 ( gm57 ) , epi-1 ( gm121 ) , epi-1 ( gm139 ) , epi-1 ( gm146 ) , fam-2 ( gm94 ) , kyIs5 [ ceh-23-unc-76- gfp : : lin-15 ] LGV : unc-34 ( gm104 ) , unc-34 ( gm114 ) , unc-34 ( gm115 ) , unc- 34 ( gm134 ) , vab-8 ( gm99 ) , vab-8 ( gm138 ) LGX : mig-2 ( gm38 ) , mig-2 ( gm103sd ) , kyIs4 [ ceh-23-unc-76- gfp : : lin-15 ] The isolation and genetic characterization of Cam mutants epi-1 ( epithelialization defective ) , ina-1 ( integrin , -subunit ) , unc-34 ( uncoordinated ) , mig-2 ( cell migration defective ) , unc-73 , vab-8 ( variable abnormal ) , ceh-10 ( C . elegans homeobox ) , cam-1 , cam-2 ( CAN abnormal migration ) , syc-1 , syc-2 , syc-3 , ( synthetic Cam ) , fam- 1 and fam-2 ( fasciculation and cell migration defective ) will be described in a subsequent paper by Forrester et al . ( unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002795 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : Similarly , ceh- 10 functions in the CANs to regulate their migrations and their ability to express ceh-10 and ceh-23 ( W . C . Forrester et al . , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002795 SentenceID s43 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) , respectively .
PaperID WBPaper00002795 SentenceID s44 SENTENCE : These strains contained the kyIs5 transgene . reporter ( W . C . Forrester et al . , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002795 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : With the exception of mig-2 ( gm103sd ) , all of the mutations are recessive and therefore likely to reduce or eliminate gene function ( W . C . Forrester et al . , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002798 SentenceID s17 SENTENCE : In this case , the unc-37 ( gf ) suppressor allele restores functional interactions between UNC-4 and UNC-37 that are otherwise perturbed by either the unc- 37 ( e262 ) mutation or by specific unc-4 missense mutations ( Miller et al . , 1993 ; A . R . Winnier and D . M . Miller , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002798 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : -J . Meir and D . M . Miller , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002798 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : -J . Meir and D . M . Miller , unpublished findings ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002798 SentenceID s334 SENTENCE : We find that all of these e262 suppressors also correspond to the unc-37 E580K substitution that suppresses unc-4 ( e2322ts ) and other specific unc-4 missense mutations ( A . R . Winnier and D . M . Miller , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002800 SentenceID s32 SENTENCE : At least four genes expressed in touch neurons ( mec-2gfp , mec-4lacZ , mec-7 and mec-9lacZ ) are negatively regulated by pag-3 in the BDU neurons ( Jia et al . , 1996 ; G . Xie and E . Aamodt , unpublished results ) , and pag-3 also negatively regulates its own expression .
PaperID WBPaper00002801 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002801 SentenceID s93 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) ; the significance of this morphology and of the apparent transient lack of rRNA transcription in P4 is not known .
PaperID WBPaper00002826 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : At least five genes in C . elegans have been identified that are related to the achaete-scute genes of Drosophila ( Zhao and Emmons , 1995 ; Waterston and Sulston , 1995 ; this work and unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002826 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : All of the CeE / DA antibody-positive muscles ( pm5L and R , anal depressor , anal sphincter , intestinal , uterine and vulval ) are non-striated ( Albertson and Thompson , 1975 ; Ardizzi and Epstein , 1987 ; Waterston , 1988 ) and do not 2186 contain detectable levels of CeMyoD ( Krause et al . , 1990 ; M . Krause , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002826 SentenceID s25 SENTENCE : Heterodimers between E and MyoD family members can be demonstrated in vertebrate skeletal myogenesis ( Lassar et al . , 1991 ) and Daughterless : Nautilus heterodimers are suspected in Drosophila myogenesis ( Caudy et al . , 1988b ; B . Paterson , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002826 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : First , rescue of the hlh-1 mutant phenotype can be achieved by expressing wild-type hlh-1 relatively late in embryogenesis using the bodywall muscle myosin heavy chain gene ( unc-54 ) promoter ( A . Fire , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002837 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002837 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002837 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : Molecular analysis of fax-1 , unc-30 and unc-42 indicates that some of the alleles examined in this study are likely to be null ( unpublished results and Jin et al . , 1994 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002837 SentenceID s51 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002837 SentenceID s61 SENTENCE : We thank David Hsu for his sharp eyes ; Dan Elkes , Erik Lundquist and Todd Starich for communicating unpublished results ; Anna Taskar for technical assistance ; Cori Bargmann , Margaret Fuller , Chris Li , Erik Lundquist , Morris Maduro , Barbara Meyer , David Pilgrim , Jen Zallen and the Caenorhabditis Genetics Center for providing strains and other materials .
PaperID WBPaper00002837 SentenceID s70 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002842 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : Intercalation of the dorsal hypodermal cells is largely complete before the ventral marginal cells have migrated around the equator of the embryo , based on 3-dimensional MH27 immunostaining reconstructions and 4-D time-lapse videomicroscopy ( E . Williams- Masson , P . Heid , C . Lavin and J . Hardin , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002842 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : basal, basal lamina Currently , there is little evidence for the presence of a welldeveloped basal lamina underlying the migrating hypodermal cells , either by transmission electron microscopy ( E . Williams- Masson and C . Lavin , unpublished observations ) , or using available probes for typical basal laminar components , such as collagen ( Kramer , 1994 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002842 SentenceID s95 SENTENCE : , unpublished observation ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002844 SentenceID s113 SENTENCE : lin-39 is expressed in the V ( 2-4 ) lineages more strongly than in the V1 lineage ( Wang et al . 1993 ; J . Maloof and C . Kenyon , unpublished observations ) , which probably explains why V ( 2-4 ) produce lin-22 ( n = 34 ) mab-5 ; lin-22 ( n = 34 ) lin-39 ; lin-22 ( n = 33 ) lin-39 mab-5 ; lin-22 ( n = 73 ) V cells % postdeirids 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 Fig . 8 .
PaperID WBPaper00002844 SentenceID s127 SENTENCE : In pal-1 ( e2091 ) mutants , which are defective in a late function of pal-1 , mab-5 expression in the V6 lineage is decreased , and V6 generates a V ( 1-4 ) -like lineage ( Salser and Kenyon , 1996 ; Hunter and Kenyon , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002844 SentenceID s148 SENTENCE : body The Hox gene lin-39 patterns the central body region and is expressed in V2-V5 , but not V1 ( Wang et al . , 1993 ; J . Maloof and C . Kenyon , unpublished results ) , so we wondered whether lin-39 ( + ) activity caused V2-V4 to act differently from V1 in a lin-22 mutant .
PaperID WBPaper00002844 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : In V6 , mab- 5 is expressed in a uniform manner , and this expression is activated by the C . elegans caudal homolog pal-1 ( Waring and Kenyon , 1990 , 1991 ; Salser and Kenyon , 1996 ; Hunter and Kenyon , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002844 SentenceID s67 SENTENCE : A similar phenomenon was observed in lin-22 ; mab-5 double mutants : in these animals , the V cells generated fewer rays than in lin-22 single mutants , and the Vn . pppp cells were much more likely to become ray precursor cells than their sisters were ( Kenyon , 1986 ; unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002922 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002922 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002922 SentenceID s64 SENTENCE : We thank the C . elegans stock center , funded by the NIH , and Jim Priess and Ken Kemphues for some of the strains used in these experiments ; Sarah Crittenden and Judith Kimble , Bruce Draper and Jim Priess , and Jennifer Watts , Diane Morton and Ken Kemphues for sharing unpublished information ; Michele Champagne , Danielle Hamill , Bruce Howard and Elena Kouzminova for constructing double mutants ; David Miller and Susan Strome for antibodies ; and Bruce Draper , Pierre Gnczy and Chris Shelton for helpful comments and discussions .
PaperID WBPaper00002923 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : To assay vab-7 expression , I used a vab-7 : : lacZ reporter gene ( Ahringer , 1996 ) that has the same early expression pattern as the endogenous vab-7 protein ( Ahringer and Neades , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002924 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002924 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002925 SentenceID s119 SENTENCE : This effect of pha-1 ( e2123 ) appears specific to the ceh-22 : : gfp fusion since pharyngeal expression of a C subelement driven gfp reporter is not reduced in terminally arrested pha-1 mutant animals ( D . Moons and P . Okkema , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002925 SentenceID s30 SENTENCE : 3972 enhancer and promoter has no detectable effect on expression of a myo-2 : : lacZ reporter ( Okkema and Fire , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002925 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : pha-4 mutations block pharyngeal development at an early step , prior to formation of the pharyngeal primordium , and they eliminate expression of ceh-22 ( Mango et al . , 1994 ; E . Ha and P . Okkema , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002925 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : The plasmid pCW2 . 1 containing a ceh-22 : : gfp reporter was constructed by substituting the gfp coding sequence from pPD95 . 75 ( A . Fire , G . Seydoux , J . Ahnn and S . Xu , unpublished ) for the lacZ coding sequence from the previously characterized ceh-22 : : lacZ reporter pOK29 . 02 ( Okkema and Fire , 1994 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002925 SentenceID s59 SENTENCE : We have tested the simple hypothesis that pha-1 activates transcription in parallel to ceh-22 via the organ-specific C subelement of the myo-2 enhancer ( Okkema and Fire , 1994 ) ; however , C subelement function appears normal in pha-1 mutants ( D . Moons and P . Okkema , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002938 SentenceID s89 SENTENCE : In addition , lin-29-dependent transcription from a collagen promoter ( Liu et al . , 1995 ; Rougvie and Ambros , 1995 ) is detected in the hypodermis of adult lin-29 ( ga94 ) but not lin-29 ( 0 ) animals ( J . Abrahante and A . Rougvie , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002941 SentenceID s1 SENTENCE : DISCUSSION ceh-13 activation depends on cell fate and on anteroposterior cell polarity The homolog of the Drosophila HOM-C gene labial , ceh-13 , is the first gene of the C . elegans Hox gene cluster to be activated during development ( Wittmann et al . , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002941 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : body C . elegans has a cluster of four evolutionarily conserved HOM- C / Hox genes ( Brglin et al . , 1991 ; Brglin and Ruvkun , 1993 ; Kenyon and Wang , 1991 ; Wang et al . , 1993 ; Wilson et al . , 1994 ; Hunter and Kenyon , 1995 ) which , during development , are expressed in consecutive domains along the anteroposterior body axis ( Wang et al . , 1993 ; Clark et al . , 1993 ; Wittmann et al . , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002941 SentenceID s12 SENTENCE : In this paper , we describe the early expression of ceh-13 , the orthologue of the Drosophila labial gene ( Schaller et al . , 1990 ; Sharkey et al . , 1997 ; Wittmann et al . , unpublished data ) . ceh- 13 is the earliest gene of the C . elegans Hox gene cluster to be activated in development .
PaperID WBPaper00002941 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : ceh-13 has a dynamic expression pattern , which shows the typical characteristics of a labial gene ( Wittmann et al . , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002941 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : C . elegans germline transformation and in vivo observation The translational ceh-13 : : gfp fusion gene ( Chalfie et al . , 1994 ; Heim et al . , 1995 ) used in this study was constructed by inserting the PstI fragment derived from pPDpst37 ( Wittmann et al . , unpublished data ) into the vector pPD95 . 69 ( provided by A . Fire ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002941 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : Injection procedure , genome integration and transgenic homozygote selection were performed as described for the -galactosidase fusion ( Mello and Fire , 1995 ; Wittmann et al . , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002941 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : Immunolocalization Anti-CEH-13 was used as a primary antibody at a working dilution of 1 : 40 to 1 : 100 ( Wittmann et al . , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002964 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002964 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002964 SentenceID s95 SENTENCE : We also greatly appreciate Jim Thomas ' encouragement and generosity with unpublished materials and information .
PaperID WBPaper00002968 SentenceID s12 SENTENCE : The line was outcrossed five times but the integration site was not determined ( S . Takagi , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002968 SentenceID s178 SENTENCE : However , mau-2 and che-3 are almost certainly not allelic , for several reasons : ( 1 ) we found the other two mau-2 alleles ( qm4 and qm5 ) to complement che-3 ( e1124 ) ; ( 2 ) no other che-3 allele is uncoordinated ( Lewis and Hodgkin , 1977 ) ; and ( 3 ) we have shown that mau-2 and che-3 are physically distinct ( C . Bnard and S . Hekimi , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002968 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : axons, bodies, cell bodies, fraction This construct , which is capable of rescuing unc-31 mutants , is expressed in a large fraction of the nervous system , including cell bodies and axons ( Livingstone , 1991 ; D . Livingstone and R . Hoskins , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003007 SentenceID s3 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003015 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : body, processes, synapses These cells are unique in that they send processes into the sublateral nerve cords , with synapses to body wall muscle cells ( White et al . , 1986 ; D . H . Hall and J . B . Rand , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003015 SentenceID s2 SENTENCE : Efforts in this laboratory , combined with the ongoing genome sequencing project , have identified four members of the NK-2 homeodomain family in C . elegans : CEH-22 , CEH-24 , CEH- 27 and CEH-28 ( Okkema and Fire , 1994 ; Wilson et al . , 1994 ; this work ; B . D . Harfe and A . Fire , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003015 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : The CEH-24 homeodomains in C . elegans and C . briggsae are identical . Sources for homeodomain sequences are : C . briggsae CEH-24 ( this paper ) ; TTF- 1 / Nkx-2 . 1 ( Guazzi et al . , 1990 ) ; Dth-2 ( Garcia- Fernndez et al . , 1993 ) ; Nkx2- 5 / Csx ( Lints et al . , 1993 ; Komuro and Izumo , 1993 ) ; Nkx-2 . 2 , Nkx2-3 ( Price et al . , 1992 ) ; XINK-2 ( Saha et al . , 1993 ) ; Lox-10 ( Nardelli-Haefliger and Shankland , 1993 ) ; NK-2 / vnd , tin / NK-4 , bag / NK-3 ( Kim and Nirenberg , 1989 ) ; CEH-22 ( Okkema and Fire , 1994 ) ; EgHbx3 ( Oliver et al . , 1992 ) ; ceh-27 , ceh-28 and ceh-29 are additional related genes that have been sequenced by the ongoing C . elegans genome sequencing consortium ( Wilson et al . , 1994 ; B . D . Harfe and A . Fire , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003015 SentenceID s49 SENTENCE : Preliminary results indicate that none of the three genes are capable of expressing in ceh-24-positive cells ( B . D . Harfe and A . Fire , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003015 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : In addition , ceh- 27 , ceh-28 , and ceh-29 reporter fusions do not have any ectopic expression in a ceh-24 null mutation ( B . D . Harfe and A . Fire , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003015 SentenceID s66 SENTENCE : Difficulty in detecting mRNA in these cells occurs with several unrelated transcripts , likely reflecting a physical barrier to permeabilization of these it issues ( G . Seydoux , B . D . Harfe and A . Fire , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003015 SentenceID s73 SENTENCE : The crippled pes-10 promoter in this vector is not intrinsically active , but can be activated in a variety of it issues by juxtaposition to diverse it issue-specific enhancers ( B . D . Harfe , A . Fire , S . Xu and G . Seydoux , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003016 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : The C . elegans genome has dozens of guanylyl cyclases , including numerous cyclases expressed in sensory neurons ( Yu et al . , 1997 ) , but only a few cyclic nucleotide-gated channels ( our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003045 SentenceID s39 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003045 SentenceID s48 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003045 SentenceID s66 SENTENCE : In support of this , SMs are often found correctly positioned in vulvaless mutants where the VPCs are not induced and presumably do not express EGL-17 ( Li and Chalfie , 1990 ; M . J . S , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003045 SentenceID s87 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003045 SentenceID s97 SENTENCE : We thank M . Sundaram for providing strains ; B . Palmer for his early observations of egl-17 : : GFP in 2 lineages ; S . Cameron for his confirmation of the M4 expression of egl-17 : : GFP ; A . Fire and colleagues for making available unpublished expression vectors ; and P . Sternberg and members of the Stern and Koelle labs for discussions and comments on the manuscript .
PaperID WBPaper00003064 SentenceID s165 SENTENCE : We wish to thank V . Ambros , P . Larsen , W . H . Yeh and D . Riddle for sharing unpublished results and strains , D . Brown , V . Corces , A . Fire , H . Hutter , M . Montgomery and C . Norris for helpful comments on the manuscript , and S . Wimbuish for technical assistance .
PaperID WBPaper00003064 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : -W . Su , M . Killeen , E . Hedgecock and J . Culotti , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003064 SentenceID s92 SENTENCE : Preliminary molecular studies suggest that class 3 alleles , rather than some other class , make no functional products ( A . Antebi , M . Snow , W . Yeh , E . Hedgecock , D . Riddle , and P . Larsen , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003065 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : We thank the Baillie lab for strains , Margaret Fuller and Susan Strome for antibodies , and Jim Waddle , Su Guo , Lynn Boyd and Bijan Etemad-Moghadam for providing antibodies , advice on immunolocalization , and for communicating unpublished results .
PaperID WBPaper00003068 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : Horner et al . have shown that other pha-4 alleles also cause changes in the Ce-fkh-1 coding sequence and that Ce-fkh-1 RNA interference injections produce a pha-4 phenocopy ( M . A . Horner , S . Quintin , M . E . Domeier , J . Kimble , M . Labouesse and S . Mango , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003083 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : F42D1 Eco RI Sal1 ATG EcoRV EcoRV Sal1 XbaI Xba I Bgl II Stu I Rescuing Fragment Fragment used for GFP fusion Bam HI EMBL3 clone gt11 - COG-3 containing the entire 2 1kb Sal1 1563 unc-3 encodes an O / E transcription factor S . Xu and G . Seydoux , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003093 SentenceID s109 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003093 SentenceID s17 SENTENCE : For example , several genes have been found that may be required for the germline cell cycle ( glp-2 : E . Lambie , L . Mathies , A . Petcherski , and J . Kimble , unpublished ; glp-3 : Kadyk et al . , 1997 ; glp-4 : Beanan and Strome , 1992 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003094 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : ( V . Praitis and J . Austin , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003094 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : In agreement with this result , antisera that recognize the SMA-1 C terminus do not detect protein in sma-1 ( ru18 ) extracts ( V . Praitis , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003135 SentenceID s101 SENTENCE : Overexpression of EGL- 5 has a dominant sterile phenotype ( L . Jiang , unpublished observation ) , making it impossible to examine the rescue of the egg-laying behavior .
PaperID WBPaper00003135 SentenceID s137 SENTENCE : Second , analysis of lin-3-lacZ reporter constructs suggests that a potential source of LIN-3 signal exists in the tail region posterior to the P11 / P12 cells ( R . Hill , C . Chang and P . Sternberg , unpublished observation ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003135 SentenceID s150 SENTENCE : Transgenic animals bearing a lin-3-lacZ reporter construct which contains 12 kb of lin-3 genomic sequence have been generated ( R . Hill , C . Chang , and P . Sternberg , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003135 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : In male spicule development , lin-3 mutants display defects similar to those observed in animals with F and U cells ablated ( Chamberlin and Sternberg , 1993 , 1994 ) , suggesting that F and U cells may be the source of LIN-3 signal . The expression pattern of lin-3 has not been precisely determined since the genomic clone used to determine AC expression does not contain the entire coding region ( J . Liu , P . Tzou , R . Hill , and P . Sternberg , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003135 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : Transgenic animals bearing a lin-3-lacZ reporter gene with additional genomic sequence have been generated ( R . Hill , C . Chang and P . Sternberg , unpublished observation ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003135 SentenceID s39 SENTENCE : Ablation experiments have been conducted to identify the source ( Sulston and White , 1980 ; R . Hill , personal communication ; L . Jiang , unpublished observation ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003135 SentenceID s63 SENTENCE : It is possible that the Wnt pathway regulates the competence of the cells to respond to the LIN-3 inductive signal . But the Wnt signal alone is not sufficient to promote P12 fate , as overexpression of LIN-44 in wild-type animals has no effect on P11 / P12 cell fate specification ( L . Jiang and M . Herman , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003138 SentenceID s1 SENTENCE : MATERIALS AND METHODS Identification of cells Cell fates were assigned as noted in the text on the basis of morphology , position and the expression of a set of cell-type specific reporter transgenes , described below . gfp and lacZ coding regions were from standard C . elegans expression vectors ( A . Fire , G . Seydoux , J . Ahnn and S . Xu , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003138 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : The hlh-8 promoter is active in undifferentiated cells in the M lineage ( B . Harfe , A . VazGomes , M . Krause and A . Fire , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003138 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : We also examined the pattern of hlh-1 promoter activity using an integrated hlh-1 : : gfp reporter construct ( C . Branda , K . Dej , S . Xu , A . Fire , and M . Stern , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003138 SentenceID s44 SENTENCE : Our laboratories have been performing ongoing screens for mutants with defects in postembryonic muscle development , starting with transgenic lines in which GFP ( driven by the myo- 3 , egl-15 or ceh-24 promoters ) marks different subsets of the musculature ( S . Kostas , B . Harfe and A . Fire , unpublished ; C . Branda and M . Stern , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003138 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : The egl-15 promoter is active in adult vm1 vulval muscles ( C . S . Branda and M . J . Stern , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003138 SentenceID s64 SENTENCE : The phenotypic effects seen in hlh-1 ( cc561 ) animals are due to insufficiency rather than novel effects of this protein : we were able to fully rescue the mutant phenotype by providing additional copies of the cc561 sequence ( as a mutant transgene ) or by stabilizing the mutant RNA transcript using a mutation in the RNA surveillance ( smg ) system ( Table 1 ; Pulak and Anderson , 1993 ; J . Hsieh , B . Harfe and A . Fire , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003138 SentenceID s72 SENTENCE : MAB-5 mutants produce several different defects in the M lineage , including defective patterns of early cell cleavage and transformations to produce ectopic sex myoblasts from both presumptive muscle and coeloemocyte precursors ( Kenyon , 1986 ; C . Kenyon , B . Harfe and A . Fire , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003138 SentenceID s73 SENTENCE : A simple possibility , that MAB-5 could be required in the M lineage for hlh-1 expression , appears not to be the case : mab-5 null mutants still contain CeMyoD protein in the M lineage ( M . Krause , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003143 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003143 SentenceID s12 SENTENCE : As has been seen in a variety of organisms ( Sabl and Henikoff , 1996 ; Martin and Whitelaw , 1996 ) , C . elegans is capable of efficiently silencing certain repetitive transgene arrays ( Okkema et al . , 1993 ; Mello and Fire , 1995 ; J . Hsieh , S . Xu , and A . Fire , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003143 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003143 SentenceID s74 SENTENCE : , unpublished results .
PaperID WBPaper00003144 SentenceID s101 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003144 SentenceID s105 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003144 SentenceID s109 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003144 SentenceID s115 SENTENCE : We would like to thank Ian Korf , Laura Berkowitz , Scott Kuersten , and Daryl Hurd for invaluable technical advice ; Mark Parker for assistance with sequencing ; Alan Coulson for providing cosmid 2466 clones ; Jeff Simske and Stuart Kim for sharing unpublished results on the unc-52 region ; Rick Jones , Jeff Simon , and Carol Garvin for many helpful discussions .
PaperID WBPaper00003144 SentenceID s54 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003144 SentenceID s80 SENTENCE : ( 3 ) Additional mutageneses using trimethylpsoralen / UV or cesium radiation , both of which can generate deletions , yielded seven additional mes alleles , which display maternal-effect sterility like the EMS alleles ( Paulsen et al . , 1995 and our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003144 SentenceID s82 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003145 SentenceID s43 SENTENCE : , S . S . and T . Blumenthal , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003145 SentenceID s65 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003145 SentenceID s9 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003169 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003169 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : 3216 about 12 kb of flanking sequences , as well as a derivative thereof ( pML208 ) , which carries a frameshift leading to a stop codon in the third exon of the adjacent lin-26-related gene called lir-1 ( P . D . et al . , unpublished ) , fully rescued the embryonic lethality of lin-26 ( mc15 ) resulting in fertile adults ( Fig . 3 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003169 SentenceID s39 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003169 SentenceID s42 SENTENCE : Top part shows the physical map of the region containing lin-26 and lir-1 ( lin-26 related ; P . D . unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003169 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003169 SentenceID s76 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003169 SentenceID s86 SENTENCE : For instance , we have shown that lir-1 ( see Fig . 3 ) encodes a protein similar to LIN-26 , is expressed in part in the same cells as lin-26 and shows a lossof-function phenotype similar to that of lin-26 ( P . D . et al . , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003169 SentenceID s94 SENTENCE : adherens junction, junction , unpublished data ) that ectopic expression of the LIN-26 protein can convert certain undifferentiated cells into cells that express the adherens junction protein recognized by MH27 , a marker of epithelial cells .
PaperID WBPaper00003200 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003200 SentenceID s3 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003200 SentenceID s39 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003200 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) , and a pool of four cosmids from the this region was found to rescue the bar-1 ( ga80 ) mutant phenotypes in germline transformation experiments ( Fig . 2 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003200 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) , uDf1 The mutation designated gaIs37 is an integrated array of plasmids that express the D . melanogaster Mek gene Dsor-1 and an activated form of the C . elegans MAP kinase encoded by the mpk-1 gene ( Lackner and Kim , 1998 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003200 SentenceID s74 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003201 SentenceID s69 SENTENCE : lateral The expression pattern of rnr : : GFP is consistent with the previously reported timing of S phase in the lateral and ventral hypodermal lineages ( Hedgecock and White , 1985 ; Euling and Ambros , 1996 ; R . Roy , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003201 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : The egl-17 promoter is activated Y . Hong , R . Roy and V . Ambros 3587 CKI and developmental cell cycle control specifically in P6 . p during the late G1 of the cell cycle ( V . Ambros , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003203 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003203 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003203 SentenceID s54 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003228 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003228 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : In conclusion , starting with the discovery of an interaction between mammalian aPKCs and a mammalian protein similar to PAR-3 ( Y . I . et al . , unpublished data ) , we have shown that the C . elegans atypical protein kinase C , PKC-3 is required to establish polarity in the C . elegans embryo and it does this via its interaction with PAR-3 .
PaperID WBPaper00003228 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : peripheral, spindle In par-3 1-cell embryos , PAR-1 and PAR-2 are no longer restricted to the posterior pole although they remain peripheral ( Etemad-Moghadam et al . , 1995 ) , and the par-3 spindle orientation defect is epistatic to those of the other pars ( Cheng et al . , 1995 ; K . J . K . unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003228 SentenceID s40 SENTENCE : Recently , mammalian atypical protein kinase Cs ( aPKCs ) , PKC ( Goodnight et al . , 1992 ) and PKC ( Akimoto et al . , 1994 ) , were shown to associate specifically with a mouse protein similar to C . elegans PAR-3 ( Y . I . et al . , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003265 SentenceID s63 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) and the corresponding preimmune serum were used in supershift experiments involving MEC-3 .
PaperID WBPaper00003265 SentenceID s74 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) constructed in SHLX2 vector ( Palazzola et al . , 1990 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003325 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003325 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003330 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003330 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) was injected at a concentration of 100 g / ml together with pRF4 , which confers a dominant roller phenotype on transformed progeny ( Mello et al . , 1991 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003330 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003330 SentenceID s53 SENTENCE : A hypermorphic allele of let-60 ras , n1046 , partially suppresses the premature fusion defect in lin-25 mutants ( Tuck and Greenwald , 1995 ) as do null alleles of lin- 1 , which encodes a target of the induction pathway ( Jacobs et al , 1998 ; S . T . and I . G . unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003331 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : Thirdly , binding of a different factor in the extract to the preferred LEF-1 / TCF sites is not competed by the B element ( our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003331 SentenceID s48 SENTENCE : Multimers of the B region do not appear to act as an independent enhancer element ( our unpublished results ) and the B sequence contains an inverted pair of potential binding sites for SRY ( Heinemeyer et al . , 1998 ) , a member of a different class of HMG proteins ( Baxevanis and Landsman , 1995 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003382 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : These defects include the production of hypodermal cells by both daughters of EMS , and a failure of the daughters of E to initiate gastrulation of the embryo ( our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003382 SentenceID s2 SENTENCE : pos-1 mRNA and POS-1 protein are distributed asymmetrically We used in situ hybridization to examine the distribution patterns of approximately one thousand mRNAs in early embryos as part of the C . elegans cDNA project ( Y . Kohara , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003382 SentenceID s32 SENTENCE : As part of the C . elegans cDNA project , we have used molecular screens to look for mRNAs that are localized asymmetrically in the early embryo ( Y . Kohara , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003382 SentenceID s60 SENTENCE : We have found that mex-1 ( zu120 ) mutant embryos have lower than normal levels of POS-1 at all stages ( our unpublished results ) , suggesting that MEX-1 could have a role in mRNA translation .
PaperID WBPaper00003382 SentenceID s61 SENTENCE : mex-1 ( zu120 ) mutants also lack APX-1 expression , although we do not yet know if this is a consequence of the low level of POS-1 ( K . Mickey , R . Hill , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003383 SentenceID s17 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003383 SentenceID s219 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003383 SentenceID s51 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003385 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : Although their effects on PAR-3 and PAR-6 are similar , mutations in par- 4 and par-2 have distinguishable phentoypes ( Kemphues et al . , 1988 ; Morton et al . , 1992 ) and , although par-2 mutants can be suppressed by lowering the levels of par-6 ( Watts et al . , 1996 ) , par-4 mutants can not ( T . H . unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003399 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : Although sharing an overall structure with megalin and to a slightly greater extent LRP , its predicted product is unusual ( unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003399 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : 600 expected from the phenotype , genetic tests demonstrate that the breakpoint is within the lrp-1 gene ( unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003399 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : Also , Southern blot analysis reveals an alteration in a 2 . 8 kb HindIII fragment that contains four exons from the lrp-1 gene ( unpublished observations ; summarized in Fig . 2 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003400 SentenceID s25 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) and failed to complement sma- 6 .
PaperID WBPaper00003400 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003401 SentenceID s104 SENTENCE : We are grateful for technical assistance from Gail Morris and Jonathan Zalevsky , for communication of unpublished results from J . Culotti , M . Fleischmann , F . Mueller , S . Baird , R . Lints , S . Emmons , E . Jorgensen , K . Morita and N . Ueno , for comments on the manuscript from M . Han and D . Xue , for helpful discussions from R . Raff , J . Yochem , R . Kohler and members of the Wood laboratory , for cosmid clones from A . Coulson , and for C . elegans mutant strains from the Caenorhabditis elegans Genetics Center supported by the NIH National Center for Research Resources ( NCRR ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003401 SentenceID s17 SENTENCE : Isolation of dbl-1 mutations The dbl-1 ( ev580 ) mutation was identified as a PCR-amplified band from a pooled DNA sample of a Tc1 transposon insertion library ( P . J . R . and J . Culotti , unpublished ) , using nested PCR with a pair of dbl-1 3 UTR primers and a pair of Tc1 right ' primers ( Plasterk , 1995 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003401 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , but its function is not yet known .
PaperID WBPaper00003401 SentenceID s25 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003401 SentenceID s25 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) were crossed with both unc- 46 dbl-1 ( ev580 ) and dbl-1 ( ev580 ) homozygotes , and non-Unc Sma animals and Sma males , respectively , were sought among the progeny .
PaperID WBPaper00003401 SentenceID s53 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003401 SentenceID s59 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , suggesting that dbl-1 could encode its previously unidentified ligand .
PaperID WBPaper00003401 SentenceID s73 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) which , however , could simply indicate a structural role for the socket cells .
PaperID WBPaper00003401 SentenceID s9 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) identified a second dbl-1 allele , wk70 , which changes Q314 in the mature domain to a termination codon ( Fig . 1A , B ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003427 SentenceID s170 SENTENCE : process Furthermore , EM studies of the multivulva mutant lin-15 ( e1763 ) have demonstrated that this process does not require the presence of the anchor cell ( unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003427 SentenceID s69 SENTENCE : The detailed knowledge of short-range migrations , changes in cell shapes , cell fusions and the anatomical organization of the vulva allows a more precise description of the phenotypes of mutations that disrupt pattern formation in the vulva ( unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003428 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003428 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) can suppress the Pal-1 ( e2091 ) mutant phenotype and allow V6 to generate rays .
PaperID WBPaper00003428 SentenceID s63 SENTENCE : Consistent with this interpretation , PAL-1 protein was detected in the M cell during embryogenesis before MAB-5 expression in M is initiated ( L . G . Edgar and W . B . Wood , personal communication ; our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003450 SentenceID s101 SENTENCE : Molecular cloning of egl-27 egl-27 maps genetically between dpy-10 and tra-2 on linkage group II ( A . Chisholm , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003450 SentenceID s30 SENTENCE : * Kenyon Laboratory , unpublished data .
PaperID WBPaper00003450 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : H , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003450 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : Similarly , the egl-27 ( we3 ) mutation also affects all three transcripts and displays defects in muscle and epidermal cell patterning ( F . Solari , A . Bateman and J . Ahringer , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003450 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003451 SentenceID s123 SENTENCE : -H . Lee , and K . Kornfeld , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003451 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003451 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , which probably accounts for the low brood size observed of ced-9 ( lf ) mutants ( Hengartner et al . , 1992 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003451 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003452 SentenceID s48 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) , but this possibility has not been directly tested .
PaperID WBPaper00003454 SentenceID s68 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003509 SentenceID s104 SENTENCE : , a subsidiary of Axys Pharmaceuticals ( South San Francisco , CA ) for isolating the lim-6 ( nr2073 ) allele , the Caenorhabditis Genetics Center ( funded by the NIH Center for Research Resources ) for providing strains , Y . Liu for expert technical assistance , S . Nurrish and J . Kaplan for nuIs26 , S . Nurrish for examining lim-6 ( nr2073 ) for foraging defects , C . Li for anti- FMRFamide antibodies , E . Jorgensen for oxIs12 and for comments , A . Hart and J . Kaplan for providing nuIs1 , Y . Jin for providing juEx61 and juIs8 , R . Johnson and T . Brglin for communicating unpublished results and members of the Ruvkun lab for comments on the manuscript .
PaperID WBPaper00003509 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003509 SentenceID s201 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003509 SentenceID s25 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003509 SentenceID s3 SENTENCE : The lines are : pha-1 ( e2123ts ) ; mgEx [ lim-6r : : GFP ; pBX ] ( 4 independent lines ) pha-1 ( e2123ts ) ; mgEx [ lim-6prom : : GFP ; pBX ] ( 3 independent lines ) pha-1 ( e2123ts ) ; mgEx [ lim-6int3 : : GFP ; pBX ] ( 8 independent lines ) pha-1 ( e2123ts ) ; mgEx [ lim-6up : : GFP ; pBX ] ( 1 line ) N2 ; mgEx [ GADcompl : : GFP ; pRF4 ] ( 8 independent lines ) mgEx446 , mgEx447 = N2 ; mgEx [ fl-lim-6-2 ; mec-7 : : GFP ] ( 2 independent lines ) mgEx408 , mgEx409 = N2 ; mgEx [ fl-lim-6VP16-2 ; mec-7 : : GFP ] ( 2 independent lines ) juIs8 : integrated pSC381 ( Jin et al . , 1999 ) oxIs12 : McIntire et al . ( 1997 ) nuIs1 : Hart et al . ( 1995 ) nuIs26 : S . Nurrish and J . Kaplan ( unpublished ) lin-15 ( n765 ) X ; adEx1262 [ lin-15 ( + ) gcy-5 : : GFP ] ( Yu et al . , 1997 ) lin-15 ( n765 ) X ; adEx1297 [ lin-15 ( + ) gcy-6 : : GFP ] ( Yu et al . , 1997 ) lin-15 ( n765 ) X ; adEx1288 [ lin-15 ( + ) gcy-7 : : GFP ] ( Yu et al . , 1997 ) Plasmid construction Unless noted otherwise below , the expression plasmids were constructed by amplifying the respective sequences either from wildtype genomic DNA or the K03E6 cosmid and subcloning of the PCR products into the pPD95 . 75 expression vector .
PaperID WBPaper00003509 SentenceID s30 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003509 SentenceID s80 SENTENCE : Mutations in lim-6 , like mutations in the ttx-3 and lin-11 LIM homeobox genes do not affect the generation of the neurons that express them ( Hobert et al . , 1998 , 1997 ) nor do they affect several aspects of neurotransmitter choice ( this study and our unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003509 SentenceID s93 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003509 SentenceID s97 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003521 SentenceID s166 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003521 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003521 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003521 SentenceID s37 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) to generate the sra-6 : : Kv1 . 1 and sra-6 : : Kv1 . 2 integrated strains .
PaperID WBPaper00003523 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : However , animals that fail to develop because of starvation have not been seen to exhibit these problems ( L . Avery , personal communication ; our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003554 SentenceID s135 SENTENCE : H . and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003554 SentenceID s30 SENTENCE : These gonad precursor cells divide multiple times in several C . elegans cell-cycle mutants , including lin-5 and lin-6 mutants ( our unpublished observations ; Sulston and Horvitz , 1981 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003555 SentenceID s94 SENTENCE : We also thank Yishi Jin and Jim Rand for sharing their unpublished observations , and Piali Sengupta and Josh Kaplan for comments on the manuscript .
PaperID WBPaper00003578 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : , unpublished ; lin-44 : : gfp plasmid ( pMHE004 ) kindly provided by M . Herman ) , wIs1 [ SCM : : lacZ + rol-6 ( su1006 ) ] ( Terns et al . , 1997 ) , hlh-1 : : gfp ( PD7963 ; K . Dej , S . Xu and A . Fire , personal communication .
PaperID WBPaper00003628 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : In unc-40 ; unc-84 mutant animals sub-lateral P cells live and divide ( our unpublished observation ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003632 SentenceID s126 SENTENCE : The P ( 3-8 ) . p cell expression of lin-36 : : GFP was not altered by mutations in other class B genes , specifically lin-9 , lin-15 , lin-35 , lin-51 , lin- 52 , lin-53 and lin-55 ( Ferguson and Horvitz , 1989 ; J . H . Thomas and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished observations ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003632 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : Four class A genes ( lin-8 , lin-15A , lin-38 and lin-56 ) and ten class B genes ( lin-9 , lin-15B , lin-35 , lin-36 , lin-37 , lin-51 , lin-52 , lin-53 , lin-54 , lin-55 ) have been identified ( Horvitz and Sulston , 1980 ; Ferguson and Horvitz , 1989 ; J . H . Thomas and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003632 SentenceID s2 SENTENCE : Identification of new lin-36 alleles Seven lin-36 mutations had been identified previously in screens for class B synMuv mutations ( Ferguson and Horvitz , 1989 ; J . H . Thomas and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003632 SentenceID s39 SENTENCE : H . Thomas and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished observations .
PaperID WBPaper00003632 SentenceID s39 SENTENCE : We thank Xiaowei Lu , Craig Ceol and Rachel Hoang for comments concerning the manuscript , Beth James for technical assistance and Alex Hajnal and Stuart Kim for sharing unpublished data .
PaperID WBPaper00003632 SentenceID s54 SENTENCE : Strains mutant for lin-36 exhibit maternal rescue of the Muv phenotype ( Ferguson and Horvitz , 1989 ; J . H . Thomas and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003650 SentenceID s111 SENTENCE : chromatin We thank members of the Kenyon Lab for stimulating discussions , Scott Alper , Andrew Dillin , Rachel Kindt , Joy Alcedo , Honor Hsin , Kui Lin , Jennifer Whangbo and Javier Apfeld for critical comments on the manuscript , Julin Maloof and Steve Salser for antibodies , Michael Herman for egl-27 ( mn553 ) and communication of unpublished results , Florence Solari , Alex Bateman and Julie Ahringer for communication of unpublished results and for pointing out the a role for MTA1 in the regulation of chromatin structure , Bill McGinnis for information on Hox co-factors and Rebecca Smith for information on yeast mating type specification .
PaperID WBPaper00003650 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003665 SentenceID s12 SENTENCE : body , unpublished results ) the glr-1 : : gfp transgene kyIs29 X ( interneurons and motor neurons in the nerve ring and ventral nerve cord ; Maricq et al . , 1995 ) and the mec-4 : : gfp transgene bzIs7 IV ( touch sensory neurons in the body ; E . Wu and M . Driscoll , personal communication ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003665 SentenceID s39 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003665 SentenceID s62 SENTENCE : axon , unpublished data ) , each of which projects a single axon ventrally to the ventral midline in the amphid commissure and then dorsally within the nerve ring ( Fig . 2A ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003665 SentenceID s80 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003679 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003752 SentenceID s115 SENTENCE : We would also like to thank V . Ambros and R . Roy for sharing their unpublished results and Neville Ashcroft , Ann Corsi , Andy Fire , Andy Golden , Jenny McDowell , Bruce Paterson and Barbara Thomas for comments on the manuscript and advice during the course of this study .
PaperID WBPaper00003752 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : , unpublished ; GenBank accession # AF058331 ) has been identified in the C . elegans genome sequence .
PaperID WBPaper00003752 SentenceID s83 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003761 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : We are also grateful to J . L . Rosenbaum for communicating unpublished results , Y . Hiromi for the critical reading of the manuscript and T . Saito , N . Nakatsuji and the members of our laboratory for useful suggestions and discussions .
PaperID WBPaper00003761 SentenceID s75 SENTENCE : body The markers were myo-3 : : GFP ( A . Fire et al . , personal communication ) , sra-6 : : GFP ( Troemel et al . , 1995 ) and H20 : : GFP ( T . Ishihara et al . , unpublished results ) , which drive expression of GFP in body wall muscles , in a subset of neurons , and in almost all neurons , respectively .
PaperID WBPaper00003762 SentenceID s56 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003762 SentenceID s83 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003762 SentenceID s89 SENTENCE : We also thank Tim Schedl and Michael Hengartner for insightful suggestions during the course of this work ; Sarah Crittenden and Judith Kimble for sharing their unpublished results ; Brian Harfe , Catherine Branda and Andy Fire for the PD4666 strain ; Michel Labouesse , Lei Xu , Susan Strome , Sarah Crittenden , Judith Kimble , Min-Ho Lee , Tim Schedl , Neville Ashcroft , Andy Golden , Karen Bennett , Charlotte Schubert , Craig Mello and Jim Priess for antibodies ; and Denise Montell and Tim Schedl for their comments on the manuscript .
PaperID WBPaper00003844 SentenceID s114 SENTENCE : Rays 5 , 7 and 9 have normal ray lineages , indicating that all cells of these rays are generated ( Savage et al . , 1996 ; Suzuki et al . , 1999 ; this laboratory , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003844 SentenceID s120 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003844 SentenceID s156 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003850 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : In some egg-laying-defective mutants in which the AC fails to fuse with the utse but instead continues to reside at the uterine-vulval interface , the AC later detaches from this it issue and can be seen floating free in the uterine lumen ( A . P . N . and N . Cinar , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003850 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003923 SentenceID s168 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003923 SentenceID s49 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003924 SentenceID s121 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) unc-5 , unc-6 or unc-40 ( Hedgecock et al . , 1990 ) , the second migratory phase of the DTC frequently fails to occur ( Fig . 2B ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003924 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003924 SentenceID s52 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003924 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : body, midbody In worms with an extended body length , such as lon-2 , the first turn of the DTCs occurs at approximately the same distance from the midbody as in the wild type ( our unpublished data , also see Morita et al . , 1999 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003924 SentenceID s71 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003937 SentenceID s158 SENTENCE : Both mutants develop normally at 15C , but exhibit severe behavioral defects and arrest development in the L1 larval stage when raised continuously at 22 . 5C ( M . Nonet and J . Rand , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003937 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) , expression of synaptobrevin-GFP under the control of the unc-4 promoter in SAB neurons was maintained throughout development in jsIs42 animals .
PaperID WBPaper00003938 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003939 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003939 SentenceID s83 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) should allow us to test this possibility .
PaperID WBPaper00003939 SentenceID s85 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003941 SentenceID s119 SENTENCE : Donna Albertson and Ann Sluder graciously shared unpublished data .
PaperID WBPaper00003941 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003941 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : axons , unpublished results ) , we proposed that fax-1 may function in the recognition of PVPR and / or PVQL axons by later-extending growth cones .
PaperID WBPaper00003941 SentenceID s94 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003943 SentenceID s74 SENTENCE : extracellular, extracellular matrix, surface Interestingly , these include an extracellular matrix receptor expressed on the surface of hypodermal cells and a presumptive transcription factor ( our unpublished data ) , implicating the mua genes in executing regulatory roles .
PaperID WBPaper00003943 SentenceID s83 SENTENCE : Dystroglycan , sarcoglycans , dystrophin and syntrophins all have C . elegans orthologs , suggesting the dystrophinglycoprotein complex predates the metazoan radiation ( our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003943 SentenceID s87 SENTENCE : Finally , homologs of other human muscular dystrophy genes have been identified in C . elegans but little is known about their it issue expression or function , nor do they chromosomally map to known mua loci ( Kobayashi et al . , 1998 ; our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003944 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003944 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003944 SentenceID s73 SENTENCE : The missense mutants it33 , it83 , it88 and it138 have a maternal effect lethal phenotype as severe as that produced by the it75 null mutation ( Morton et al . , 1992 and unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004154 SentenceID s70 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004183 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : Dumpy L4 or young adult hermaphrodites of each plate were transferred to a new plate and incubated at 25C . The mutants were mapped with the deficiencies mnDf88 and mnDf89 ( R . Schnabel , H . Schnabel and R . Feichtinger , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004188 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : GLP-1 , and its closely related homolog LIN-12 , have complex and dynamic patterns of expression during subsequent embryogenesis , and one or both receptors ultimately are expressed in descendants of every one of the 12-cell-stage blastomeres ( Evans et al . , 1994 ; Moskowitz and Rothman , 1996 ; our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004188 SentenceID s32 SENTENCE : Experimental studies have demonstrated that GLP-1 ( + ) and / or LIN-12 ( + ) functions are required in almost all of those lineages ( Schnabel , 1995 ; Hutter and Schnabel , 1995 ; Moskowitz and Rothman , 1996 ; our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004188 SentenceID s40 SENTENCE : The only defects that we have observed occur later in the L4 stage during vulval eversion , and in the adult stage where some animals display an abnormally everted vulva ( our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004188 SentenceID s48 SENTENCE : The nearly complete C . elegans genome sequence does not contain other aph-2-related genes , nor have we found evidence for such genes in low-stringency hybridization experiments ( our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004229 SentenceID s128 SENTENCE : Anti-GLH-3 antibodies are unreactive to protein isolated from the glh- 3 ( um1 ) strain , lane 1 , a predicted protein null ( K . A . K . and K . L . B . unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004229 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004229 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : The glh- 3 ( um1 ) strain , like glh-3 ( RNAi ) ( Table 1 ) , has a subtle or no mutant phenotype ( K . A . K . et al . , unpublished results ) , while in glh-1 ( bn103 ) approx .
PaperID WBPaper00004229 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : 25 g of baculovirally produced GLH-1 , GLH-2 and GLH-4 ( PAS , unpublished results ) spotted onto nitrocellulose .
PaperID WBPaper00004229 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004229 SentenceID s67 SENTENCE : P granules, granules In the glh- 1 ( bn103 ) and glh-3 ( um1 ) strains , all other GLHs localize to P granules ( K . A . K . et al . , unpublished results ; Fig . 5E ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004256 SentenceID s137 SENTENCE : Although many tra-1 ( null ) ; fem ( null ) double mutants produce approximately wild-type levels of fog-3 transcripts ( Fig . 6 ) , they make oocytes rather than sperm ( our unpublished observations , Doniach and Hodgkin , 1984 ; Hodgkin , 1986 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004256 SentenceID s145 SENTENCE : Furthermore , we have been unable to detect any fog-3 transcripts produced from this mutant transgene by RT-PCR ( unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004256 SentenceID s71 SENTENCE : Second , trans-splicing of fog- 3 to SL1 is very efficient , relative to the removal of intron # 4 , since most partially processed transcripts that contain intron # 4 have already been trans-spliced ( unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004256 SentenceID s79 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) , where it might repress transcription by a similar mechanism .
PaperID WBPaper00004256 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : Finally , spf-1 ( q7 ) causes abnormal gonadogenesis and sterility when homozygous ( J . Miskowski , R . E . E . and J . Kimble , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004256 SentenceID s83 SENTENCE : Furthermore , the potential binding site near tra-1 ( Zarkower and Hodgkin , 1993 ) also lies farther upstream , and potential TRA-1A binding sites near mab-3 and lin-31 ( Clarke and Berg , 1998 ) lie either far upstream or downstream of the transcription start sites ( unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004256 SentenceID s93 SENTENCE : Finally , we thank Bob Horvitz and Barbara Conradt for sharing unpublished results .
PaperID WBPaper00004283 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : axonal, axons Analysis of ALA and SIA axonal outgrowth To visualize the ALA axons , we used an unc-53 promoter-GFP fusion construct , pBunc-53 : : GFP ( pNP21 ) that is expressed in ALA and the motoneurons DA and AS ( among others ; N . P . et al . , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004283 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : -F . Brunet and C . Goridis , unpublished data ) , while ceh-17 is dispensable for expression of the two neurotransmitter markers , VAChT and FMRFamide , in SIAs and ALA , respectively .
PaperID WBPaper00004283 SentenceID s42 SENTENCE : -F . Brunet , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004283 SentenceID s44 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004283 SentenceID s65 SENTENCE : axonal , unpublished data ) such as ALN and PLN which , like the SIAs project on the sublateral cords , had a normal axonal morphology ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004286 SentenceID s84 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004315 SentenceID s150 SENTENCE : apical, surfaces The currently available APX-1 antiserum ( Mickey et al . , 1996 ) stains at or near the apical surfaces of cells in the E16 primordium ( our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004315 SentenceID s151 SENTENCE : The immunostaining , however , does not appear to be specific because it persists in apx-1 mutant embryos , as well as in wild-type embryos after dsRNA inhibition of apx-1 ( our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004315 SentenceID s152 SENTENCE : axons, basement membrane, membrane Cell movements in intestinal twist Because twist involves the circumferential migrations of cells in the anterior of the intestine , and the intestine is surrounded by a basement membrane when twist occurs ( our unpublished observations ) , we addressed the possibility that the UNC-6 guidance system was required for twist . UNC-6 , a lamininrelated basement membrane component , acts as a guidance signal for circumferential migration by a wide variety of cell types in C . elegans including axons , mesodermal cells and G . J . Hermann , B . Leung and J . R . Priess Fig . 7 .
PaperID WBPaper00004315 SentenceID s165 SENTENCE : processes, surfaces Cells in int ring V are unique in that two nonintestinal cells , the germ cell precursors , invariably insert processes into their ventral surfaces ( Sulston et al . , 1983 ; our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004315 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : Cells surrounding MS appear to influence the pattern of MS division , since this pattern is not normal when the surrounding cells are killed ( unpublished observations ) or when their positions are inverted ( see Introduction
PaperID WBPaper00004315 SentenceID s21 SENTENCE : We found that 24 % ( n = 50 ) of the self-progeny of apx-1 ( zu347ts ) / + heterozygous mothers cultured at the nonpermissive temperature ( 26C ) lacked twist , indicating that zygotic expression of apx-1 ( + ) is required for twist . Therefore , a Notch-like pathway consisting of the receptor LIN-12 , the effector protein LAG-1 , and the ligands LAG-2 and APX-1 , is required for intestinal twist . LIN-12 is expressed asymmetrically in the intestinal primordium We examined the expression pattern of LIN-12 before and during intestinal twist using an affinity-purified antiserum against the LIN-12 protein ( A . Candia and S . Kim , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004315 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : The patterns we describe are not observed in embryos from lin-12 ( n941 ) hermaphrodites or from lin- 12 ( RNAi ) hermaphrodites , and are thus specific for LIN-12 ( data not shown ; K . Mickey and J . Priess , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004315 SentenceID s42 SENTENCE : basement membranes, extracellular, membranes, surface, surfaces Furthermore , the surfaces of the intestinal cells in the E16 primordium are separated from the surface membranes of all surrounding , nonintestinal cells by two extracellular basement membranes ( our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004315 SentenceID s52 SENTENCE : Interestingly , rotation of the various int rings appears to be variable in the abnormal intestines of lag-2 mutants ; often one or two of the three int rings appear to rotate ( our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004315 SentenceID s75 SENTENCE : We thank members of the Priess laboratory for helpful discussion and Katie Mickey for sharing unpublished observations .
PaperID WBPaper00004315 SentenceID s77 SENTENCE : To distinguish between these possibilities , we examined the expression patterns of LAG-1 and LAG-2 using an antiserum and a Green Fluorescent Protein ( GFP ) reporter , respectively ( J . Kimble , unpublished ; Blelloch et al . , 1999 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004323 SentenceID s37 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004324 SentenceID s219 SENTENCE : This difference in leaving rate between males plated with hermaphrodites and those plated with males suggests that wild type males detect hermaphroditespecific cues that retain them on the bacterial lawn ( Lipton and Emmons , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004382 SentenceID s84 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) resulted in < 5 % ( n = 44 ) increase in Muv animals at the permissive temperature .
PaperID WBPaper00004382 SentenceID s85 SENTENCE : We would like to thank the following people : Mike Krause and Morgan Park for strains , constructs , helpful discussions and the communication of unpublished data .
PaperID WBPaper00004382 SentenceID s86 SENTENCE : Ed Kipreos for helpful discussions and the communication of unpublished data .
PaperID WBPaper00004409 SentenceID s128 SENTENCE : acr-2 encodes a non-alpha acetylcholine receptor subunit ( Y . J . and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished results ) ( Fig . 6D ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004409 SentenceID s61 SENTENCE : We thank G . Ruvkun for anti-UNC-86 antibodies , M . Labouesse for anti-LIN-26 antibodies , B . Prasad for Punc-3 : : GFP , A . Fire for GFP vectors , D . Baille for sDf121 and sDf123 strains , S . Moseley for help with transgene integration , I . Chin-Sang for help with embryo staining , M . Metzstein for teaching us how to identify Ced mutants , D . Philgram for the edIs20 marker , the C . elegans genome consortium for the sequence and DNA of cosmid ZC129 , B . Condie for unpublished observations , and the reviewers for directing our attention to Y69A2AR .
PaperID WBPaper00004409 SentenceID s9 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) into pPD136 . 61 and pPD132 . 12 respectively .
PaperID WBPaper00004437 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004437 SentenceID s64 SENTENCE : We are grateful to Sean Collums , Ronald Plasterk and Mike Finney for sharing unpublished data .
PaperID WBPaper00004481 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004481 SentenceID s127 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004481 SentenceID s135 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004481 SentenceID s238 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004481 SentenceID s272 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004481 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004482 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : Although mab-5 expression occurs throughout the M lineage , mab-5 mutants show only a limited set of M lineage defects ( Kenyon , 1986 ; Salser , 1995 ; Harfe et al . , 1998b ) . lin- 39 is expressed in sex myoblasts and their descendants ( Wang et al . , 1993 ; Liu and Fire , unpublished ) , while egl-5 expression has been observed in a subset of posterior muscles , and in the M mesoblast of males .
PaperID WBPaper00004482 SentenceID s59 SENTENCE : J . Liu and A . Fire 5189 Hox factors and mesoderm diversification We thank QueeLim Ch ' ng , Ann Corsi , Jamie Fleenor , Brian Harfe , Cynthia Kenyon , Yoji Kohara , Kerry Kornfeld , Mike Krause , Julin Maloof , Siqun Xu for C . elegans strains , cDNA clones and antibodies ; Ann Corsi , David Eisenmann , Cynthia Kenyon , Kerry Kornfeld , Steve Kostas , Mike Krause , Steve Salser , Cynthia Wolberger for helpful discussions and suggestions ; Cathy Branda for instruction in lineaging methods ; Estella Chen , Matthew Robinson and Michael Stern for communicating unpublished results and for sharing information concerning ceh-20 ( n2513 ) ; and Thomas Brglin , Ann Corsi , David Eisenmann , Manfred Frasch , Jenny Hsieh , Steve Kostas , Mike Krause , Richard Mann , Susan Parrish , Judy Yanowitz , Mariana Wolfner and two anonymous reviewers for critical comments on the manuscript .
PaperID WBPaper00004490 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : -H . Lee , B . Grant , D . Hirsh , and T . Schedl , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004490 SentenceID s123 SENTENCE : GLD-1 , bound to the tra-2 3 UTR , associates with FOG-2 to form part of a translation repression complex . GLD-1 most likely interacts with the C-terminal portion of the FOG-2 FTH domain ( the C-terminal 50 aa are necessary for FOG-2 to interact with GLD-1 , S . N . and T . S . unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004490 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : -H . Lee , B . Grant , D . Hirsh , and T . Schedl , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004492 SentenceID s113 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004492 SentenceID s132 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) , and the hypomorphic allele partially disrupts this function .
PaperID WBPaper00004492 SentenceID s17 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004492 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : adherens junction, junction , unpublished ) , which were maintained at 25C using the selectable marker pha-1 ( Granato et al . , 1994 ) . syEx313 was used to express pkd-2 : : gfp ( Barr and Sternberg , 1999 ) . pJS191 , which expresses the adherens junction marker jam-1 : : gfp , was generously provided by J . Simske , and was used to create the extrachromosomal array bxEx48 .
PaperID WBPaper00004492 SentenceID s57 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ; Fig . 3D ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004492 SentenceID s68 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) , though this survey has not been exhaustive .
PaperID WBPaper00004492 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004492 SentenceID s72 SENTENCE : We thank M . Chalfie and H . Du for lin-32 ( u779 ) , G . Garriga and A . Frank for lin-32 ( gm239 ) , A . Fire and colleagues for their vector kits and advice on RNAi soaking , J . Simske and J . Hardin for the jam-1 : : gfp reporter , and D . Zarkower for discussion and communication of unpublished results .
PaperID WBPaper00004504 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : cell junctions, junctions The effects on one set of 17 injected hermaphrodites were quantitated by placing animals on individual plates 6 hours postinjection and transferring to fresh plates every 12-24 hours . dsRNA was injected into ( i ) animals carrying a jam-1 : : GFP marker , to visualize hypodermal cell junctions , or ( ii ) animals carrying dgn-1 : : GFP ( J . Kramer , unpublished data ) to visualize the excretory canals .
PaperID WBPaper00004504 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : surface We found that papilin , and some other ECM proteins , are discharged from freshly collected hemocytes upon strong adhesion to a foreign surface ( unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004603 SentenceID s43 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004603 SentenceID s86 SENTENCE : We thank the following people for technical assistance , helpful discussions , unpublished information , C . elegans strains , cosmid and cDNA clones , and GFP vectors : K . Bubb , A . Coulson , A . Fire , R . Herman and especially members of our laboratories .
PaperID WBPaper00004616 SentenceID s25 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004616 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004617 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : Sequence analysis C . elegans and C . briggsae database searches were performed at the Sanger center in Cambridge and the Genome Sequencing Center in St . Louis ( http : / / www . sanger . ac . uk / Projects / C_elegans / ; http : / / genome . wustl . edu / gsc / ) using their Web implementation of BLAST ( Gish and Warren , unpublished ; Altschul et al . , 1990 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004627 SentenceID s124 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004627 SentenceID s126 SENTENCE : MEC-1 and perhaps MEC-5 are likely effectors on these neurons , whereas myotactin and myonectins are possible receptors on epidermal cells ( Du et al . , 1996 ; Hresko et al . , 1999 ; Hutter et al . , 2000 ; M . Bercher , J . Wahl , B . E . Vogel , C . 894 Lu , E . M . Hedgecock and J . D . Plenefisch , unpublished observations ; L . Hong , T . Elbl , C . Franzini-Armstrong , J . Ward , K . K . Rybicka , B . K . Gatewood and E . Bucher , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004627 SentenceID s148 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004627 SentenceID s61 SENTENCE : axons, cuticle, hemidesmosomes , unpublished observations ) , but in mec-9 , these epidermal anchorages appear entirely normal . Hemicentin tracks on ALM ( PLM ) neurons nearly coincide with the two rows of hemidesmosomes anchoring these axons to the cuticle .
PaperID WBPaper00004627 SentenceID s90 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) and G7c / NG37 .
PaperID WBPaper00004627 SentenceID s93 SENTENCE : apical, basal, basement membrane, cuticle, filaments, hemidesmosomes, membrane For mechanical integrity , keratin-like intermediate filaments span the integument from apical to basal faces , anchored to cuticle and basement membrane at hemidesmosomes based on nonintegrin receptors ( Hresko et al . , 1999 ; M . Bercher , J . Wahl , B . E . Vogel , C . Lu , E . M . Hedgecock and J . D . Plenefisch , unpublished observations ; L . Hong , T . Elbl , C . Franzini- Armstrong , J . Ward , K . K . Rybicka , B . K . Gatewood and E . Bucher , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004672 SentenceID s68 SENTENCE : perinuclear We found that oogenesis in C . remanei females appeared to be stimulated by mating with males ( our unpublished observations ) , and that within 3 hours after mating the perinuclear foci were not detectable in most animals ( Fig . 3J ; 19 / 22 adults ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004711 SentenceID s83 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004711 SentenceID s90 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004727 SentenceID s118 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004727 SentenceID s159 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) ; srb- 6 : : gfp = gmIs12 ; sra-11 : : gfp = otIs62 ( Troemel et al . , 1997 ) ; daf-7 : : gfp = saIs7 ( Schackwitz et al . , 1996 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004727 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004727 SentenceID s273 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004727 SentenceID s282 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) with either of two independently integrated reporter gene arrays , as well as with extrachromosomal arrays , the presence of any linked suppressor mutations in our strain backgrounds can be excluded .
PaperID WBPaper00004727 SentenceID s290 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , we found no impact of these parameters on the ttx-3 ( ks5 ) induced sprouts ( Table 3 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004727 SentenceID s3 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) otIs14 = integrated Ex [ zig-3 : : gfp ; pRF4 ] ( O . Aurelio and O . H .
PaperID WBPaper00004727 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) otIs24 = integrated Ex [ sre-1 : : gfp ; dpy-20 ( + ) ] otIs33IV = integrated Ex [ kal-1 : : gfp ; pBX ] ( H . Buelow and O . H .
PaperID WBPaper00004727 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) otIs45 = integrated Ex [ unc-119 : : gfp ] otIs62 , otIs123 = integrated Ex [ psra-11-3 : : gfp ; pRF4 ] and integrated Ex [ psra-11-3 : : gfp ; unc-4 ( + ) ] , respectively otIs97IV , otIs98 , otIs99 = integrated otEx65 otIs107 = integrated adEx1450 otIs117 = integrated otEx75 .
PaperID WBPaper00004727 SentenceID s69 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004727 SentenceID s78 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004727 SentenceID s96 SENTENCE : synaptic 1968 Besides the many researchers who provided us with published strains and reporter gene reagents , we are very grateful to several people for their sharing of unpublished reagents : Tim Niacaris and Leon Avery for ser-2 : : gfp ; Takeshi Ishihara and Isao Katsura for C36B7 . 7 : : GFP ; Janet Duerr and Jim Rand for anti-UNC-17 antibodies and advice on the staining protocol ; Hannes Buelow for the otIs33 strain ; Oscar Aurelio for zig-2 and zig-3 : : gfp ; Mike Nonet and Jim Rand for alleles of synaptic transmission mutants ; and Ikue Mori and Hiroyuki Sasakura for providing the nj14 allele .
PaperID WBPaper00004826 SentenceID s123 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004826 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : , unpublished * egl-38 has additional functions in male spicule development not shared with lin-48 .
PaperID WBPaper00004833 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , suggesting that at least the widespread AB and MS expression of the reporter does not require ELT-1 ; however , it seems likely that elt-5 / 6 expression in seam cells per se requires ELT-1 .
PaperID WBPaper00004833 SentenceID s37 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004833 SentenceID s39 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004833 SentenceID s69 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , suggesting that either elt-5 or -6 alone may be sufficient to initiate seam differentiation in nonseam cells .
PaperID WBPaper00004833 SentenceID s84 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004853 SentenceID s91 SENTENCE : -J . Kim for sharing unpublished data , and for their critical reading and advice on this work .
PaperID WBPaper00004906 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , lin-11 has been shown to regulate the cdh-3 gene , encoding a member of the cadherin superfamily implicated in cell-cell adhesion ( Newman et al . , 1999 ; Pettitt et al . , 1996 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004906 SentenceID s66 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , suggesting that LIN-11 and LIM-4 have distinct protein-specific functions , as opposed to similar functions distinguished only by expression in different cellular contexts ( Li and Noll , 1994 ; O ' Keefe et al . , 1998 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004908 SentenceID s60 SENTENCE : , unpublished observation ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004940 SentenceID s232 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004940 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004940 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004940 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004995 SentenceID s100 SENTENCE : We thank Andrew Fire , Craig Hunter , Morris Maduro , Jim McGhee , David Pilgrim , Joel Rothman and Geraldine Seydoux for providing strains ; Ken Kemphues , Jim Priess and Susan Strome for providing antibodies ; Yuji Kohara for providing cDNAs ; Stephan Schneider for advice on sequence analysis ; Yuji Kohara and Craig Hunter for sharing unpublished results ; Bruce Draper , Chris Doe , Danielle Hamill and Rebecca Lyczak for helpful comments on the manuscript .
PaperID WBPaper00004996 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004996 SentenceID s85 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005005 SentenceID s58 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) ( Grant and Hirsh , 1999 ; Iwasaki et al . , 1996 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005022 SentenceID s25 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005022 SentenceID s52 SENTENCE : A jam-1 : : gfp reporter ( a gift from J . Simske and J . Harding ) was injected into unc-119 ( ed3 ) animals together with pDP # MM016B ( Maduro and Pilgrim , 1995 ) , and was integrated into the worm genome using gamma irradiation ( W . Hanna-Rose , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005022 SentenceID s53 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005053 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : lateral , unpublished ) , we did not observe any lateral UNC-47 : : GFP marked neurons in unc-83 ( e1408 ) worms .
PaperID WBPaper00005085 SentenceID s2 SENTENCE : body Excess cell corpses accumulate in cdl-1 embryos In a genome-wide screen for zygotic embryonic lethal ( ZEL ) mutations ( J . H . Rothman , unpublished ) , we identified three allelic recessive mutations ( e2501 , e2510 and w37 ) that cause accumulation of excess cell corpses at the terminal arrest stage , as well as defects in body elongation and pharyngeal development ( Fig . 1 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005085 SentenceID s21 SENTENCE : , unpublished observation ; M . Ohmachi , E . Lambie , P . Kuwabara and T . Schedl , personal communication ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005085 SentenceID s60 SENTENCE : We thank S . Mango for critical reading of the manuscript , and M . Ohmachi , E . Lambie , P . Kuwabara and T . Schedl for sharing unpublished results .
PaperID WBPaper00005086 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : We thank Dr Ian Caldicott for the isolation of daf-9 alleles ( m405 , m641 and m642 ) , Drs Elizabeth Ryder and Michel Labouesse for DIO staining protocols , Dr Ronald Plasterk for the strain NL7000 , Dr Andrew Fire for gfp vectors , Dr Alan Coulson for cosmids , and Dr David Baillie for communication of unpublished results .
PaperID WBPaper00005115 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005115 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : The following integrated transgenes containing green fluorescent protein ( GFP ) reporters were used : zuIs3 ( end-1 : : GFP ) ( J . Nance , unpublished ) , ruIs32 ( pie-1 : : GFP : : HIS-11 ) ( Pratis et al . , 2001 ) , pxIs6 ( pha- 4 : : GFP : : HIS-11 ) ( Portereiko and Mango , 2001 ) , itIs153 ( pie-1 : : PAR- 2 : : GFP ) ( Wallenfang and Seydoux , 2000 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005115 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : adherens junctions, junctions, surface While adherens junctions link the surface cells of Drosophila embryos at the time of gastrulation ( Oda et al . , 1998 ; Tepass and Hartenstein , 1994 ) , adherens junctions are not visible in C . elegans embryos until most of the cell movements associated with gastrulation are complete ( Costa et al . , 1998 ) ( our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005116 SentenceID s12 SENTENCE : We suggest two simple models ( Fig . 6A ) , although they are not mutually exclusive and others certainly exist . Both models take advantage of the fact that Z1 and Z4 contact each other ventrally beneath the two germline precursor cells , Z2 and Z3 ( F-H . Markussen , L . Mathies , Y . Li , and J . Kimble , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005116 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005116 SentenceID s85 SENTENCE : Unfortunately , POP-1 antibodies currently available do not reliably stain the L1 gonad , although hypodermal and other it issues stain well ( K . Siegfried , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005117 SentenceID s105 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005117 SentenceID s107 SENTENCE : The authors thank Drs Tim Schedl , Steve L ' Hernault and John Lucchesi for helpful conversations and comments during the writing of this manuscript , and Susan Strome for the sharing of unpublished data and intellectual guidance during the course of this work .
PaperID WBPaper00005117 SentenceID s162 SENTENCE : -H . L . and T . Schedl , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005117 SentenceID s164 SENTENCE : We surveyed the expression pattern of these 30 in an unpublished large-scale in situ hybridization screen ( Y . Kohara , National Institute of Genetics , Japan ; http : / / nematode . lab . nig . ac . jp / ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005117 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005117 SentenceID s88 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005160 SentenceID s115 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) are required to stabilize MEX-3 in the anterior to pattern its expression .
PaperID WBPaper00005160 SentenceID s137 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) normally act to restrict spn-4-dependent degradation of MEX-3 to the posterior .
PaperID WBPaper00005160 SentenceID s207 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005160 SentenceID s25 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , their activity must be asymmetrically controlled in the anterior and posterior blastomeres .
PaperID WBPaper00005160 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , where they function to stabilize and / or activate MEX-3 .
PaperID WBPaper00005160 SentenceID s61 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005177 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : Moreover , male tail specific collagen molecules required for normal morphogenesis of sensory rays do exist ( Baird and Emmons , 1990 ) ( R . Y . Yu and K . L . Chow , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005177 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : extracellular, extracellular matrix They are deposited in the extracellular matrix around the ray cells during the tail retraction period ( R . Y . Yu and K . L . Chow , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005257 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005257 SentenceID s68 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005257 SentenceID s81 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , and the present results may provide a clue as to their roles .
PaperID WBPaper00005257 SentenceID s84 SENTENCE : We also thank Joe Culotti for communicating unpublished observations prior to publication and for NW1074 ; Yuji Kohara for cDNA clones ; Shohei Mitani for pFXneEGFP ; Andrew Fire for pPD95 . 75 and other GFP expression vectors ; Jeff Simske for SU93 ; Bob Waterston for MH27 ; Dr Mizuno at Tohoku University for pCEP-SYFcAP ; Masayuki Shimizu for assistance in binding assays ; and past and present members of our laboratory for discussion and advice throughout this work .
PaperID WBPaper00005258 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : In contrast to a wild-type strain , smp- 1 ( ev715 ) mRNA was not detected by RT-PCR , indicating that 2068 V . E . Ginzburg , P . J . Roy and J . G . Culotti semaphorin 1b ( Ce-Sema-1a and Ce-Sema-1b , Accession Number Q17330 and Accession Number unpublished , respecti v ely ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005258 SentenceID s30 SENTENCE : , unpublished ; R . Ikegami and J . G . C .
PaperID WBPaper00005258 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005258 SentenceID s64 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005260 SentenceID s63 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005353 SentenceID s203 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005353 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005353 SentenceID s72 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005353 SentenceID s76 SENTENCE : In worms homozygous for the alleles e2432 and e404 , the majority of canals progressed further past the vulva but terminated before the tail ( T . B . and I . Maillet , unpublished ) ( Hedgecock et al . , 1987 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005353 SentenceID s95 SENTENCE : axons , unpublished ) . nd , not determined due to the difficulty of observation . anteriorly directed neurone , the PLM , ventral ectopic branching of prematurely arrested axons has previously been reported in unc-53 mutants ( Hekimi and Kershaw , 1993 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005353 SentenceID s98 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) are not affected in unc-53 mutants .
PaperID WBPaper00005504 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : wee-1 . 3 ( eb95 ) was isolated in a F1 noncomplementation screen for new recessive spe-10 alleles ( W . Lindsey and S . W . L , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005504 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005504 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : The C . briggsae wee-1 . 3 sequence is publicly available unpublished data from the C . briggsae Genome Project ( The Sanger Institute Cambridge , UK and The Genome Sequencing Center , Washington University , St Louis , MO ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005504 SentenceID s71 SENTENCE : We thank Andy Golden for many useful discussions and permission to cite unpublished data .
PaperID WBPaper00005504 SentenceID s75 SENTENCE : Preliminary unpublished data from the C . briggsae genome sequencing project was provided by The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute , Cambridge , UK and The Genome Sequencing Center , Washington University , St Louis , MO .
PaperID WBPaper00005515 SentenceID s44 SENTENCE : These phenotypes overlap with those of G-proteindepleted embryos ( Gotta and Ahringer , 2001b ; Rose and Kemphues , 1998a ; Zwaal et al . , 1996 ) ( Tsou and Rose , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005567 SentenceID s43 SENTENCE : Previous reports ( Suzuki et al . , 1999 ; Flemming et al . , 2000 ) and our own unpublished results ( R . T . and C . S .
PaperID WBPaper00005567 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) indicate that these small mutants contain normal numbers of cells .
PaperID WBPaper00005568 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : We thank J . Yochem for invaluable assistance with mosaic analysis and comments on the manuscript ; G . Mullen and D . Moerman for sharing unpublished results ; and A . Coulson , A . Fire , M . Labouesse , L . Lobel , D . Miller and J . Yochem for reagents .
PaperID WBPaper00005607 SentenceID s78 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005607 SentenceID s93 SENTENCE : axon E . C . Struckhoff and E . A . Lundquist 703 Role of Rac and UNC-115 in axon pathfinding We thank G . Lushington of the KU Molecular Modeling and Graphics Laboratory for UNC-115 VHD modeling ; V . Corbin , M . Herman , L . Timmons and two anonymous reviewers for critical reading of this manuscript ; P . Reddien for communicating unpublished results ; M . Welch for advice about actin sedimentation assays ; A . Fire for gfp vectors ; and J . Culotti and C . Kenyon for nematode strains .
PaperID WBPaper00005629 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005629 SentenceID s69 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005629 SentenceID s71 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005629 SentenceID s79 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005629 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : Previously undescribed alleles , characterized by failure to complement e644 , were obtained as follows : ct344 from our mutant screens ( Edgar et al . , 2001 ) , ku234 in a screen for defects in vulval morphogenesis ( M . S . and M . Han , unpublished ) , and e917 , s472 ( Rosenbluth et al . , 1988 ) and t2012 as gifts from A . Chisolm , D . Baillie , and R . Schnabel , respectively .
PaperID WBPaper00005629 SentenceID s84 SENTENCE : Comparison of Nob embryonic phenotypes resulting from strong lf alleles of unc-62 , pal-1 and nob-1 * Defective gene Phenotype unc-62 pal-1 nob-1 Misplaced hypodermal precursors , early embryo + + Misplaced hypodermal precursors , late embryo + + Enclosure defects , ventral cleft + + Enclosure defects , ventral hypodermis + + P A lineage transformations + * Based on results in this paper , previously published work ( Edgar et al . , 2001 ; Van Auken et al . , 2000 ; Van Auken , 1998 ) and unpublished results .
PaperID WBPaper00005629 SentenceID s93 SENTENCE : We are grateful to D . Baillie , R . Schnabel and A . Chisholm for unc- 62 alleles ; to M . Stern for ceh-20 alleles and unpublished results ; to H . Kagoshima and T . Burglin for the ceh-20 : : GFP construct ; to Y . Kohara for cDNAs ; to Yo Suzuki and Dan Escovitz for assistance with several experiments ; and to J . Yoder for the wild-type image in Fig . 6A .
PaperID WBPaper00005631 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005631 SentenceID s100 SENTENCE : We thank Yuji Kohara , Andy Fire and the C . elegans genome project for clones , vectors and sequence information ; Andrew Hahn and Scott Emmons for sharing unpublished results on efn-4 ; Martin Hudson for quantitation of juIs109 rescue ; and Grant Pogson for help with the phylogenetic analysis .
PaperID WBPaper00005631 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) The similarity of the efn-1 efn-2 efn-3 triple mutant phenotype to the vab-1 null phenotype suggests that these three ephrins might account for all signaling functions of the VAB-1 Eph receptor .
PaperID WBPaper00005631 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005631 SentenceID s68 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) and MH27 monoclonals ( Francis and Waterston , 1991 ) were used at 1 : 200 to 1 : 500 dilution .
PaperID WBPaper00005631 SentenceID s70 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , although it could alter the specificity of other ephrins so that a heterodimer could interact with an unknown receptor .
PaperID WBPaper00005631 SentenceID s99 SENTENCE : We thank Jonathan Hodgkin for information regarding unpublished morphological mutants in the Cambridge strain collection , and Xun Huang and Chris Suh for isolating efn-4 alleles .
PaperID WBPaper00005632 SentenceID s67 SENTENCE : We thank J . Maloof and C . Kenyon for help in identifying the bar-1 ( mu63 ) mutation ; H . Sawa for communicating unpublished results ; and L . R . Garcia , R . Lee , B . P . Gupta , H . Yu , G . Schindelman and C . Van Buskirk for helpful discussions .
PaperID WBPaper00005633 SentenceID s58 SENTENCE : O . Aurelio , T . Boulin and O . Hobert 609 Control of zig gene expression We thank members of the worm community for providing published mutant and reporter strains ; the NIH sponsored CGC for providing strains ; H . Blow for the kal-1 construct and help with scoring animals ; R . Townley for construction and initial analysis of lim-6 and zig : : gfp strains ; Z . Altun for construction of the flp-1 : : gfp reporter ; Q . Chen for expert technical assistance ; I . Hope for providing F59B2 . 13 : : lacZ ; members of the Hobert and Greenwald laboratories for discussion and support ; V . Ambros and F . Slack for communicating unpublished results ; and P . Sengupta , V . Ambros , F . Slack , I . Greenwald and members of the Hobert laboratory for comments on the manuscript .
PaperID WBPaper00005633 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005767 SentenceID s195 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005774 SentenceID s58 SENTENCE : The C . elegans dss-1 gene in YAC Y119D3 on LGIII was cloned as a homolog of human SHFM1 / DSS-1 gene ( Crackower et al . , 1996 ) by K . Ishii and T . Tani in our laboratory ( unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005774 SentenceID s64 SENTENCE : We also thank A . Fire for vectors ; Y . Kohara for cDNA clones ; A . Rougvie for plasmid pJA1 ; K . Ishihara for myo-3 : : gfp ; I . Katsura for flr-1 : : gfp ; S . Wicks and R . Plasterk for SNP information ; N . Ishii for methods in lifespan measurement ; N . Hisamoto and K . Matsumoto for suggestions on the kinase assay ; K . Ishii and T . Tani for dss-1 : : gfp ; M . Koga for kin-8 : : gfp ; M . Ohara for language assistance ; and M . Fujiwara , S . L . McIntire , N . L ' Etoile and C . Bargmann for unpublished results .
PaperID WBPaper00005822 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005822 SentenceID s102 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005822 SentenceID s110 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) ; therefore , we think that SPN-4 directly controls the translation of these maternal mRNAs .
PaperID WBPaper00005822 SentenceID s138 SENTENCE : We thank R . Barstead for the two-hybrid cDNA library , J . Kimble for the anti-GLP-1 antibody , D . Kuhl for the vector for the tri-hybrid system , D . Miller for antibodies , R . Hill and J . Priess for C . elegans strains and antibodies , and A . Fire for unpublished information on RNAi .
PaperID WBPaper00005822 SentenceID s140 SENTENCE : Special thanks to S . Onami for unpublished results , and T . Motohashi and technicians of the Kohara laboratory for performing the in situ hybridization .
PaperID WBPaper00005822 SentenceID s62 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005822 SentenceID s89 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005823 SentenceID s207 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005823 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) ] .
PaperID WBPaper00005823 SentenceID s52 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , which may stem from cell signaling defects during gonadal development .
PaperID WBPaper00005823 SentenceID s83 SENTENCE : We also are grateful to Meera Sundaram , Risa Kitagawa , Ann Rose and Edward Kipreos for sharing unpublished data .
PaperID WBPaper00005903 SentenceID s40 SENTENCE : Comparisons with predicted Caenorhabditis briggsae genes Access to the unpublished draft genomic sequence of Caenorhabditis briggsae is available from the Welcome Trust Sanger Institute ( http : / / www . sanger . ac . uk / Projects / C_briggsae / ) or from the Genome Sequencing Center at Washington University , St Louis ( http : / / genome . wustl . edu / projects / cbriggsae / ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005903 SentenceID s93 SENTENCE : We thank Gian Garriga , Sophie Jarriault , Iva Greenwald , Jim McCarter and the Sanger Institute and the Genome Sequencing Center ( Washington University , St Louis ) for communicating unpublished information ; Jean-Claude Labb for advice on RNA isolation and northern analysis ; Jonathan Hodgkin and Iva Greenwald for strains ; Yuji Kohara for cDNA clones ; Bob Barstead for a cDNA library ; and Alan Coulson for cosmid clones .
PaperID WBPaper00005931 SentenceID s43 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005955 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , consistent with these components acting in a single pathway that mediates the GIM .
PaperID WBPaper00005955 SentenceID s72 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005955 SentenceID s78 SENTENCE : We thank J . McEwen for generation of juIs76 and assistance in the screening of Max mutants ; L . DeLong for additional mapping of unc-71 and for obtaining YAC rescue ; Y . Kohara for unc-71 cDNAs ; C . Bargmann for kyIs136 marker ; J . Kaplan for glr-1 promoter and nuIs25 marker ; E . Lundquist for unc-115 promoter ; J . Harding for jam-1 promoter ; D . Pilgrim for unc-119 promoter ; M . Han for SUR-5 : : GFP and promoter ; A . Fire for GFP vectors and the myo-3 promoter ; J . Plenefisch and E . Hedgecock for pat-3 ( rh151 ) allele ; The C . elegans Genome Consortium for the sequences ; S . Mitani for tm347 and tm353 and the knockout consortium for ok265 ; B . Podbilewicz for the use of unpublished observation ; and the members of the Jin and Chisholm laboratories for suggestions on this work .
PaperID WBPaper00005965 SentenceID s32 SENTENCE : Moreover , a gainof-function mutation in the Gq protein EGL-30 causes excess vulval induction ( N . Moghal , L . R . Garcia , L . Khan , K . Iwasaki and P . W . Sternberg , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005965 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , sra-13 ( zh13 ) ( this study ) , let-23 ( sa62 ) , let-23 ( sy1 ) LGIII : unc-119 ( e2498 ) , daf-2 ( e1370 ) LGIV : let-60 ( n2021 ) , let-60 ( n1046 ) , let-60 ( n2031dn ) ( Beitel et al . , 1990 ) , let-60 ( n1876 ) ( Beitel et al . , 1990 ) , let-60 ( ga89 ) ( Eisenmann and Kim , 1997 ) , lin-45 ( sy96 ) , gpa-7 ( pk610 ) ( Jansen et al . , 1999 ) LGV : gpa-2 ( pk16 ) , gpa-3 ( pk35 ) ( Jansen et al . , 1999 ) , gaIs36 [ hs : : mpk-1 ] ( Lackner and Kim , 1998 ) LGX : sem-5 ( n2019 ) , gap-1 ( ga133 ) ( Hajnal et al . , 1997 ) , gpa- 5 ( pk376 ) ( Jansen et al . , 1999 ) , osm-5 ( p813 ) , syIs1 [ lin-3 ( xs ) ] Unless noted in the table legends , all experiments were conducted at 20C . Transgenic lines were generated by injecting the DNA at a concentration of 100 ng / l into both arms of the syncytial gonad as described ( Mello et al . , 1991 ) . pUNC119 ( 20 ng / l ) and pTG96 ( 100 ng / l ) were used as a transformation markers ( Maduro and Pilgrim , 1995 ; Yochem et al . , 1998 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005965 SentenceID s9 SENTENCE : However , the subsequent genetic mapping and the molecular cloning indicated that the ga145 and zh17 mutations are alleles of the puf-8 gene located on the YAC Y7B4 ( Fig . 1A ; G . Battu and A . Hajnal , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005973 SentenceID s32 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) ; nevertheless , a regulation that is more difficult to detect may exist . Alternatively , ceh-2 may regulate other , as yet unidentified components necessary for M3 function .
PaperID WBPaper00005973 SentenceID s74 SENTENCE : We are grateful to Raymond Lee and Leon Avery for helpful discussions and for sharing unpublished data .
PaperID WBPaper00006002 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : sys-1 dominantly enhances other Sys mutants ( K . Siegfried , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006002 SentenceID s59 SENTENCE : -H . Markussen , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006014 SentenceID s17 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006014 SentenceID s203 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006014 SentenceID s51 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006015 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , while daf-9 mutants show increased longevity under certain conditions ( Gerisch et al . , 2001 ; Jia et al . , 2002 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006015 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : Mosaic analysis for the identification of sdf-9-expressing cells using cell-specific GFP markers The following cell-specific GFP markers were used : egl-4 . a : : GFP for IL1VL / R ( Fujiwara et al . , 2002 ) , gcy-8 : : GFP for AFDL / R ( Yu et al . , 1997 ) , gpa-4 : : GFP for ASIL / R ( Jansen et al . , 1999 ) , T23G5 . 5 : : GFP for CEPDL / R ( Jayanthi et al . , 1998 ) ( T . Ishihara , unpublished ) and ttx-3 : : GFP for AIYL / R ( Hobert et al . , 1997 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006015 SentenceID s73 SENTENCE : We thank Hiroshi Kagoshima for gcy-8 : : GFP , Oliver Hobert for ttx- 3 : : GFP , Andy Fire for GFP vectors , Shohei Mitani for RFP cDNA , the Caenorhabditis Genetics Center for strains , Manabi Fujiwara for communicating unpublished results , Shuji Honda for help in the measurements of longevity , and Mariko Sugiura for help in preparing the manuscript .
PaperID WBPaper00006015 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006015 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : chromosome Dauer and non-dauer animals were counted after 3-3 . 5 days at 20C , 2 . 5-3 days at 25C , and 2-2 . 5 days at 27C . Molecular cloning of sdf-9 The sdf-9 mutations were previously mapped to the right arm of chromosome V ( N . Suzuki , T . Ishihara and I . Katsura , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006044 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : midbody This antiserum stains the midbody , or cell-division remnant , between sister cells ( small arrows in Fig . 2B ) ( M . Land and C . S . Rubin , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006104 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006105 SentenceID s57 SENTENCE : sem-4 also appears to have a positive regulatory role in Hox gene expression in certain it issues : sem-4 might activate lin-39 in vulval lineages ( Grant et al . , 2000 ) and egl- 5 in hypodermal lineages ( Y . Teng et al . , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006107 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006107 SentenceID s136 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , probably accounting for the outlying SMs .
PaperID WBPaper00006120 SentenceID s12 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , we favour the possibility that the low penetrance of the Ces phenotype observed is the result of the incomplete inactivation of hlh-2 and hlh-3 in the NSM sister cells .
PaperID WBPaper00006120 SentenceID s162 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , including , as shown above , the NSM sister cells .
PaperID WBPaper00006199 SentenceID s113 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006199 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006199 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : apical , unpublished ) , and PKC-3 does not colocalize with apical PAR-3 in par-6 ( ZF1 ) embryos .
PaperID WBPaper00006199 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006199 SentenceID s51 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006199 SentenceID s57 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006199 SentenceID s77 SENTENCE : filopodia , unpublished ) , however it is not known whether smaller filopodia and lamellipodia are present during ingression .
PaperID WBPaper00006199 SentenceID s96 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006200 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006200 SentenceID s126 SENTENCE : granules , unpublished ) as assayed by presence of gut granules ( Laufer et al . , 1980 ) , appeared to largely suppress the lack of gut granules seen in 70 % of par- 4 ( it47 ) single mutant embryos ( Morton et al . , 1992 ) , to 8 % ( n = 92 ) in the double mutant .
PaperID WBPaper00006200 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006247 SentenceID s25 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006247 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006284 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , and consistent with this expression pattern , we find that transgenic expression of activated EGL-30 in neurons , especially those that regulate motor output , including the SABs , and the VA and DA ventral cord motor neurons , also drives this pathway ( Table 2 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006284 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , and egl-30 : : gfp translational fusions also reveal strong expression in neurons , as well as muscle , and the differentiated secondary cells of the mature vulva ( Lackner et al . , 1999 ) ( C .
PaperID WBPaper00006284 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006286 SentenceID s49 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006288 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : Nematode strains and mutant analysis In addition to the multi-color GFP strains described above the following GFP strains and mutants were used : NW1229 , evIs111 [ F25B3 . 3 : : GFP ] ; EG1306 , oxIs12 [ unc-47 : : GFP ] ; PY1058 , oyIs14 [ sra-6 : : GFP ] ; OH2012 , otEx1082 ( GFP under the control of the promoter of an innexin-like gene expressed in a subset of neurons , including AVG ) ( A . S . Wenick and O . Hobert , unpublished ) ; MT633 , lin-11 ( n389 ) I ; him-5 ( e1467 ) V ; NW434 , unc-6 ( ev400 ) X ; CB53 , unc- 5 ( e53 ) IV ; CB271 , unc-40 ( e271 ) I ; CX5000 , slt-1 ( eh15 ) X ; CX3198 , sax-3 ( ky123 ) X ; IM324 , nid-1 ( ur41 ) V ; NW987 , unc-129 ( ev554 ) IV ; CZ337 , vab-1 ( dx31 ) II ; VH582 , mab-20 ( ev574 ) I ; CB191 , unc- 30 ( e191 ) X . Mutants were analysed after crossing the GFP markers into the corresponding strains .
PaperID WBPaper00006288 SentenceID s140 SENTENCE : I thank Andrew Fire for vectors ; Cori Bargmann , Joe Culotti , Erik Jorgensen , Piali Sengupta and Yishi Jin for various plasmids and GFP strains ; Oliver Hobert for sharing unpublished results and strains ; Suse Zobeley , Ilse Wunderlich and Christina Schmid for help with cloning and the generation of transgenic strains ; members of my laboratory for critical discussion of the experiments and comments on the manuscript .
PaperID WBPaper00006288 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006288 SentenceID s39 SENTENCE : axon unc-30 , another homeobox transcription factor , is expressed in D-type motoneurons and has been shown to be essential for the proper differentiation and axon guidance of the D-type motoneurons ( Jin et al . , 1994 ) ( J . G . White , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006289 SentenceID s111 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) ( Gotta and Ahringer , 2001 ; Rose and Kemphues , 1998a ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006289 SentenceID s82 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006290 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) and is also essential for elongation beyond the twofold stage ( Karabinos et al . , 2001 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006290 SentenceID s9 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006346 SentenceID s178 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) ( Table 2 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006346 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : F . and J . Liu , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006346 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) ; LG X , sma-9 ( wk55 , wk62 , wk71 , wk82 ) ( Savage-Dunn et al . , 2003 ) ; sma-9 ( bx120 ) , lon-2 ( e678 ) , dbl-1 ( ctIs40 ) ( Suzuki et al . , 1999 ) ; cat-2 : : gfp complex extrachomosomal arrays bxEx44 , bxEx45 , bxEx46 and bxEx47 ( Lints and Emmons , 1999 ) ; and mnIs17 , an integrated derivative of osm-6 : : gfp array mnEx64 ( Collet et al . , 1998 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006346 SentenceID s61 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006346 SentenceID s69 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006354 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , and hlh-14 ( ju243 ) was isolated in a screen for mutants with morphological defects ( W .
PaperID WBPaper00006354 SentenceID s44 SENTENCE : The resulting 8 . 4 kb genomic product and the GFP vector pPD95 . 77 ( A . Fire , S . Xu , J . Ahnn and G . Seydoux , unpublished ) were double digested with SalI and BamHI and ligated together .
PaperID WBPaper00006354 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , and hlh-14 ( ju243 ) was isolated in a screen for mutants with morphological defects ( W .
PaperID WBPaper00006369 SentenceID s61 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , suggesting that GLD-2 and GLD-3 probably function together to promote GLD-1 accumulation , possibly by GLD-2 and GLD-3 increasing gld-1 mRNA poly ( A ) tail length and increasing its translation .
PaperID WBPaper00006370 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006370 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : We are grateful to X . Karp and I . Greenwald for communicating unpublished data on hlh-2 ; to Y Kohara for nhr-25 cDNA ; and to A . Fire for gfp constructs .
PaperID WBPaper00006390 SentenceID s197 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006390 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , as well as providing a gene list to test candidates required for specific events during germline development ( i . . oocyte maturation ) ( Miller et al . , 2003 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006391 SentenceID s75 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006430 SentenceID s104 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006430 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , so it is unclear whether Akt itself or some other kinase ( s ) normally phosphorylates these LIN-45 RAF inhibitory sites .
PaperID WBPaper00006430 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : We are very grateful to A . Eriksson for help in isolating sur- 6 ( sv30 ) ; C . Rocheleau for help with embryological techniques ; S . Cibulsky for help with densitometry ; D . Garbe , J . Doto and E . Gaskin for excellent technical assistance ; and K . Ogura and Y . Kohara for sharing unpublished information .
PaperID WBPaper00006430 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006431 SentenceID s110 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006431 SentenceID s126 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006431 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006431 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006431 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , two of which we identify as RMEL and RMER neurons .
PaperID WBPaper00006431 SentenceID s60 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) ] .
PaperID WBPaper00006431 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006431 SentenceID s80 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006431 SentenceID s87 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006485 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006485 SentenceID s203 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006485 SentenceID s229 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006485 SentenceID s236 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) and in fkh-6 mutant L1 gonads , with no obvious change in pattern or timing ( Fig . 5G , H ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006485 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006485 SentenceID s37 SENTENCE : In wild-type males , this ablation does not affect the divisions of remaining cells ( Kimble and White , 1981 ) ( J . Kimble , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006485 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : M . et al . , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006519 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006519 SentenceID s69 SENTENCE : The next challenge will be to identify the DAF-9 substrate that should shed light on the nature of the hormonal signal . We thank Patrick Hu and Weiqing Li for critical reading of the manuscript ; Snjezana Joksimovic and Xue Li for technical assistance ; members of the Ruvkun laboratory for helpful discussions ; Theresa Stiernagle at the Caenorhabditis Genetics Center for providing strains ; Andrew Fire for GFP vectors ; Yuji Kohara for cDNA clones ; and Adam Antebi and Birgit Gerisch for communication of unpublished results .
PaperID WBPaper00012799 SentenceID s153 SENTENCE : Additionally , there is no dosage effect of rin mutations on the phenotype caused by mutations in Gap1 or on the phenotype caused by overexpression of Gap1 ( sevGAL4 , UAS-Gap1 ; our unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00012799 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : , unpublished ; rin mutants and anti-Rin antibody are available from S . R . H .
PaperID WBPaper00012799 SentenceID s78 SENTENCE : We are most grateful to R . Kelley and U . Gaul for sharing unpublished materials and information .
PaperID WBPaper00012988 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : nucleoli We expect that cells might be sensitive to brat dose , as we previously found that ncl-1 heterozygous worms have larger nucleoli than wild-type worms ( though smaller than ncl-1 homozygotes ) ( D . J . Frank and M . B . Roth , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00012988 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : chromosome The chromosome Ub-GFP FRT40A is from C . Martn-Castellanos and B . Edgar ( unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00013396 SentenceID s110 SENTENCE : The authors thank A . Fire for GFP vectors ; CGC for nematode strains ; C . Weitzel and C . Kober-Eisermann for technical assistance ; Antebi laboratory members and D . Gems for manuscript comments ; D . Riddle for the dr434 construct ; and G . Ruvkun and H . Mak for communication of unpublished results .
PaperID WBPaper00013415 SentenceID s98 SENTENCE : We thank members of the Culotti Laboratory , especially N . Levy- Strumpf , for comments on the manuscript , and Rob Steven for sharing unpublished data about UNC-73 .
PaperID WBPaper00013416 SentenceID s73 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00013416 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) ( Bloom and Horvitz , 1997 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00013507 SentenceID s127 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) ( Schubert et al . , 2000 ) ( Fig . 6A , C ) .
PaperID WBPaper00013507 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00013507 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024193 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : ( 7 ) The authors use unpublished information to state that K07E12 . 1 corresponds to DIG-1 ( table 2 ) , but they fail to acknowledge their source of information .
PaperID WBPaper00024194 SentenceID s232 SENTENCE : VAB-7 represses mab-9 expression in posterior cells In a separate screen for genes that regulate the expression of the T-box gene mab-9 ( Pocock and Woollard , unpublished observations ) , we found that mab-9 expression was altered in a vab-7 mutant background .
PaperID WBPaper00024194 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : A survey of C . elegans T-box gene function by RNAi has revealed obvious phenotypes in only a few cases ( Maxwell , Aslam and Woollard , unpublished observations ; Ahringer , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024206 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024206 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024206 SentenceID s52 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , whereas embryonic hatching was unaffected at either temperature .
PaperID WBPaper00024206 SentenceID s69 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024207 SentenceID s51 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024207 SentenceID s71 SENTENCE : We also thank : O . Hobert for discussions and sharing unpublished results ; D . Baillie for dpy-17 let-756 unc-32 ; sDp3 ; E . Lambie for providing mpk-1 ncl-1 unc-36 ; sDp3 ; C . Z . Borland for making the initial observation that Pegl-15 : : clr-1 can rescue clr-1 ; I . E . Sasson for help in the integration of ayIs25 and observing EGL-15 expression in the hypodermis ; T . Lo for generating ayIs29 ; and M . R . Koelle , L . Cooley and members of our laboratory for a critical reading of this manuscript .
PaperID WBPaper00024263 SentenceID s52 SENTENCE : We thank Tim Schedl for sharing unpublished results and for insightful comments .
PaperID WBPaper00024274 SentenceID s118 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024274 SentenceID s30 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024321 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) ; anti- -tubulin ( N356 , Amersham ) ; and anti-GFP , 3E6 ( Molecular Probes ) and ab6556 ( AbCam ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024321 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , as well as the degradation of embryonic CCCH proteins ( DeRenzo et al . , 2003 ) , suggesting that ELC-1 participates in all known CUL-2 functions .
PaperID WBPaper00024364 SentenceID s155 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024364 SentenceID s43 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024364 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024430 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024430 SentenceID s48 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) all localize correctly in the first mitotic cell cycle in tba-2 ( RNAi ) embryos .
PaperID WBPaper00024430 SentenceID s9 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024472 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024472 SentenceID s9 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) ; and ( 3 ) components of the activated receptor signaling complex that act upstream of SOC-2 / SUR-8 can remain fully activated .
PaperID WBPaper00024593 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : Strong lin- 12 loss-of-function phenotypes were not observed in these experiments ( unpublished observation ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024595 SentenceID s17 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025016 SentenceID s104 SENTENCE : In addition , we are indebted to Michael Stern for providing the egl-17 promoter , unpublished data and ceh-20 alleles .
PaperID WBPaper00025016 SentenceID s105 SENTENCE : We are also grateful to William Wood and Barbara Robertson for communicating unpublished results and for additional unc-62 alleles .
PaperID WBPaper00025032 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : Although many Research article Best candidate Refs upstream activator Edgar et al . , 2001 ; Hunter pal-1 and Kenyon , 1996 pal-1 pal-1 Mathies et al . , 2003 pal-1 Pocock et al . , 2004 ; Andachi , pal-1 2004 Pocock et al . , 2004 ; Andachi , pal-1 2004 Page et al . , 1997 pal-1 Ahringer 1996 cwn-1 Waterston ( unpublished ) hnd-1 Krause et al . , 1990 ; Seydoux and hnd-1 Fire , 1994 Gilleard et al . , 1999 elt-1 Asahina et al . , 2000 elt-1 Kohara ( unpublished ) cwn-1 Ho et al . , 2001 elt-3 1853 PAL-1 specifies a lineage-specific network of the target genes function in the descendants of additional founder blastomeres , their expression in the C lineage depends on PAL-1 ( Table 1 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025051 SentenceID s112 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025051 SentenceID s184 SENTENCE : De velopment 1933 xbx genes in C . elegans We thank the following people for technical assistance , helpful discussions , unpublished information , C . elegans strains , cosmid clones , cDNA clones , RNAi clones and GFP vectors : J . Ahringer , M . Barr , G . Caldwell , A . Coulson , A . Fire , C . Haycraft , Y . Kohara , G . Merrihew , E . Onischenko , S . Tat , H . Tian , B . Yoder and especially members of our and the T . Brglin laboratories .
PaperID WBPaper00025051 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025051 SentenceID s67 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025052 SentenceID s163 SENTENCE : osm-6 : : dsRed is expressed in multiple ciliated sensory neuron types , including the ASK and ASI neurons ( Collet et al . , 1998 ) ( A . Lanjuin , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025052 SentenceID s48 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , suggesting that ALR- 1 functions in different pathways to regulate chemosensory and motoneuron development .
PaperID WBPaper00025227 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : R . and S . Quaggin , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025227 SentenceID s56 SENTENCE : We thank Zhibin Lu , Raynah Fernandes , and Nicole Ricker for technical assistance ; Jean-Louis Bessereau for bringing the him-4 promoter to our attention ; David Hall for sharing unpublished results ; Shoichiro Ono for the lev-11 RNAi clones and unc-60 alleles ; Development 132 ( 13 ) Research article De velopment 3091 Muscle arm development Geraldine Seydoux for the construct encoding the GFP : : ACT-1 fusion protein ; Andrew Fire for vectors ; and Andrew Spence for use of his equipment and many helpful discussions .
PaperID WBPaper00025228 SentenceID s204 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025228 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : , A . Smolyanskaya and L . Bianchi , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025228 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026609 SentenceID s148 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026609 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026609 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) revealed that most embryos defective in ventral enclosure do not show the rounded-up epidermal cells .
PaperID WBPaper00026609 SentenceID s51 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026617 SentenceID s80 SENTENCE : vesicles We analyzed vesicles in serial sections ( n = 30 ) , and confirmed that they are free structures unattached to spermatozoa or somatic cells ( Fig . 4B , and unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026626 SentenceID s145 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) ( Vowels and Thomas , 1992 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026626 SentenceID s37 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026626 SentenceID s97 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026645 SentenceID s92 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026680 SentenceID s30 SENTENCE : Similarly , vab-1 animals show defects in CAN and PLM cell positioning ( A . Mohamed and I . D . Chin-Sang , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026680 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026765 SentenceID s58 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) and may provide a potential mechanism for the interaction between fibulin and hemicentin .
PaperID WBPaper00026786 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026786 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026845 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026857 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : We are also grateful to Roy Parker for helpful discussions , and to Karen Oegema and John White for communicating unpublished results and critically reading this manuscript , for which we also thank Amy Walker .
PaperID WBPaper00026868 SentenceID s58 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , which known from genome-wide RNAi screens to be essential ( Kamath et al . , 2003 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026932 SentenceID s107 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026932 SentenceID s307 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) ( Yin et al . , 2004 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026932 SentenceID s44 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026980 SentenceID s164 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026980 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027031 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , we examined this genomic region for the presence of predicted gene regulatory factors .
PaperID WBPaper00027031 SentenceID s166 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027031 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) and die-1 , are expressed asymmetrically in either ASEL or ASER and are not only required to induce either the ASEL or ASER fate , but are also sufficient to do so if misexpressed in the opposing cell .
PaperID WBPaper00027048 SentenceID s113 SENTENCE : We are grateful to T . Schedl and members of the Baltimore Worm Club for their input and suggestions , to S . T . Lamatina and S . L ' Hernault for sharing unpublished results , to the NCI Fellows Editorial Board for their editorial assistance , and to M . Lilly , K . O ' Connell , J . Dean , and members of our laboratory for critical reading of this manuscript .
PaperID WBPaper00027048 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027119 SentenceID s140 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027119 SentenceID s65 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027128 SentenceID s49 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) ( Peterson et al . , 2004 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027192 SentenceID s120 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , which are in part guided by Wnt and Frizzled signaling ( Harris et al . , 1996 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027192 SentenceID s138 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027192 SentenceID s71 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027321 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027321 SentenceID s65 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027611 SentenceID s89 SENTENCE : We also thank A . Antebi for sharing unpublished results and reagents ; C . Braendle and M .
PaperID WBPaper00027680 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027680 SentenceID s57 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027680 SentenceID s64 SENTENCE : We thank A . Singhvi and N . Hawkins for comments on the manuscript , A . Singhvi for sharing unpublished observations , and members of the Garriga , Meyer and Dernburg labs for helpful discussions .
PaperID WBPaper00027745 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : D E V E LO P M E N T Three additional closely-related RGGTATAC sites , which can bind MED-1 at a lower affinity ( our unpublished observations ) are also found in close proximity .
PaperID WBPaper00027745 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : , I . Mengarelli and J . Rothman , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027745 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027758 SentenceID s40 SENTENCE : R . and T . Schedl , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027758 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : -H . Lee for permitting the discussion of unpublished data , and J . Priess , B . Grant , G . Seydoux and H .
PaperID WBPaper00028358 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028375 SentenceID s243 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028375 SentenceID s37 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) . cc607 is a putative molecular null allele as it encodes a nonsense mutation causing premature termination before both the Zn fingers and the FH2 domain ( Fig . 2B ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028377 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : basement membranes, membranes Indeed , using some fixation techniques , apparent connections between the basement membranes of separate adult it issues are seen in C . elegans ( D . H . H . Axang and M . Pilon , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028377 SentenceID s81 SENTENCE : We thank E . Ryder , J . Kaplan and R . H . Horvitz for generously providing mutant alleles ; E . Ryder for generously sharing unpublished results , providing additional reagents , and discussions ; the NIH-funded Caenorhabditis Genetics Center and members of the worm community for providing reporter gene constructs ; H . Bigelow for protein database searches ; Q . Chen for expert injection assistance ; R . Proenca and E . Hedgecock for generating the rhEx40 array ; and I . Greenwald , E . Ryder , W . Wadsworth and members of the Hobert laboratory for comments on the manuscript .
PaperID WBPaper00028418 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : mitochondrial , unpublished ) , unlike the disorganized and interconnected mitochondrial distribution evident in Fig . 7B .
PaperID WBPaper00028418 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028418 SentenceID s32 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028418 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028418 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028418 SentenceID s59 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028447 SentenceID s98 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028448 SentenceID s78 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028449 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028449 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028449 SentenceID s71 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028449 SentenceID s76 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028449 SentenceID s80 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028449 SentenceID s82 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028449 SentenceID s87 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028483 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028483 SentenceID s53 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028747 SentenceID s43 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , but the function of the gene is not yet understood .
PaperID WBPaper00028747 SentenceID s44 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028855 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028874 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : synaptic In this present study , we also noticed synaptic defects induced by high levels of overexpression of SAD- 1 ( our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028874 SentenceID s56 SENTENCE : 247 RESEARCH ARTICLE NAB-1 and SAD-1 regulate neuronal polarity D E V E LO P M E N T 248 We thank D . Miller and J . Kaplan for wdIs20 and nuIs94 markers , respectively , and for sharing unpublished data ; M . Nonet for antibody against UNC-10 and SNT-1 ; K . Shen for the Podr-1-GFP injection marker ; Y . Wang , J . Kim and H . Li for technical assistance ; C . Mok for developing the software to quantify properties of fluorescent markers ; L . Brown for help with confocal microscopy ; the Caenorhabditis Genetic Center and The C . elegans Gene Knockout Consortium for ok943 and gk164 mutants and strains ; R . Tsien for monomeric RFP ; K . Matsumoto for the yeast two-hybrid library ; G . Boulianne and C . Boone for yeast strains ; and Y . Kohara and A . Coulson for cDNA clones and cosmids , respectively .
PaperID WBPaper00028985 SentenceID s113 SENTENCE : , unpublished ; Y . Kohara , personal communication ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028987 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028987 SentenceID s59 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029059 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : cuticle Finally , some osmotic-stress-resistant mutants like osm-7 ( Wheeler and Thomas , 2006 ) might survive even with a defective cuticle ( A . F . Ruaud and J . L . Bessereau , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029059 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029059 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029128 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : Adherens junction, cell-cell contact, junction Adherens junction proteins such as HMR-1 / E-cadherin and HMP- 1 / -catenin are instead found at all sites of cell-cell contact , are not needed for cell adhesion , and do not require PAR-6 to localize ( Costa et al . , 1998 ; Nance et al . , 2003 ) ( our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029128 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : Although this is difficult to exclude , we observed that the fragmented organization of DLG-1GFP in par-6 ( M / Z ) epithelial cells does not worsen in timelapse movies as long as 2 hours ( our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029128 SentenceID s65 SENTENCE : Additionally , in RNAi experiments we failed to detect redundant interactions between PAR-6 and CRB-1 / Crumbs ( our unpublished observations ) , although we could not verify depletion of CRB-1 because CRB-1 antiserum is no longer available ( O . Bossinger , personal communication ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029147 SentenceID s103 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , and because RNA in situ hybridization cannot be used reliably to detect ced-3 expression ( S .
PaperID WBPaper00029147 SentenceID s105 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , we could not directly follow the production of ced-3 mRNA or protein in the tail-spike cell .
PaperID WBPaper00029147 SentenceID s21 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029147 SentenceID s80 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029395 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : nuclei C . elegans gonads do not contain morphologically distinct nurse cells , and none of the germline nuclei appear to be highly polyploid when stained for DNA ( Hirsh et al . , 1976 ) ( our unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030733 SentenceID s66 SENTENCE : We are indebted to Paul Mains for generously providing let-502 alleles and sharing unpublished information , Stephen Nurrish for the hs : : rho-1 construct , Mike Glotzer for recombinant His-tagged GTPase constructs , Hala Zahreddine and Christelle Gally for mcIs46 , Yuji Kohara for cDNAs and the CGC for strains ; Didier Hentsch , Marc Koch and Jean-Luc Vonesch at the IGBMC Imaging Facility for advice with SP5 confocal analysis ; Julie Arhinger for advice on RNAi screens ; Mario de Bono , Sophie Jarriault , Alexandre Benedetto , Hala Zahreddine and Christelle Gally for critical reading of the manuscript .
PaperID WBPaper00030852 SentenceID s73 SENTENCE : A cDNA clone ( GH23250 ) corresponding to the 3 . 2 kb mRNA was identified in an adult head library ( Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project / HHMI EST Project , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030857 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : chromosome ipa-2 maps to chromosome III and has been shown to be the Ppa-ced- 4 gene , which encodes an ortholog of the cell-death adaptor CED- 4 / APAF-1 ( Dinkelacker , Lee and Sommer , unpublished information ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030857 SentenceID s32 SENTENCE : , unpublished observation ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030864 SentenceID s37 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030905 SentenceID s12 SENTENCE : nuclear Homology eh1 is described further in Fig . 4 , while eh2 and eh5 are part of the conserved regions flanking the en HD , which also include a sequence termed eh3 ( immediately flanking the N terminus of the en HD ) that has been implicated in nuclear localization ( S . J . Poole , unpublished observation ) , and so was left intact in our analyses .
PaperID WBPaper00030905 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : This repression activity is seen more clearly immediately after induction of transgene expression , before ftz expression is allowed to recover ( our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030905 SentenceID s54 SENTENCE : For the major classes , msh , goosecoid , Nk1 , Nk2 and engrailed , all known members ( for which complete sequence information is available ) contain the motif ( J . B . Jaynes , unpublished observation ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030905 SentenceID s62 SENTENCE : As this region does not appear to provide either activation or anti-repression function in cell culture assays ( our unpublished observation ) , it may have an effect on targeting in vivo .
PaperID WBPaper00030905 SentenceID s65 SENTENCE : The involvement of multiple domains in repression by en , the lack of apparent activation activity in any of our derivatives ( our unpublished observations ; however , Han and Manley , 1993 , found that an en derivative containing regions 2 , 5 and 6 could weakly activate in culture ) and the involvement of highly conserved motifs in repression activity in vivo , taken together , suggest that repression may be the primary effector function of en .
PaperID WBPaper00030943 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030943 SentenceID s121 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) were also tested in RESEARCH ARTICLE Development 134 ( 18 ) Fig . 4 .
PaperID WBPaper00030943 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030943 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030943 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030943 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030994 SentenceID s123 SENTENCE : However , we were unable to obtain such a strain ( our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030994 SentenceID s129 SENTENCE : [ We have been unable to construct a strain of the genotype efl-1 ( n3318 ) ; ced-9 ( n2812 ) ; ced-3 ( n2427 ) , and consider it likely that animals of this genotype are not viable ( our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030994 SentenceID s66 SENTENCE : Interestingly , in response to DNA damage , the level of ced-9 mRNA increases about 2-fold and the levels of ced-4 and ced-3 mRNAs decrease by about 50 % in the germ line of wild-type hermaphrodites ( our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030994 SentenceID s71 SENTENCE : Finally , we have evidence that apart from lin-35 and dpl-1 , additional synMuvB genes are required for DNA damage-induced germ cell apoptosis ( our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031094 SentenceID s142 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031094 SentenceID s174 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031196 SentenceID s12 SENTENCE : In C . elegans , the mesodermal cell pm8 expresses both the NK transcription factor CEH-24 ( Harfe and Fire , 1998 ) , and the GATA factors ELT-5 and ELT-6 ( our unpublished results ) ( Koh and Rothman , 2001 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031196 SentenceID s12 SENTENCE : In the course of this study , we discovered that ref-1 was expressed in a few cells in the pharyngeal primordium of the embryo ; one of these pharyngeal cells , called pm8 ( pharyngeal muscle group 8 ) , is specified by Notch signaling ( our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031196 SentenceID s132 SENTENCE : D E V E LO P M E N T As a second test of the sufficiency of enhA and ELT-2 / GATA , we asked whether ELT-2 could cooperate with Notch signaling in the pm8 interaction ; this interaction occurs in mesodermal it issue at approximately the 500-cell stage of embryogenesis , in contrast to the second endodermal interaction at approximately the 360-cell stage ( our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031196 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : However , multimerized CSL sites are insufficient to drive reporter expression in Notch-activated cells in vivo ( Guss et al . , 2001 ) , and some endogenous Notch targets contain only one or two CSL-binding sites ( Yoo and Greenwald , 2005 ) ( our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031196 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : We consider the atypical GATA factors MED-1 and MED-2 to be unlikely candidates for combinatorial factors in the first interaction , because their predicted binding sites are not present in enhA , and heat shock MED- 1 is unable to drive ectopic enhA transgene expression in any of several Notch-activated cells ( our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031196 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : Analysis of the ELT-2 target pho-1 has identified a 79 bp element that is important for endoderm expression ; this element contains three WGATAR sequences , but no predicted CSL-binding sites ( Fukushige et al . , 2005 ) ( our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031196 SentenceID s48 SENTENCE : Towards a Notch-GATA transcriptional code RTGGGAA and RTGAGAA sequences that are potential binding sites for CSL proteins occur frequently in the C . elegans genome ( > 80 , 000 copies ) , and are often found near genes that are unlikely to be Notch targets , such as genes encoding metabolic enzymes ( Genome Enhancer , http : / / genomeenhancer . org / ; our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031196 SentenceID s67 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031196 SentenceID s75 SENTENCE : ceh-24 is a direct target of Notch signaling in pm8 , but we do not yet know whether CEH-24 has a redundant role in regulating ref-1 expression in pm8 ( our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031416 SentenceID s73 SENTENCE : We thank members of the Lin laboratory for their useful comments , Jim McGhee , Jie Yan , Judith Kimble and Julie Ahringer for reagents , Judith Kimble and Jeff Hardin for sharing unpublished results , and Bruce Bowerman and Tim Schedl for useful discussions .
PaperID WBPaper00031477 SentenceID s143 SENTENCE : S . et al . , unpublished ) , would be resistant to RNAi .
PaperID WBPaper00031477 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : S . et al . , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031477 SentenceID s37 SENTENCE : S . et al . , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031477 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : S . et al . , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031477 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : S . et al . , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031477 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : S . et al . , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031477 SentenceID s61 SENTENCE : S . et al . , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031477 SentenceID s83 SENTENCE : We thank D . Conte and C . Mello for sharing unpublished results , T . Duchaine for a protocol for worm extract preparation and C . Carroll for assistance with germline dissections .
PaperID WBPaper00031498 SentenceID s3 SENTENCE : W . and D . Xue , unpublished ) , but its phenotype is not dependent on or enhanced by the psr-1 deletion mutant tm469 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031543 SentenceID s102 SENTENCE : , T . Yu and C . Bargmann , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031555 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) and perhaps phosphorylation of PLK-1 by anteriorly localized PKC-3 contributes to PLK-1 asymmetry .
PaperID WBPaper00031555 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031702 SentenceID s40 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031702 SentenceID s53 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , we think MEX-3 may also have an indirect role on the repression of nos-2 translation in the posterior cells .
PaperID WBPaper00031917 SentenceID s37 SENTENCE : , unpublished ] , suggesting indirect roles for CEPsh glia in synaptogenesis .
PaperID WBPaper00031917 SentenceID s66 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031953 SentenceID s72 SENTENCE : We thank D . Zarkower and J . Wolff for their MAB-3 : : GFP reporters , and for helpful discussions ; D . Zarkower and M . Murphy for communicating unpublished data ; A . Fire for vectors ; W . Mohler and J . del Campo for eff-1 reporters ; E . Jorgensen and J . White for their artificial-operon vector ; D . Fitch for lin-41 mutants and helpful discussions ; D . Hurd for assistance with immunofluorescence ; and members of the Portman lab for critical reading of the manuscript .
PaperID WBPaper00032007 SentenceID s9 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032251 SentenceID s155 SENTENCE : MEX-5 does not contain known PAR-1 phosphorylation sites , and we have not yet been able to determine whether MEX-5 is phosphorylated specifically by PAR-1 ( our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032251 SentenceID s17 SENTENCE : cortical, cytoplasm, cytoplasmic, granules Interestingly , yolk and various cytoplasmic granules that flow to the posterior in response to capping of cortical actomyosin move more slowly through the anterior cytoplasm than through the posterior cytoplasm ( Hird and White , 1993 ) ( our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032251 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : However , FZY-1 appears to be uniformly distributed at subsequent stages when MEX-5 asymmetry develops ( Kitagawa et al . , 2002 ) ( our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032411 SentenceID s104 SENTENCE : We thank B . Tursun ( Columbia University ) for providing otIs188 and for communicating unpublished results , N . Flames for the control shown in Fig . 3A , Q . Chen for expert DNA injection and members of the Hobert laboratory for comments on the manuscript .
PaperID WBPaper00032411 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032907 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , are necessary for both dorsal and ventral muscle arm extension .
PaperID WBPaper00032907 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : Because unc-40 lies within the map interval of madd-1 and shares all of the observed behavioral phenotypes of madd-1 ( our unpublished observations ) ( Hedgecock et al . , 1990 ) , we examined the muscles of unc-40 ( n324 ) null mutants and found them to be Madd ( Fig . 2 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032908 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : We favor the latter possibility , as western blots of L1-stage wild-type animals with rudimentary germlines have relatively high steady state levels of ubiquitylated H2A and H2B , but we detected little ubiquitylated histone in L4 or young adult animals with proliferative germlines ( our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032908 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : In addition , the expression domains of the Pegl-5gfp Hox and Ppkd-2gfp reporters do not appear to be expanded in mig-32 mutants , and mig-32 mutations do not suppress pal-1 mutations , which reduce Hox activity ( our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00033446 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00033446 SentenceID s156 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00033446 SentenceID s179 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , however , old ced-3 ( n717 ) hermaphrodites can contain small abnormal oocytes ( Gumienny et al . , 1999 ; Andux and Ellis , 2008 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00033446 SentenceID s201 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00033446 SentenceID s25 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00033446 SentenceID s78 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00033447 SentenceID s151 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00033447 SentenceID s40 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00034674 SentenceID s66 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00034726 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00034726 SentenceID s148 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00034726 SentenceID s39 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00034727 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00034727 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : Of the 89 homeodomain proteins encoded by the C . elegans genome ( Okkema and Krause , 2005 ) , CEH-51 is most closely related to CEH-7 ( Kagoshima et al . , 1999 ) , CEH-24 ( Harfe and Fire , 1998 ) and TAB-1 ( CEH-29 ) [ L . Carnell and M . Chalfie , unpublished data cited in Syntichaki and Tavernarakis ( Syntichaki and Tavernarakis , 2004 ) ] , sharing 41-48 % identity ( 57-58 % similarity ) within the homeodomain ( Fig . 2B , C ) .
PaperID WBPaper00034727 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , although we have not yet identified common targets for both TBX-35 and CEH-51 .
PaperID WBPaper00034728 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : Approximately 1 . 4 107 clones were screened and 45 unique potential interacting partners of UNC-83 were identified ( our unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00034728 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : The UNC-83KLC-2 interaction was confirmed in a directed yeast two-hybrid analysis using amino acids 4-561 of KLC-2 as bait and amino acids 137-692 of UNC-83c as prey ( our unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00034728 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : cytoplasmic, nuclear Unpublished data from our laboratory suggest that the non-kinesin-interacting domain of the cytoplasmic portion of UNC-83 interacts with several proteins that are likely to function to regulate kinesin and nuclear migration .
PaperID WBPaper00035085 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , we relied on the acting-binding domain of the spectraplakin VAB-10 ( Bosher et al . , 2003 ) , which was expressed specifically in the epidermis .
PaperID WBPaper00035106 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : The che-1 promoter contains no perfect match to the AAGTCA core binding sequence of TLX-type transcription factors [ which was also found to bind NHR-67 in a heterologous yeast system ( DeMeo et al . , 2008 ) ] , but it is possible that NHR-67 might bind to a phylogenetically conserved derivative of this sequence in the che-1 promoter ( cAGTtA ) , which we find to be required for embryonic induction of che-1 expression ( our unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035106 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : The che-1 promoter also contains several other conserved motifs that are required for the initiation of che-1 expression ( our unpublished data ) , suggesting that che-1 integrates several regulatory inputs , of which NHR-67 is likely to be one .
PaperID WBPaper00035405 SentenceID s148 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035545 SentenceID s52 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035545 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) ; ok2283 is a deletion- and protein-null allele four times out-crossed against N2 .
PaperID WBPaper00035545 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) and harbours a mutation that leads to a premature stop codon at Q322 ( see Fig . S1 in the supplementary material ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036007 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036048 SentenceID s48 SENTENCE : P granules, granules We favor the hypothesis that P granules are sequestering nascent mRNA in the quiescent gonads but could not test this directly with our heat shock system as these conditions prevented transgene expression ( our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036048 SentenceID s73 SENTENCE : Promoters for heat shock genes such as hsp-16 . 2 are used to induce expression in somatic cells ( Fire et al . , 1990 ) , but endogenous hsp-16 . 2 is poorly expressed in germ cells ( our unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036142 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036142 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) was raised for 16 hours at 25C and immunostained with a monoclonal anti-PIE-1 antibody ( Tenenhaus et al . , 1998 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036143 SentenceID s106 SENTENCE : axon Recently , we found that UNC-51 and UNC-14 regulated localization ( secretion ) of UNC-6 in ventral neurons ( T . Asakura , unpublished data ) , suggesting that UNC-51 and UNC-14 can cell-nonautonomously act on the AVM axon guidance .
PaperID WBPaper00036143 SentenceID s110 SENTENCE : Recently , we found that unc-51 regulated localization of UNC-6 in ventral neurons ( VA , VB and AVG ) ( T . Asakura , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036206 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) disrupt fem-3 regulation .
PaperID WBPaper00036206 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , suggesting that a 5 uracil also contributes to recognition by FBF .
PaperID WBPaper00036224 SentenceID s149 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036224 SentenceID s88 SENTENCE : spindle , unpublished observations ) , but the role of LET-99 in spindle orientation makes this difficult to assess accurately .
PaperID WBPaper00036224 SentenceID s9 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036308 SentenceID s2 SENTENCE : We are grateful to N . Pujol for reporter constructs and insightful comments and to H . Kagoshima and T . Brglin for sharing unpublished observations .
PaperID WBPaper00036480 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) , making it extremely difficult to examine the effects of complete removal of mago product on embryonic development .
PaperID WBPaper00036486 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : fraction We found an immobile fraction of 0 % for GFP alone ( our unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037136 SentenceID s108 SENTENCE : cortical Double par-2 ( it5ts ) plk-1 ( RNAi ) and spat-1 ( RNAi ) ; par-2 ( it5ts ) embryos displayed abnormal DNA segregation and cytokinesis defects ( data not shown ) , as did the single plk-1 ( RNAi ) and spat-1 ( RNAi ) embryos ( our unpublished data ) ( Chase et al . , 2000 ) , which could account for the mild lethality suppression seen in double mutants compared with the high rescue of cortical PAR-2 in these embryos .
PaperID WBPaper00037136 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : Furthermore , depletion of mex-5 does not result in par-2 lethality rescue ( our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037136 SentenceID s57 SENTENCE : This is not merely a consequence of a cell cycle delay of these embryos , as other mutants that are also delayed do not display such phenotype ( our unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037596 SentenceID s65 SENTENCE : processes , unpublished ) , suggesting that LIN-42 might contribute to these processes .
PaperID WBPaper00037647 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) . pxn- 2 ( tm3464 ) , provided by S . Mitani ( Tokyo Women ' s Medical University ) , comprises a 630 bp deletion and a 6 bp insertion and is predicted to result in deletion of residues Q748 to K877 and termination of translation in the peroxidase domain .
PaperID WBPaper00037648 SentenceID s82 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , suggesting that rh308 is a null allele . hd121 is a late nonsense mutation in the GPS domain ( Fig . 1B ) and hd35 a small deletion leading to a frame-shift and premature stop codon before the GPS domain .
PaperID WBPaper00037739 SentenceID s126 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037739 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037740 SentenceID s109 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037849 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : active zone, postsynaptic, presynaptic, synaptic, synaptic vesicle, vesicle Further , we previously found that presynaptic specialization , characterized by active zone formation and synaptic vesicle accumulation , occurs within 30 to 60 minutes after pre- and postsynaptic contact ( M . L . Nonet , unpublished observations ) , a time window allowing assembly of pre-existing synaptic components but not the synthesis and transport of new synaptic components .
PaperID WBPaper00038156 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : , unpublished ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00038156 SentenceID s52 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , suggesting that the increase in microvilli number observed in dauers could also be explained by a constant rate of microvilli addition that is independent of the dauer state .
PaperID WBPaper00038168 SentenceID s85 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00038227 SentenceID s57 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00038227 SentenceID s62 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00038317 SentenceID s73 SENTENCE : soma Consistent with this hypothesis , animals treated with vps-34 ( RNAi ) , in which persistent cell corpses are readily observed in the germline , but fail to be observed in early embryos ( Kinchen et al . , 2008 ) ( our unpublished results ) , present experimental evidence for increased RNAi susceptibility in sheath cells compared with the soma .
PaperID WBPaper00038522 SentenceID s2 SENTENCE : Strains were cultured at 20C . Mutations and transgenes used in this study were : LGI , lin-44 ( n1792 ) ( Herman et al . , 1995 ) , mom-5 ( gk812 ) , pry-1 ( mu38 ) ( Maloof et al . , 1999 ; Korswagen et al . , 2002 ) , ccIs4251 [ Pmyo-3 : : gfp ] ( Fire et al . , 1998 ) ; LGII , cwn-1 ( ok546 ) ( Zinovyeva and Forrester , 2005 ) , mab-5 ( gk670 ) , mig- 14 ( mu71 ) ( Bnziger et al . , 2006 ) , vps-35 ( hu68 ) ( Coudreuse et al . , 2006 ) , muIs32 [ Pmec-7 : : gfp ] ( Ch ' ng et al . , 2003 ) ; LGIV , sfrp-1 ( gk554 ) , cwn- 2 ( ok895 ) ( Zinovyeva and Forrester , 2005 ) , egl-20 ( hu105 ) ( Coudreuse et al . , 2006 ) ; otIs33 ( Pkal-1 : : GFP ) ( Bulow et al . , 2002 ) ; ayIs7 [ Phlh-8 : : gfp ] ( Harfe et al . , 1998 ) ; LGV , mom-2 ( or309 ) ( Zinovyeva and Forrester , 2005 ) ( note that the balancer for mom-2 , nT1 , also complements sfrp-1 ) , muIs35 [ Pmec- 7 : : gfp ] ( Ch ' ng et al . , 2003 ) ; heIs63 [ Pwrt-2 : : ph : : gfp ] ( M . Wildwater and S . van den Heuvel , unpublished ) ; and unassigned , huIs120 [ Phsp : : sfrp-1 ] .
PaperID WBPaper00039902 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) ( Fig . 1B-C , E ) , whereas dct- 5p : : mCherry marked the duct , G1 and some other epithelial cells during L1 ( this work , Fig . 1J-K ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040080 SentenceID s44 SENTENCE : , unpublished ; a detailed account of VAB-10 distribution in these tissues will be presented elsewhere ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040080 SentenceID s83 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040080 SentenceID s90 SENTENCE : nuclear , unpublished ) , suggesting that nuclear translocation itself does not play a major role in cell migration of the DTCs .
PaperID WBPaper00040105 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040121 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : We thank C . Link for unpublished information regarding mab-10 , A . Rougvie for strains and suggestions regarding lin-29 , S . Russel and G . Ruvkun for discussions , A . van Oudenaarden for the use of microscopes , C . Engert for help with FISH , and B . Galvin and D . Denning for providing comments concerning the manuscript .
PaperID WBPaper00040226 SentenceID s121 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040226 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040226 SentenceID s49 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040402 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : Molecular biology and transgenic lines Expression clones were made in the pSM vector , a derivative of pPD49 . 26 ( A . Fire , Stanford University School of Medicine , Stanford , CA , USA ) with extra cloning sites ( S . McCarroll and C . I . Bargmann , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040705 SentenceID s183 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040859 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , the opposite role of C . elegans fbf-1 , fbf-2 and puf-8 ( Bachorik and Kimble , 2005 ; Zhang et al . , 1997 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040999 SentenceID s92 SENTENCE : Although loss of SAX-7 seems not to interfere with the junctional localization of the DAC ( Bernadskaya et al . , 2011 ) , depletion of the DAC disturbs junctional localization of phosphorylated SAX-7 at the CeAJ in the intestine ( our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041027 SentenceID s117 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041027 SentenceID s25 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041028 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : We thank Monica Gotta , Barth Grant , Jeff Hardin , Ken Kemphues , Michel Labouesse , Jeremy Nance , Keith Nehrke and Shigeo Ohno for strains and antibodies , and Lukas Neukomm and Michael Hengartner for sharing unpublished observations .
PaperID WBPaper00041124 SentenceID s39 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041124 SentenceID s77 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) is consistent with this model .
PaperID WBPaper00041675 SentenceID s63 SENTENCE : intracellular , unpublished ) , which should lead to a rise in intracellular calcium .
PaperID WBPaper00042232 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : We also tested RNAi by the soaking method and the microinjection method , but found no increase in the severity of phenotypes ( our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00042232 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : Furthermore , we recently found that a worm strain homozygous for the etc-1 deletion allele tm5615 ( kindly provided by Dr S . Mitani ) is viable and fertile ( our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00042256 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) ( Lanjuin and Sengupta , 2002 ; van der Linden et al . , 2007 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00042342 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00042342 SentenceID s17 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00042342 SentenceID s2 SENTENCE : We thank M . Krause , J . Rothman , H . Korswagen , I . Greenwald , I . Hamza , Y . Budovskaya , H . Zhang and S . Kim for sharing reagents , strains and unpublished information .
PaperID WBPaper00042342 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00042342 SentenceID s37 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , and this ectopic seam marker expression is dependent on EGL-18 ( L .
PaperID WBPaper00042342 SentenceID s40 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00042342 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00042342 SentenceID s60 SENTENCE : , unpublished ; L .
PaperID WBPaper00042342 SentenceID s65 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00042342 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00043929 SentenceID s63 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044133 SentenceID s53 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) , but these observations do not rule out regulation of UNC- 40 levels by PVF-1 .
PaperID WBPaper00044134 SentenceID s2 SENTENCE : We thank the Caenorhabditis Genetics Center ( CGC ) ( funded by the National Institutes of Health , Office of Research Infrastructure Programs P40 OD010440 ) , Daniel Colon-Ramos , Joe Culotti , Eric Jorgensen , Keith Nehrke , Shohei Mitani , Peter Roy , Tarek Samad , Kang Shen , Stephen Strittmatter , William Wadsworth and Yimin Zou for strains and plasmids ; Joe Culotti for sharing unpublished results ; and Ken Kemphues , Mariana Wolfner and members of the J .
PaperID WBPaper00044134 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : To further determine where in the Sma / Mab pathway unc-40 might function , we generated the following double mutants : unc-40 ( e1430 ) ; lon-1 ( jj67 ) and unc-40 ( e1430 ) ; lon-2 ( e678 ) . jj67 is an apparent null mutation in lon-1 , a gene negatively regulated by the Sma / Mab pathway ( Maduzia et al . , 2002 ; Morita et al . , 2002 ) ( our unpublished results ) . e678 is a null mutation in lon-2 , which encodes a member of the glypican family of heparan sulfate proteoglycans and acts as a negative regulator of Sma / Mab signaling , presumably by sequestering the DBL-1 ligand ( Gumienny et al . , 2007 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044134 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : axon Importantly , the role of UNC-40 in promoting Sma / Mab signaling requires its interaction with the RGM protein DRAG-1 , which on its own does not appear to play any significant role in axon guidance and cell migration ( our unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044623 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044679 SentenceID s54 SENTENCE : Although R-spondin and LGR4 / 5 are not conserved in C . elegans ( unpublished observations ) , other mechanisms might exist in C . elegans to modulate PLR-1 activity or localization .
PaperID WBPaper00045785 SentenceID s51 SENTENCE : process , unpublished ) , but more likely from a filopodial-initiated process similar to that observed in collateral branching in vertebrate systems ( Gallo , 2011 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046645 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) even in larvae displaying a strong developmental arrest phenotype .
PaperID WBPaper00047042 SentenceID s100 SENTENCE : , unpublished data .
PaperID WBPaper00048566 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : Y . unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00048566 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : In related studies , we have observed that xnd-1 mutants express a mortal germline phenotype , going sterile after tens of generations ( Yanowitz , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00048566 SentenceID s97 SENTENCE : Loss of xnd-1 function also causes significant embryonic lethality , in part due to meiotic defects ( T . Brooke McClendon and J . Yanowitz , unpublished ) , that could not be rescued by zygotic xnd-1 expression ( 58 % versus 67 % embryonic lethality in M-Z + versus M-Z- , respectively , Student ' s t-test , p 0 . 3 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00048569 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : In the C . elegans dorsal epidermis , in contrast , zygotic rho-1 ( ok2418 ) mutants or epidermal-specific , RHO-1 ( T17N ) embryos can still intercalate , even though cytokinesis has failed and the cells are binucleate in the latter ( EWS and Development Accepted manuscript JH , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00049038 SentenceID s84 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00049274 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : In our experience , animals are sensitive to the apparent toxicity of transgenes that utilize the dpy-7 promoter to drive gene expression ( L . Chen , unpublished ) ; as such , low sub-lethal concentrations of Development Advance article the Pdpy-7 : : efn-4 construct were used to generate transgenic efn-4 animal expressing efn-4 in hyp7 ( see materials and methods ) .
PaperID WBPaper00050081 SentenceID s21 SENTENCE : Given that the N-terminal part of MEI-1 is sufficient to bind MEI-2 ( McNally and McNally , 2011 ) ( and our unpublished results ) and that MEI-2 binds MTs ( this study ) , the binding of Nter-MEI-1 to MTs in vivo was likely mediated through MEI-2 .
PaperID WBPaper00050082 SentenceID s82 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .

Dev Biol 300 papers with 690 sentences.
PaperID WBPaper00000008 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : Higher DNA contents were recorded from other blast cells that produce a greater number of descendants ( unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000008 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : nuclear In contrast to the highly polyploid lin-5 cells , other mutants which fail in terminal nuclear divisions giving rise to tetraploid or binucleate cells display only one of the two possible daughter neuronal types ( J . White , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000426 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : In crosses to N2 strains carrying various morphological markers ( Wood , unpublished results ) , the ts character of the Bergerac strain was shown to map to a region on the left arm of linkage group II , between genes dpy-10 and unc-85 .
PaperID WBPaper00000426 SentenceID s74 SENTENCE : From data obtained with bacteriophage T4 , in which almost all of the essential genes have been mutationally identified , there is apparently no such bias ( Wood and Revel , 1976 ; R . S . Edgar and W . B . Wood , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000448 SentenceID s57 SENTENCE : Divisions and migrations are strictly ordered emb MUTANTS a of arrest Proportion of eggs at the predominant stage of arrest Fluorescence of E cells b Class 58 / 58 No f 1 1-Cell 43 / 43 No f 1 15-Cell 41 / 61 No f 2 c 88 / 116 e Yes g 3 bean c 41 / 53 Yes h 3 bean c 47 / 58 Yes g 3 Lima bean c 36 / 51 Yes h 3 Lima bean c 46 / 58 Yes h 3 bean c 27 / 45 Yes g 3 pretzel 40 / 43 Yes g 4 Variable d - No 5 C , except emb-5 b 50-200 Individuals of each mutant were scored . d Most e Scored after 32 hr . not only in embryonic ( e . . , E , C , D , MSt , P4 ) lineages ( Schierenberg , 1978 ; von Ehrenstein and Schierenberg , unpublished ) , but also in most postembryonic lineages of C . elegans ( Sulston and Horvitz , 1977 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000449 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : The temperaturesensitive abnormal embryogenesis mutants were isolated from EMS ( ethyl methanesulfonate ) -treated populations of animals in the L2 and L3 juvenile stages by J . Miwa and K . Lew in the laboratory of S . Ward at Harvard University ( unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000449 SentenceID s43 SENTENCE : body Emb , embryonic arrest ; Gon , gonadogenesis defective ( Hirsh and Vanderslice , 1976 ) ; Mor , abnormal body morphology of juveniles and adults ( Hirsh and Vanderslice , 1976 ) . b No . of eggs hatched / No . of fertilized eggs laid per animal , two animals averaged ( Miwa and Lew , unpublished ) . c Young adults shifted up . d L1 juveniles shifted up . eL4 juveniles shifted up for emb-2 and emb-8 ; for all the others , young adults shifted up . fAnimals stop growing when shifted to 25C before the L4 stage , also about half of the heterozygous individuals display this phenotype ( cf . footnote h of Table 3 ) . g Many produce eggs , but the number of eggs produced varies considerably between individuals . dividuals are placed at 25C before the L4 stage ; HC70 individuals shifted to 25C in any stage between newly hatched juvenile and L3 stop growing and eventually die without reaching adulthood .
PaperID WBPaper00000449 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : Another set of emb mutants isolated in our laboratory ( Cassada et al . , 1978 ) seems to distribute similarly ( unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000449 SentenceID s73 SENTENCE : We also thank Randy Cassada and Joe Culotti for many stimulating discussions and critical reading of the manuscript , and David Hirsh , Bill Wood , and Ken Lew for sharing unpublished results .
PaperID WBPaper00000461 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : filaments, fraction, thick filaments The unc-54 mutants defective in myosin have a reduced number of thick filaments ( Epstein et al . , 1974 ; MacLeod et al . , 1977b ) , the reduction being approximately proportional to the fraction of myosin normally produced by the unc-54 gene ( Waterston and Brenner , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000461 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : filaments, thick filaments Like the unc-15 and unc-54 mutants , unc-45 ( e286 ) has a reduced number of thick filaments without a comparable loss of other structures ( Epstein and Thomson , 1974 ; Waterston , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000461 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : Wild type animals grown in the presence of tetramisole , a broad-spectrum antihelminthic that causes muscle contraction ( Thienpoint et al . , 1966 ; Brenner , 1974 ) have abnormalities of muscle structure ( Waterston and Smith , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000461 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : In addition , independent measurements indicate mutants are found unusually readily in this gene ( Brenner , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000461 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : bodies, cuticle, dense bodies The force of contraction in the wild type is believed to be transmitted from the myofilament lattice through the dense bodies to the hypodermis and from there to the cuticle ( Waterston , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000461 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : In practice we are often able to predict the complementation group to which a new isolate belongs on the basis of the movement and polarized light phenotypes ( Waterston , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000461 SentenceID s70 SENTENCE : Other genetic suppressors have been isolated ( Waterston and Brenner , unpublished ) and these might provide means for obtaining conditionally lethal mutants .
PaperID WBPaper00000462 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : In the L4 the seam cells , having ceased to divide , fuse together into a continuous band on each side ; after the L4 moult the seam appears to atrophy ( John White , unpublished results ; Sulston and Horvitz , 1977 ; Singh and Sulston , 1978 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000462 SentenceID s247 SENTENCE : basement membranes, membranes Neurons of no other class have been seen to penetrate basement membranes ( White and Albertson , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000463 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : Cell ablations have shown that the P1 fate is primary in the first pair ( White , unpublished results ) and that the P12 fate is primary in the last . The behaviour of the ventral hypodermal cells is governed by the equivalence groups which they join .
PaperID WBPaper00000494 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : Ablation of the distal tip cell in a mutant that does not make sperm ( isx-1 , Nelson et al . , 1978 ) shows that all germ cells can enter the oocyte pathway ( Kimble , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000494 SentenceID s21 SENTENCE : Preliminary experiments ( Kimble , unpublished results ) have shown that the normal number of sperm are made even after a delay of 5-10 hr in the onset of meiosis and spermatogenesis ( the delay being caused by ablation of Z3 as shown in Table 1D ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000494 SentenceID s40 SENTENCE : The number of germ cells increases during larval growth from 2 to about 1000 in hermaphrodites and to about 500 in males ( Kimble , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000500 SentenceID s257 SENTENCE : ( b ) lin-4012 ) , bracket indicates mass of cells formed by mesodermal proliferation . gentle mechanical stimulation ( Chalfie and Thomson , 1979 ; M . Chalfie and J . Sulston , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000500 SentenceID s258 SENTENCE : Probably because of the absence of cephalic companion cells , unc-86 adult males fail to chemotax toward hermaphrodites ( J . Sulston and R . Horvitz , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000500 SentenceID s259 SENTENCE : The hsns usually can not be found in their normal positions in L4 and adult animals and , presumably as a result-it is known that laser ablation of the hsns causes egg retention ( R . Horvitz and J . Sulston , unpublished observations ) -unc-86 mutants retain eggs .
PaperID WBPaper00000500 SentenceID s263 SENTENCE : Egg-laying ability is restored , consistent with the observation that serotonin induces egg laying by hermaphrodites in which the hsns have been laser ablated ( R . Horvitz and J . Sulston , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000501 SentenceID s120 SENTENCE : This was noticed because of the presence of very large dauerlarvae , over 700 m long , a characteristic of tetraploids ( Cassada , unpublished ) , compared to 500 m for wild type ( Cassada and c Comment d Unc 16C 16C 10 . 7 % ( 10 / 103 ) ; unc-32 : < 1 % ( 0 / 82 ) 25C Semidominant Acc , 25C ( Unc- 16C , semidominant Acc1 25C Males poor maters 16C Gene not designated Russell , 1975 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000501 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : Data compiled from Cassada and Russell ( 1975 ) , Byerly et al . ( 1976 ) , Hirsh et al . ( 1976 ) , Cassada ( unpublished ) , Singh and Sulston ( 1978 ) , Deppe et al . ( 1978 ) , and Krieg et al . ( 1978 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000502 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : microtubule The remaining two microtubule cells arise after hatching from equivalent positions in similar cell lineages ( Sulston and Horvitz , 1977 ; Sulston and Horvitz , unpublished ) ; these are the anterior microtubule cell ( AVM ; Q2 . paa in the notation of Sulston and Horvitz ( 1977 ) ) and the posterior ventral microtubule cell ( PVM ; Q1 . paa ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000511 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : This value is comparable to values we have obtained using a variety of radioactive amino acids ( our unpublished results ) , although it is less than that usually obtained when worms are pulsed with 3SS-labeled E . coli ( Garcea et al . , 1978 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000511 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : cuticle, fractions Similar ratios of these two groups of cuticle proteins have been determined for L4 ' s and adults continuously labeled with 35S E . coli ( our unpublished results ) and by weighing adult cuticle fractions directly ( Cox , Kusch , and Edgar , manuscript submitted ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000511 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : cuticle Since the cuticle appears to be secreted in layers ( Davey , 1965 ; our unpublished results ) , studies of these sorts might aid in the localization of specific proteins to particular zones or structures within the cuticle .
PaperID WBPaper00000511 SentenceID s42 SENTENCE : cuticle From electron microscopy studies ( Singh and Sulston , 1978 ; our unpublished results ) , it appears that C . elegans sheds its old cuticle intact at each molt .
PaperID WBPaper00000511 SentenceID s55 SENTENCE : cuticles However , the cuticles of the L4 and the adult ( and most of the other stages of C . elegans ) are architecturally quite different from one another and each contains some unique proteins ( our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000512 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : Minor bands at same molecular weight are not 15 K as determined by 20 gel electrophoresis ( Klass , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000512 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : Pseudopodial movement is readily visible if sperm are isolated in a phosphate-free buffer ( unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000523 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : membrane, surface Microscopy studies have suggested that the patterning of these features is largely the result of surface membrane activities of the underlying hypodermis ( Lee , 1970 ; Singh and Sulston , 1978 ; our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000523 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : cuticles In this regard , our preliminary results suggest that the cuticles of the L2 and L3 stages of C . elegans are Virtually identical to that of the L4 ( M . Kusch and elegans CUTICLE PROTEINSa Developmental stage c L 1 Dauer L4 Adult Y + + y ( + ) + + Y + + + Y + + + Y + Y + + Y + + + Y + + + Y + + N + N + Y + + ( + ) Y + + ( + ) Y + + + + + Y + + Y + + + + + + N + + + + + + + + Y + + + + + + + G . Cox , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000523 SentenceID s87 SENTENCE : cuticle " Further analyses have revealed that these mutants are also aberrant in certain cuticle transitions : lin-4 ( e912 ) possesses a juvenile cuticle as a sexually mature adult and lin-1 . 4 ( n925 ) possesses an adult cuticle as an L4 ( Sulston and Horvitz , 1981 ; H . R . Horvitz , personal communication ; our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000524 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : I am grateful to Nichol Thomson for expert assistance with electron microscopy , to many colleagues for discussions during the course of this work and for critical reading of this manuscript , and to Paul Sternberg for sharing his unpublished data and ideas on the control of gonadal lineages .
PaperID WBPaper00000524 SentenceID s213 SENTENCE : Indeed , ablation of the embryonic precursors to Z1 and Z4 has the same effect ( Sulston and Kimble , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000528 SentenceID s174 SENTENCE : Similar switches in cell fates have been found to be a common feature of C . elegans cell lineage mutants ( Sulston and Horvitz , 1981 ; Chalfie et al . , 1981 ; W . Fixsen , V . Ambros , P . Sternberg , C . Ferguson , and R . Horvitz , unpublished observations ) and to occur during regulation after laser ablation ( Sulston and White , 1980 ; Kimble , 1981 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000528 SentenceID s225 SENTENCE : Mutants of C . elegans have established that mutations in a single gene can switch the fates of specific cells to fates normally associated with other cells ( Sulston and Horvitz , 1981 ; Chalfie et al . , 1981 ; W . Fixsen , V . Ambros , P . Sternberg , C . Ferguson , and R . Horvitz , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000528 SentenceID s228 SENTENCE : We wish to thank J . Kimble for communicating her unpublished observations ; V . Ambros , M . Chalfie , W . Fixsen , I . Greenwald , and J . Kimble for comments on the manuscript ; and P . Rich for help with preparation of the manuscript .
PaperID WBPaper00000559 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : In vitro activation of spermatids to spermatozoa was induced with 60 mM triethanolamine ( S . Ward , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000566 SentenceID s110 SENTENCE : This possibility seems very unlikely , however , because adult males continue to synthesize 15K protein throughout their adult lifespan ( Klass , unpublished observation ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000566 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : The amount of poly ( A ) RNA in an L1 , L2 , or L3 worm is approximately 5 10-5 g ( Klass , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000566 SentenceID s90 SENTENCE : Although we can not definitively rule out the possibility that spermatids have reduced penetrability to the labeled probe this result is consistent with the finding that 15K mRNA could not be detected by the in vitro translation of mRNA isolated from purified sperm ( Klass , unpublished results ; Ward , personal communication ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000567 SentenceID s143 SENTENCE : In addition , V5 generates the four neuronallike nuclei-including a dopaminergic neuron , as determined by the technique ( Sulston et al . , 1975 ) of formaldehydeinduced fluorescence ( C . Trent and P . Sternberg , unpublished observations ) -and programmed cell death characteristic of postdeirid development during the L2 .
PaperID WBPaper00000567 SentenceID s369 SENTENCE : body The dorsal M . drlpa and ventral M . vrlpa cells appear to be homologous : they are lineally equivalent descendants of dorsal and ventral blast cells , respectively , and are the only M-cell descendants in the L1 that do not differentiate into body muscles ( Sulston and Horvitz , 1977 ) ; furthermore , mutations at the lin-12 locus , which result in transformations in cell fates among sets of homologous cells , also cause transformations between dorsal and ventral blast cells ( P . Sternberg , I . Greenwald , C . Ferguson , and R . Horvitz , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000567 SentenceID s430 SENTENCE : Some of these patterns of division are expressed ectopically in mutants ( Horvitz and Sulston , 1980 ; Sulston and Horvitz , 1981 ; Chalfie et al . , 1981 ; V . Ambros , W . Fixsen , C . Ferguson , I . Greenwald , P . Sternberg , and R . Horvitz , unpublished observations ) or in wild-type C . elegans after physical perturbation by laser ablation ( Sulston and White , 1980 ; Kimble , 1981a ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000567 SentenceID s495 SENTENCE : lateral Two genes in C . elegans , lin-4 and lin-14 , have been implicated in defining or implementing temporal information in the development of the lateral hypodermis : strains carrying the mutations lin-4 ( e912 ) or lin-14 ( n355 ) express the L1 lateral hypodermal lineages repeatedly , as if the specification of developmental timing has been altered ( Chalfie et al . , 1981 ; V . Ambros and R . Horvitz , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000634 SentenceID s37 SENTENCE : surface Preliminary experiments to demonstrate proteolysis of iodinated spermatid surface components during TEA activation have been negative ( S . Ward , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000634 SentenceID s51 SENTENCE : Since mutants have been isolated in which spermatids fail to activate in vivo and in vitro , ( Ward et al . , 1981 ; T . Roberts and S . Ward , unpublished ) it should now be possible to dissect the mechanism of activation in finer detail .
PaperID WBPaper00000653 SentenceID s178 SENTENCE : After hatching , some cells were identified from previously known L1 anatomy ( J . G . White et al . , unpublished ) and the remainder were traced into the adult .
PaperID WBPaper00000667 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : centrioles, spindles In C . elegans males and hermaphrodites the metaphase I and II spindles in primary and secondary spermatocytes are not barrel-shaped and centrioles are present in the asters ( D . G . Albertson and J . N . Thomson , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000667 SentenceID s165 SENTENCE : body, centrioles, pronucleus The polar body ( PB ) was found in the center of the embryo . at this time , although centrioles adjacent to the sperm pronucleus were seen in electron micrographs of P . redivivus embryos at metaphase II ( D . Albertson and J . N . Thomson , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000667 SentenceID s9 SENTENCE : 1200 . unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000714 SentenceID s115 SENTENCE : Both tra- 1 ( null ) fem-1 ( Nelson et al , 1978 ; Doniach and Hodgkin , submitted for publication ) and tra- 1 ( null ) fem-2 ( Edgar and Kimble , unpublished data ) double mutants make oocyte-like cells in the germ line of both XX and XO animals .
PaperID WBPaper00000714 SentenceID s118 SENTENCE : T . Doniach was generous in sharing unpublished data .
PaperID WBPaper00000714 SentenceID s57 SENTENCE : These TSPs are essentially the same as those observed for fem- 1 ( hc17 ) ( Nelson et al . , 1978 ; Edgar and Kimble , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000714 SentenceID s63 SENTENCE : Furthermore , laser ablation experiments have not been able to identify any particular sperm precursor cells since the same number of sperm is produced despite ablation of various germ cells in early gonadogenesis ( Kimble , unpublished results ) and since all germ cells present in L1 and L2 gonads are capable of spermatogenesis ( Kimble and White , 1981 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000714 SentenceID s82 SENTENCE : Similar maternal effects have been observed for fem-1 ( Doniach and Hodgkin , submitted for publication ) and for the fem-1 fem ; 2 double mutant ( Kimble , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000724 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : These mutations are listed in Riddle and Swanson ( 1982 ) , except for those of dpy-26 ( Hodgkin , 1983c ) , her- 1 ( Trent et al . , 1983 ) , mar-2 ( J . Lewis , unpublished ) , and fem-1 , which are described here .
PaperID WBPaper00000724 SentenceID s43 SENTENCE : Indeed , there appear to be at least two genes , fem-2 III ( Kimble et al . , 1984 ) and f e m- 3 IV ( J . Hodgkin , unpublished results ) , that have functions similar to those of f e m- 1 .
PaperID WBPaper00000724 SentenceID s59 SENTENCE : In addition , the phenotype of certain tra-2 ( dom ) mutants suggests that fem-1 activity in the XX animal is modulated by tra-2 ( T . Doniach , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000745 SentenceID s110 SENTENCE : cytoplasm, nuclear, nuclei In other experiments ( unpublished ) , nuclei failed to grow to their normal size following extrusion of cytoplasm , suggesting that nuclear volume may be more dependent on total cell volume than on DNA content .
PaperID WBPaper00000745 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : nucleus Lengthening of the cycling period in a particular lineage is observed in other is mutants , and can also be brought about in wild-type embryos by laser irradiation of a founder cell nucleus ( Schierenberg , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000792 SentenceID s12 SENTENCE : However , this allele requires considerably longer pulses at restrictive temperture to block spermatogenesis than does fem-2 ( b245 ) ( Edgar and Hirsh , unpublished data ) , so that the effects of short pulses on the two mutants are not directly comparable .
PaperID WBPaper00000792 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : [ This is the earliest TSP found among a large number of is mutants affecting spermatogenesis ( Ward and Miwa , 1978 ; Edgar and Hirsh , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000792 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : chromosomal, nuclear In C . elegans , high doses of microbeam irradiation given to psoralen-treated embryos cause obvious chromosomal damage that affects nuclear division ( unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000792 SentenceID s57 SENTENCE : At doses 5 to 10 times higher , a similar effect was observed in a somatic cell ( LE unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000793 SentenceID s110 SENTENCE : Recently , we have identified mutations in several more uncoordination genes which specifically eliminate the posterior branch of the PDE neuron ( unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000793 SentenceID s128 SENTENCE : axon, dendrites, microtubules The unc33 ( e204 ) mutation disrupts axon guidance in many classes of neurons ( unpublished observations ) : The dendrites of sensory neurons , and possibly all neurons , have an abnormally large number of microtubules in these mutants .
PaperID WBPaper00000793 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : processes Peanut lectin and monoclonal antibodies have also been used to stain neuron processes in C . 1Present address : Department of Cell Biology , Roche Institute of Molecular Biology , Nutley , N . J . 07110 . 2 Present address : Developmental Genetics and Anatomy , Case Western Reserve University , Cleveland , Ohio 44106 . elegans and Ascaris lumbricoides ( H . Ellis , J . Yuan , and H . Horvitz ; R . Francis and R . Waterson ; E . Hedgecock ; H . Okamoto ; S . Siddiqui , and J . Culotti ; A . Stretton and C . Johnson ; personal communications and unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000793 SentenceID s65 SENTENCE : axons This appears to occur when the contralateral phasmid axons fail to reach the nerve cord ( unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000793 SentenceID s97 SENTENCE : axons We have found that the unc-5 mutation has no effect on ventrally directed growth of the phasmid and PDE axons ( unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000867 SentenceID s87 SENTENCE : A second allele , ct10 , was identified in a screen for maternal-effect lethal mutations linked to unc-4 or dpy-10 ( Laufer and Wood , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000867 SentenceID s88 SENTENCE : Four additional alleles , b279 , b288 , b301 , and b307 have been isolated in screens for maternaleffect lethal mutations ( Kemphues , Priess , Wolf , Hirsh , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000927 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : In addition , several mutants with abnormal morphology have been isolated in C . elegans ( Hirsh and Vanderslice , 1979 ; Wood et al . , 1980 ; Schierenberg et al , , 1980 ; H . Schnabel and R . Schnabel , unpublished results ; J . Priess , unpublished results ) , providing an opportunity for identifying gene products that have controlling roles in morphogenesis .
PaperID WBPaper00000927 SentenceID s17 SENTENCE : desmosomes, extracellular, intracellular, microfilaments Vertebrate belt desmosomes consist of intracellular rings of microfilaments and associated proteins such as myosin and tropomyosin , and apparently are linked mechanically to adjacent cells through extracellular material . The belt desmosomes of C . elegans resemble vertebrate belt desmosomes ultrastructurally ( see Fig . 7d ) , contain actin ( see below ) , and stain positively with an antibody against human tropomyosin ( J . Priess , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000927 SentenceID s236 SENTENCE : body, cuticle, cuticles, extracellular After elongating , the embryo secretes an extracellular cuticle ( Sulston et at , 1983 ) , and it is reasonable to expect that the cuticle performs an important role in maintaining the body shape at least after hatching ; cuticles Kramer , J . Priess unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000927 SentenceID s240 SENTENCE : In wildtype embryos a rudimentary striated layer is visible at about 430 min but not at 380 min ( J . Priess , unpublished results ) , suggesting that the striated layer normally is formed near the time elongation is completed ( see Fig . 3 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000927 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : microfilaments, microtubules Further resolution of the roles of the microfilaments , microtubules , and the embryonic sheath in elongation may be possible through analysis of mutants in C elegans with abnormal morphology ( H . Schnabel , R . Schnabel , and J . Priess , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000932 SentenceID s244 SENTENCE : R . Ware has suggested , based on his unpublished observations on ttx-1 ( p767 ) mutants , that the AFD neurons may be thermosensory .
PaperID WBPaper00000932 SentenceID s338 SENTENCE : We thank R . Ware for sharing his unpublished observations on the sensilla of chemosensory and thermosensory mutants ; J . Weiss for illustrations ; and E . Aamodt , P . Albert , D . Albertson , A . Burr , M . Chalfie , D . Dusenbery , L . Gremke , D . Hall , R . Herman , J . Hodgkin , C . Kenyon , B . Menco , D . Riddle , R . Russell , S . Siddiqui , J . Sulston , S . Ward , J . White , and K . Wright for ideas and discussions .
PaperID WBPaper00000955 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : In Caenorhabditis most of the genomic MSP genes are expressed and the coding sequences are highly conserved , with each cDNA producing a very similar MSP protein ( S . Ward , D . Burke , and M . Klass , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000979 SentenceID s61 SENTENCE : This assumption is supported by recent work in which the relative positions of the two daughters of AB were switched ( Priess and Thomson , 1987 ) and by preliminary observations of AB-cell development after removal of the germ line cell ( E . S . unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000979 SentenceID s70 SENTENCE : cytoplasm, nucleus Partial Embryos from P2 It has recently been possible to show that partial embryos derived from the anterior region of the zygote cannot perform germ line-like ( unequal ) cleavages , while even small portions of posterior cytoplasm extruded together with the zygote nucleus alway carry this potential ( Schierenberg , 1985 ; unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000979 SentenceID s76 SENTENCE : cytoplasmic The fact that small egg fragments derived from the posterior region of the uncleaved zygote either produce posterior half-twins ( as described here ) or cleave like a complete zygote P0 ( Schierenberg 1985 , unpublished data ) indicates that no specific cytoplasmic determinants for individual founder cells are localized along the anteriorposterior axis of the zygote as suggested by Laufer et al . ( 1980 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001017 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : P-granule Furthermore , at least one of the asymmetric events we monitor , P-granule segregation , is not accompanied by a concentration of actin foci in the later stage germ-line blastomeres P1 , P2 , and P3 ( S . Strome and D . Hill , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001096 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : Instead , to determine the number of lc / VD cells in lin-17 males , we used a lin-12 ( 0 ) mutation , which transforms lc / VD cells ( as well as VD cells ) into lcs ( Greenwald et al . , 1983 ; P . Sternberg , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001097 SentenceID s179 SENTENCE : The fusion gene contains a consensus signal sequence for secretion ( Spieth et al . , 1985b ) , but a significant cysteine-rich region found in the other vitellogenins is absent from fp155 ( Nettleton , Spieth and Blumenthal , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001097 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : The resulting polypeptide product should be 155 kDa , compared to the normal 186- to 193-kDa vitellogenins ( Spieth et al . , 1985b ; Nettleton , Spieth , and Blumenthal , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001161 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : Although the evolutionary relationships between nematode species are largely unknown , the embryonic lineages of nematodes are very similar ( Sulston et al . , 1983 ) and many nucleic acids and antibodies cross-hybridize or cross-react between Ascaris and Caenorhabditis ( Bennett and Ward , 1986 ; Bennett , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001161 SentenceID s32 SENTENCE : cytoplasmic The actin DNA hybridizes with two to three Ascaris RNAs , depending on the it issue used , and three C . elegans actin RNAs , both cytoplasmic and muscle , ( Files et al . , 1983 ; Bennett , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001166 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : We have not yet found a mutant whose sperm develop pseudopods without first forming transient spikes , although mutations in 17 spermatogenesis-specific genes have been examined ( D . Shakes , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001166 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : Internal calcium fluxes could not be analyzed since the cells are too small for microinjection of aequorin , and the cells seem to lack the necessary esterases for assaying by noninvasive Quin-2 measurements ( D . Shakes , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001166 SentenceID s51 SENTENCE : processes Furthermore , while calmodulin-stimulated processes usually function by modulating protein kinases , two-dimensional protein gels reveal no differences between the phosphorylated proteins of spermatids and spermatozoa ( Ward , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001166 SentenceID s53 SENTENCE : Yet the activation of spermatids by these drugs appears to be biologically significant ; like the other i n v i t r o and in vivo activators , these drugs fail to activate mutant fer-15 ( hc15 ) spermatids ( D . Shakes , unpublished observations ) , and at the same time the activation of spe-8 and spe-12 spermatids by the drugs suggests that the activation mechanism of the drugs may be similar to that of TEA , monensin , and male sperm activator .
PaperID WBPaper00001166 SentenceID s91 SENTENCE : These effects of calmodulin inhibitors on spermatozoa are similar to those resulting from treatment with metabolic inhibitors such as azide ( Roberts and Ward , 1982 ) and calcium channel blockers such as 20 M nicardipine ( D . Shakes , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001174 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : , Cornell University , Ithaca , NY 14853 . 2 Present address : Dept . of Molecular and Cellular Biology , Biosciences West , University of Arizona , Tucson , AZ 85721 . ment relies strictly on the modification of pre-existing cellular components ( Ward et al . , 1981 ; unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001174 SentenceID s43 SENTENCE : We thank Dr . S . L ' Hernault for the construction of many of the working strains used in this paper and for communicating unpublished results .
PaperID WBPaper00001174 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : While exact measurements of spermatid size has not been done for other Spe mutants , no size differences have been noted in any of the other mutants in the collection ( D . Shakes , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001196 SentenceID s37 SENTENCE : microfilament Nor is it likely to be due to the failure of the embryos to complete meiosis , since embryos whose meiotic divisions are inhibited by transient treatment with microfilament inhibitor progress through early embryogenesis apparently normally ( Hill and Strome , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001361 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : P granules, granules par-1 , par-4 , and strong par-3 ( C . Kirby , unpublished ) mutations cause failure to localize P granules , while all par-2 mutant embryos retain some capacity for localizing granules ( N . Cheng and K . Kemphues , in preparation ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001361 SentenceID s48 SENTENCE : We thank Diane Morton and Niansheng Cheng for their contributions of mutant par-2 and par-4 alleles for this study and for sharing unpublished results ; Diane Morton , Diane Shakes , and Willie Mark for critical reading of the manuscript ; and Mike Roos and Chris Coupe for technical assistance .
PaperID WBPaper00001361 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : This idea is consistent with unpublished findings that the temperature-sensitive periods of par-2 ( it5ts ) and par4 ( it57ts ) begin during oogenesis and end by the two-cell stage ( N . Cheng , D . Morton , and K . Kemphues , in preparation ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001454 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : M . unpublished ) and Anisakis sp . and Trichinella spiralis ( Ruitenberg , 1972 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001542 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : Of the mRNAs surveyed , only one , a homologue of human hsp90 ( Dalley and Estevez , unpublished data ) , is significantly enriched in dauer larvae relative to other stages .
PaperID WBPaper00001542 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : L4 larvae are prepared by recovery from dauer larvae and are equivalent to PD2 larvae . site ( Krause and Hirsh , 1987 ; Bektesh et al . , 1988 ) , which hybridizes with spliced leader 1 precursor RNA , an Rpo II product ( Rogalski et al . , 1990 ) ; pUbiA , a 1-kb EcoRI fragment in pGEM-4Z which contains the coding sequence of the major C . elegans polyubiquitin gene ( Graham et al . , 1989 ) ; pHSP90 , a 2 . 3-kb cDNA sequence cloned in Bluescript which contains the complete coding sequence of the C . elegans hsp90 gene ( Dalley and Estevez , unpublished data ) ; p5Sg , a 730-bp BstVI-BamHl fragment in pGEM-4Z which hybridizes with 5S RNA and contains sequences from the divergently transcribed ribosomal 5S DNA repeat extending from 160 hp upstream of the 5S precursor RNA start site to the next BamHI site ( Honda et al . , 1986 ; Krause and Hirsh , 19S7 1 : and pAlr8 , a 8 . 8-kb BamHI fragment in pBR322 which contains sequences for 26S , 18S , and 5 . 8S ribosomal RNA ( Back et al . , 1984 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001542 SentenceID s60 SENTENCE : K . Bennett , D . Riddle , and G . Smith for helpful comments on the manuscript , and Miguel Estevez for communication of unpublished data .
PaperID WBPaper00002385 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : , unpublished results and see below ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002385 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : / m4592f8071 12-18-95 09 : 13 : 20 dbas 239 hypodermal cells ( R . Francis and A . Curry , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002385 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : We thank Ross Francis , Michelle Hresko , and P . Shrimankar for permission to cite their unpublished results .
PaperID WBPaper00002385 SentenceID s49 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002385 SentenceID s52 SENTENCE : This aspect of our analysis relied on a modified version of John White ' s lineaging program ( Hutter and Schnabel , unpublished research ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002385 SentenceID s70 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002459 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : AID DB 8199 / 6x0c $ $ $ 241 05-02-96 22 : 36 : 00 Machaca , DeFelice , and L ' Hernault 12 ( hc76 ) I ( L ' Hernault et al . , 1988 ) ; fer-15 ( hc15ts ) , ( hc89ts ) II ( Roberts and Ward , 1982 ; S . L ' Hernault and S . Ward , unpublished ) ; spe-27 ( hc161 ) IV ( Minniti et al . , 1996 ) ; spe-29 ( it 127 ) IV ( J . Nance and S . Ward , unpublished ) ; him-5 ( e1490 ) V ( Hodgkin et al . , 1979 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002564 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) ; however , little se- Fire , A .
PaperID WBPaper00002567 SentenceID s12 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002567 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) show that several of these transcripts are being made in all somatic cells by the 26- cell stage .
PaperID WBPaper00002567 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002567 SentenceID s9 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002610 SentenceID s258 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002610 SentenceID s30 SENTENCE : Although mex-3 mRNA accumulates well before encode proteins highly related to GLD-1 ( Jones and Schedl , 1995 , and our unpublished database searches ) , the availabiloocyte formation in wild type , mex-3 protein is not normally synthesized until after oocytes are formed and thus ity of the null gld-1 allele q485 is especially important as a specificity control .
PaperID WBPaper00002610 SentenceID s312 SENTENCE : Caenorhabditis cDNA and genomic DNA sequences ( Jones and Schedl , 1995 ; our unpublished database searches ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002610 SentenceID s342 SENTENCE : We are indebted to the many C . elegans researchers who provided us with cDNA clones , some of them unpublished , for analysis of Ellis , R . E .
PaperID WBPaper00002610 SentenceID s51 SENTENCE : As antibodies to several other proteins stain the mitotic region uniformly ( our unpublished data ; Crittenden et al . , 1994 ; Francis et al . , 1995a ) , the graded pattern of GLD-1 staining seen here is likely to reflect an increase in steadystate GLD-1 levels rather than variable antigen accessibil- Copyright 1996 by Academic Press , Inc .
PaperID WBPaper00002644 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : Further , a lineage mutant , shv-1 ( oz128 ) , has been isolated which transforms certain sheath and spermatheca precursor cells ( Z1 . ap and Z4 . pa ) into ectopic distal tip cells ( R . Francis , M . T . Le , and T . Schedl , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002644 SentenceID s62 SENTENCE : shv-1 ( oz128 ) , which is missing the descendants of 1 SS cell ( R . Francis , M . T . Le , and T . Schedl , unpublished results ) , also has endomitotic oocytes in the gonad arm .
PaperID WBPaper00002654 SentenceID s25 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002654 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) is required for proper expression .
PaperID WBPaper00002654 SentenceID s53 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , and positive autoregulation has been suggested ( Kodoyianni et al . , 1992 ; Christensen et al . , 1996 ; Berry and Schedl , in press ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002654 SentenceID s9 SENTENCE : Asymand the reviewers for comments on the manuscript , and Bruce Bowerman , Laura Berry , Tim Schedl , Richard Feichtinger , Ralf Schnabel , L . A . Khan , and S . Siddiqui for sharing unpublished data .
PaperID WBPaper00002655 SentenceID s2 SENTENCE : Screens of mutagenized wild-type animals for mutants with strong SM positioning defects have only identified mutations in egl-15 and egl-17 ( M . J . Stern and H . R . Horvitz , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002655 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : We are grateful to G . Garriga , K . Kornfeld , and E . Lambie for providing strains , T . Bogaert and J . Culotti for sharing unpublished results , Kornfeld , K .
PaperID WBPaper00002655 SentenceID s55 SENTENCE : Consistent with this , strains bearing mutations in any two of the three unc genes involved in the gonad-independent mechanism do not show dramatically posteriorly-displaced SMs ( E . B . Chen and M . J . Stern , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002655 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : However , clr-1 ( e1745ts ) has only minimal effects on the SM distributions in virtually all mutants tested ( M . J . Stern , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002655 SentenceID s72 SENTENCE : This is suggested by the high level of egg-laying competence of mutants with SM distributions similar to those of gonad-ablated , wild-type animals ( M . J . Stern , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002656 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : Interestingly , in wild-type aniand the vulval induction pathway ( Fixsen et al . , 1985 ; Kenyon , 1986 ; Aroian and Sternberg , 1991 ; Chisholm , 1991 ; L . mals , P3 . p adopts the 4 fate much later than the more anterior or posterior Pn . p cells ; this temporal delay may Jiang and P . W . Sternberg , unpublished results ) . allow ectopic activation of the vulval induction pathway to affect the decision .
PaperID WBPaper00002779 SentenceID s110 SENTENCE : let-377 ( h110 ) , because we were unable to observe the lethal class in two different Construction and Analysis of Transgenic C . stocks of the strain KR430 . elegans Strains Hermaphrodites homozygous for the maternal effect mutations zyg-2 ( b10 ) , emb-10 ( k12 ) , emb-14 ( g43 ) , emb-17 ( g20 ) , emb-19 ( g22 ) , A 5 flanking 6-kb HindIII fragment ( Fig . 1B ) was subcloned into or emb-20 ( g27 ) produce live progeny at 15 C but dead embryos at pPD21 . 28DS ( pPD21 . 28 of Fire et al . , 1990 , modified by filling in 25 C . To test for complementation of these mutations , males bearthe SalI site , T . Burglin , B . Reinhart , and GR , unpublished data ) to ing mgEx9 were crossed to mutant hermaphrodites at 15 C . F2 give pAS3 . pAS3 ( 25 mg / ml ) was coinjected with the dominant rol- Roller cross-progeny hermaphrodites ( 60 for each mutation ) were 6 ( su1006 ) clone pRF4 ( 175 mg / ml ) into rol-6 ( n1270e187 ) hermaphplaced on individual plates as L4 ' s and cultured at 25 C . Plates rodites as described ( Mello et al . , 1991 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002779 SentenceID s39 SENTENCE : Selection of poly ( A ) partial homology in what appear to be introns ( AS and S . Gottlieb , ( Sambrook et al . , 1989 ) . unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002779 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : AID DB 8544 / 6x21 $ $ $ 101 04-07-97 13 : 38 : 54 317 strains and unpublished information .
PaperID WBPaper00002780 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : cuticle, furrows The diagram in A is based on the results of Priess and Hirsh ( 1986 ) and our unpublished observations ; B and C are based on data presented in this paper . the number of cuticle furrows .
PaperID WBPaper00002780 SentenceID s80 SENTENCE : filament, filaments, microtubules The hypodermal cells in elongating embryos contain both circumferentially oriented actin filament bundles and microtubules , and below these cells are body-wall muscles that contain longitudinally oriented actin filaments ( Wood , 1988 ) and microtubules ( J . Priess , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002965 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : Anatomical studies indicate that sheath cells lack innervation ( White et al . , 1986 ; D . Hall , unpublished data ) and may represent a form of invertebrate smooth muscle ( Strome , 1986 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003014 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : unc-129 dpy20 and dpy-20 hermaphrodites were coinjected with 100 mg / ml of the unc-5 : : lacZ reporter plasmid pYZ129 ( M . W . Su , Y . Zhou , and J . G . Culotti , unpublished results ) and 31 mg / ml of pMH86 [ dpy-20 ( / ) ] .
PaperID WBPaper00003014 SentenceID s43 SENTENCE : This array was randomly integrated into the genome by gamma irradiation to generate two independent lines designated evIs82A and evIs82B ( A . Colavita and J . G . Culotti , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003014 SentenceID s62 SENTENCE : J . G . Culotti , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003128 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003128 SentenceID s2 SENTENCE : We are grateful to C . Hunter , R . Lin , C . Malone , R . Plasterk , and J . Shaw for communication of unpublished results , and to members of the Wood laboratory and W . Hanna-Rose for helpful discussion and comments on the manuscript .
PaperID WBPaper00003128 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003128 SentenceID s79 SENTENCE : Screens currently underway for gad-1 ( ct226 ) suppressors and more gastrulation-defective mutants ( unpublished results ) should identify additional genes involved in gastrulation initiation and control and provide more information on possible signaling mechanisms .
PaperID WBPaper00003128 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003129 SentenceID s2 SENTENCE : We thank T . Blumenthal ( Colorado ) and J . Gilleard ( Glasgow ) for providing elt-1 and elt-3 cDNAs , respectively ; R . Francis ( St . Louis , MO ) for providing monoclonal antibody MH33 ; B . Goszczynski ( Calgary ) for conducting in situ hybridizations ; M . Herfort and D . Bazett-Jones ( Calgary ) for assistance with electron microscopy ; and J . Rothman and J . Zhu ( Santa Barbara , CA ) for providing end-1 cDNA and reporter constructs and for sharing unpublished results .
PaperID WBPaper00003129 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : Our preliminary analysis of the elt-2 promoter shows that the elt-2 gut-specific enhancer contains a cluster of consensus SKN-1 binding sites ( Blackwell et al . , 1994 ) and , moreover , SKN-1 protein ( kindly provided by K . Blackwell , Harvard ) can bind to these regions in vitro ( our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003129 SentenceID s56 SENTENCE : In contrast to these two examples , we could find no evidence in the elt-2 mutant for enhanced expression of an end-1 lacZ / GFP reporter ( our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003175 SentenceID s102 SENTENCE : These observations are consistent with previous results which demonstrated that transcription is activated in all blastomeres in par-1 , par-2 , and par-4 embryos ( Seydoux and Fire , 1994 ; M . Wallenfang and G . Seydoux , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003175 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : cytoplasmic, nuclear The ratio of nuclear to cytoplasmic PIE-1 appeared to increase after each division , ending with predominantly nuclear PIE-1 in P4 and in Z2 and Z3 ( Mello et al . , 1996 ; Seydoux and Dunn , 1997 ; C . Tenenhaus and G . Seydoux , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003175 SentenceID s3 SENTENCE : We also thank Elisabeth Wayner for her assistance in the production of monoclonal antibodies ; Lisa Timmons and Andy Fire for sharing unpublished results ; Steve Warren , Craig Mello , and the Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank ( Johns Hopkins University and University of Iowa ) for antibodies ; the Caenorhabditis Genetics Center ( funded by the NIH Center for Research Resources ) for strains ; and Bruce Bowerman , Andy Golden , Andy Fire , Jill Schumacher , and the anonymous reviewers for valuable comments on the manuscript .
PaperID WBPaper00003323 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003323 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) ; furthermore , this FEM-3 binding region appears to be distinct from the MX region ( A . Spence and P .
PaperID WBPaper00003323 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003323 SentenceID s85 SENTENCE : The tra-2 ( e1403 ) mutant was also included in these studies , because it displays an mx phenotype ( R . Edgar and T . Schedl , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003324 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : We thank S . Gendreau and I . Moskowitz for sharing unpublished results of C and ABarpp ablations with us .
PaperID WBPaper00003324 SentenceID s83 SENTENCE : Preliminary experiments involving laser ablations of neighboring dorsal cells show no interference of an individual dorsal cell ' s ability to intercalate , suggesting that the primary cue for dorsal intercalation may reside in the migrating cells ' substratum or underlying cells ( E . Williams-Masson , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003324 SentenceID s91 SENTENCE : nuclear, processes The absence of nuclear migration does not affect cell rearrangement or ventral enclosure , as evidenced by the completion of these processes in unc-83 ( e1408 ) embryos , which intercalate and enclose normally in the absence of complete nuclear migration ( Sulston et al . , 1983 ; E . Williams-Masson , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003371 SentenceID s114 SENTENCE : In their conservation of oocytes , hermaphrodites depleted of self-sperm are behaving like females of related nematode species like C . remanei which also retain their oocytes until sperm arrive ( our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003392 SentenceID s2 SENTENCE : We thank Andrew Fire for vectors and unpublished information , Joel Rothman for strains , and Peter Okkema for cDNA libraries .
PaperID WBPaper00003418 SentenceID s118 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003418 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , consistent with restriction of the effects of reducedfunction lep-1 mutations to the tail tip .
PaperID WBPaper00003418 SentenceID s178 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003418 SentenceID s200 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , resulting in leptoderan tail tips of variable size in adult males ( Figs . 7E and 7F ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003418 SentenceID s48 SENTENCE : , unpublished ; discussed later ) , suggesting that fluid expulsion is required for general male tail retraction but not tail tip retraction .
PaperID WBPaper00003418 SentenceID s79 SENTENCE : H . and E . Hedgecock , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003418 SentenceID s84 SENTENCE : junctions In hermaphrodites , gap junctions are common between hypodermal cells in the tail and elsewhere ( Table 1A ; Hall , 1987 and unpublished ; White , 1988 ) and permit the intercellular transfer of small molecules from embryogenesis through adulthood ( Bossinger and Schierenberg , 1992 ; Starich et al . , 1996 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003426 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : Mutation in egl-5 also results in loss of the neurotransmitter dopamine from ray 5 ( R . Lints and S . W . Emmons , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003516 SentenceID s21 SENTENCE : Furthermore , we are aware of C . elegans mutants in which CeMyoD protein is reduced to levels undetectable by our specific antibody yet is still sufficient for function and normal development ( Harfe , Fire , and Krause , unpublished observation ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003516 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : Preliminary studies indicate E12 / E47 proteins have a higher affinity for Id-1 than for da ( unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003516 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : Suprisingly , the daughterless-dependent conversion of 10T1 2 cells by nautilus is not affected by Id-1 , likely reflecting the weak interaction of Id-1 with daughterless compared to the vertebrate E proteins ( unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003579 SentenceID s100 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003579 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003579 SentenceID s112 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003579 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003579 SentenceID s92 SENTENCE : , unpublished ; Jiang and Sternberg , 1999 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003617 SentenceID s106 SENTENCE : body, dense body First , sheath cells express a number of muscle dense body components including a functional pat-2 integringfp fusion ( B . Williams , personal communication ) , unc-52 perlecan ( K . Rose and D . Greenstein , unpublished results ) , and pat-3 integrin ( Gettner et al . , 1995 ; K . Rose and D . Greenstein , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003617 SentenceID s109 SENTENCE : body Third , mutations in pat-3 ( formerly called epi-2 ) and in epi-1 ( encodes laminin B ) cause defects in gonad sheath epithelialization , as well as body wall muscle defects , apparently due to poor musclelamina attachments in both it issues ( D . Hall , W . G . Wadsworth , and E . Hedgecock , unpublished observations ; Gettner et al . , 1995 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003617 SentenceID s110 SENTENCE : basal, basal lamina Finally , unc-52 ( e998 ) mutants exhibit an unusual phenotype when sheath cell contractions are observed by time-lapse Nomarski videomicroscopy : the sheath cells appear to slide with respect to the gonadal basal lamina when they contract , suggesting that adherence between the sheath cells and the basal lamina is compromised ( D . Greenstein , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003617 SentenceID s122 SENTENCE : process Furthermore , mutations which interfere with oocyte formation or development cause a buildup of yolk in the pseudocoelom but not in sheath cells , suggesting that demand for more yolk by proximal oocytes drives an active process that is unlikely to involve transcytosis ( D . Hall and D . Greenstein , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003617 SentenceID s159 SENTENCE : Furthermore , TEM analysis of yolk particle distribution in several mutants in which oocyte development is defective due to gonad disorganization ( e . . , epi-1 and epi-2 ) indicates that yolk accumulates in the pseudocoloem but not in sheath cells or the germ line ( D . Hall and E . Hedgecock , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003617 SentenceID s162 SENTENCE : -C . Paaupard , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003617 SentenceID s166 SENTENCE : processes In fact , fragments of detached or shed dtc material were frequently observed trailing beyond the dtc processes by TEM ( D . Hall and E . Hedgecock , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003617 SentenceID s171 SENTENCE : Consistent with this hypothesis , mutations in epi-1 result in detachment of the distal sheath cells from the germ line and also cause germ cell overproliferation ( D . Hall and E . Hedgecock , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003617 SentenceID s259 SENTENCE : processes In serial section analysis by TEM , the dtc processes in L4 larvae extend for approximately 35 cell diameters , with fragmentary material trailing further behind proximally as discontinuous blobs which appear to be shed by the dtc processes ( data not shown , D . Hall and E . Hedgecock , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003617 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : Sheath pair 1 were visualized using plim-7 : : GFP , a green fluorescent protein ( GFP ) reporter gene fusion to the lim-7 homeobox gene ( O . Hobert , unpublished data ) located on cosmid C04F1 ( also referred to as C04F1 . 3 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003617 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : extracellular, junctions, membrane, membranes, plasma membranes These junctions characteristically showed the following features : ( 1 ) plasma membranes become smooth and regular at regions of close apposition , with a narrow ( 1 nm ) extracellular gap between them ; ( 2 ) at these junctions , each membrane is somewhat more electron dense than nonjunctional plasma membranes ; and ( 3 ) the sheath / oocyte junctions are similar to gap junctions formed in other nematode tissues , but are among the largest found in any it issue ( Hall , 1987 ; Buechner et al . , 1999 ; D . Hall , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003617 SentenceID s42 SENTENCE : Pair 5 sheath cells directly attach to the distal spermatheca ( D . Hall , L . P . Winfrey , L . H . Hoffman , and D . Greenstein , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003617 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : Ed Hedgecock , Todd Starich , Jocelyn Shaw , Bill Wadsworth , and Ben Williams generously shared unpublished data .
PaperID WBPaper00003617 SentenceID s75 SENTENCE : In turn , the maturing oocyte modulates sheath contractions at ovulation and induces spermathecal dilation ( McCarter et al . , 1999 ) using a let-23 signal transduction pathway ( J . McCarter , B . Bartlett , T . Dang , R . Hill , M . Lee , and T . Schedl , unpublished results ) involving the lfe-1 and lfe-2 genes ( Clandinin et al . , 1998 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003617 SentenceID s86 SENTENCE : bodies, cell bodies, junctions Attempts to visualize communication across these junctions using physiological dye injections ( e . . , lucifer yellow ) have been problematic due to difficulties in resolving the thin sheath cell bodies in vivo ( D . Greenstein , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003617 SentenceID s94 SENTENCE : junctions An antibody against one of the C . elegans innexins labels gap junctions in the pharynx and in early embryos by immunoEM ( D . Hall , T . Starich , A . Miller , and J . Shaw , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003618 SentenceID s3 SENTENCE : We thank Victor Ambros for advice on HU experiments and discussing his unpublished results .
PaperID WBPaper00003618 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : If inductive signaling is truncated by anchor cell ablation , cells can generate 1 / 3 hybrid lineages ( Kimble , 1981 ; M . Wang and P . W . Sternberg , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003618 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003618 SentenceID s44 SENTENCE : These patterns have been shown to correspond to different vulval fates by lineage analysis in various mutant backgrounds and ablation experiments ( Burdine et al . , 1998 ; M . Wang and P . W . Sternberg , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003618 SentenceID s44 SENTENCE : Too little signal fails to induce a 1 , or induce a 1 that can not laterally induce its neighbors to be 2 , resulting in animals with inefficient egg laying and copulation with males ( Sulston and White , 1980 ; M . Barr and P . W . Sternberg , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003721 SentenceID s3 SENTENCE : We thank Andrew Chisholm and Robert Horvitz for sharing their exc alleles ; John Plenefisch for initial mapping of exc-6 ; Steven Jones , David Baillie , and Judith Austin for sharing unpublished results on let-653 and sma-1 ; Sarah Wurzelman , Christine Roy , and Michael Sepanski for expert assistance in electron microscopy ; Michael Edidin , Andrew Fire , and Patricia Wilson for helpful discussions ; and Adam Antebi , Harald Hutter , and Carolyn Norris for comments on the manuscript .
PaperID WBPaper00003721 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : Urine expulsion through the excretory duct can be clearly observed , however , when the larva undergoes radial shrinkage either shortly before hatching or during dauer maturation ( Singh and Sulston , 1978 ; unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003721 SentenceID s58 SENTENCE : processes In mosaic animals in which the excretory cell lacks the integrin subunit PAT-3 ( Gettner et al . , 1995 ; Williams and Waterston , 1994 ) , this cell can not extend processes along the epidermis ( unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003721 SentenceID s78 SENTENCE : let-653 encodes a predicted secreted protein comprising two tandem modules related to the plasminogen activation peptide , a cuticlin-related module , a possible mucin linker , and a cysteine-rich C-terminus ( Jones and Baillie , 1995 ; unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003753 SentenceID s2 SENTENCE : spindle Identification and Genetic Characterization of ooc-5 and ooc-3 In screens for maternal-effect lethal mutations that disrupt the wild-type pattern of spindle orientation in C . elegans embryos ( Rose and Kemphues , 1998a ; M . Tsou and L . Rose , unpublished ) , we identified alleles of the ooc-3 gene ( Sigurdson et al . , 1984 ) and alleles of a new gene ooc-5 ( for oocyte formation abnormal ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003754 SentenceID s112 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003754 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003754 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003754 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003754 SentenceID s73 SENTENCE : , unpublished observations ) , we chose to analyze the effect of overexpression of NRs in wild-type ( N2 ) animals .
PaperID WBPaper00003754 SentenceID s77 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) , injected at 50 ng / l .
PaperID WBPaper00003754 SentenceID s89 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003756 SentenceID s2 SENTENCE : We thank Jim Priess for kindly providing antibodies against C . elegans SKN-1 and PIE-1 , B . Junkersdorf for permission to quote unpublished results , R . Seiler for photographic work , Y . Jacobi for skillful technical assistance , and R . Cassada for critically reading the manuscript .
PaperID WBPaper00003756 SentenceID s9 SENTENCE : Our results are in accordance with earlier observations ( Sulston et al . , 1983 ; Schierenberg , 1987 , Goldstein , 1992 ; Junkersdorf and Schierenberg , 1992 ; and unpublished results ) that except the inductive signaling between P2 and EMS no other interactions affect the establishment of the gut-cell lineage and the execution of gutcell fate .
PaperID WBPaper00003841 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : Analysis of this later defect is complicated by the earlier defect in arm extension : in both gon-1 mutants and wild-type hermaphrodites , the failure to form gonadal arms results in a defect in formation of the somatic gonadal primordium ( R . Blelloch and J . Kimble , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003841 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : However , the distal gonadal arms of these animals are unusually slim , the central gonadal structures are often formed abnormally , and fecundity is low ( R . Blelloch and J . Kimble , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003842 SentenceID s110 SENTENCE : Indeed , we observed some abnormal cleavage planes at the E8 to E16 division of an isolated E blastomere ( our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003842 SentenceID s136 SENTENCE : body However , its elongation is likely to depend on the elongation of the embryo ; experimental conditions and mutant backgrounds that prevent body elongation also prevent intestinal elongation ( our unpublished results and Priess and Hirsh , 1986 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003842 SentenceID s2 SENTENCE : The nematode Ascaris has an intestine similar to that of C . elegans at hatching , but through subsequent cell divisions develops an intestine with over a million cells and a gross anatomy much more similar to that of some vertebrate intestines ( Chitwood and Chitwood , 1974 ; our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003842 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : Interestingly , we recently have found that antisera against each of the PAR proteins PAR-1 , PAR-2 , PAR-3 , and PAR-6 also stain the intestinal primordium , though the specificity of these staining patterns has not yet been determined ( our unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003883 SentenceID s130 SENTENCE : , unpublished ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003883 SentenceID s2 SENTENCE : We thank G . Patterson , A . Koweek , G . Ruvkun , A . Estevez , C . Gunther , and D . Riddle for communicating unpublished results and sending reagents ; H . M . Chamberlin , E . M . Newton , E . A . Malone , and M . E . Ailion for comments on the manuscript ; A . Fire , S . Xu , J . Aynn , and G . Seydoux for providing various vectors ; B . Page and J . Priess for providing a strain and information on the physical location of daf-14 ; M . E . Ailion for isolating sa535 ; the C . elegans community for numerous personal communications ; and the C . elegans Genome Consortium for sequencing the C . elegans genome .
PaperID WBPaper00003883 SentenceID s90 SENTENCE : , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003959 SentenceID s101 SENTENCE : nuclear, nuclear pore Second , we have obtained identical results with a second , independently generated , antibody called mAbQE5 that reacts with the mammalian nuclear pore components NUP153 , NUP214 , and p62 ( Pante et al . , 1994 ; our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003959 SentenceID s158 SENTENCE : P granules, cytoplasm, granules, nucleolus Although such dyes can stain the nucleolus and cytoplasm brightly , they do not stain P granules above the general level of the cytoplasm ( our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003959 SentenceID s39 SENTENCE : All rights of reproduction in any form reserved . tional glutaraldehyde / osmium fixation followed by uranyl acetate / lead citrate staining ( our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003959 SentenceID s95 SENTENCE : P granules, granules, nuclear, surface RNAi of the NUP153-related gene ( T19B4 . 2 ) does not eliminate mAb414 staining , but appears to cause the positively stained material to aggregate into large foci on the nuclear surface ; P granules are localized above these same foci ( our unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004123 SentenceID s32 SENTENCE : 237 Dynamic Ring Formation in Multivulva Morphogenesis the second round of division , the daughters of P3 . p , P4 . p , and P8 . p , which did not fuse to hyp7 ( 3 sublineage ) , divided asynchronously ( Fig . 3 ; G . Shemer and B . Podbilewicz , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004123 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : D cells then migrate and surround vulE / vulF rather than competing for the center ( G . Shemer and B . Podbilewicz , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004123 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : Worms were either anesthetized in 0 . 01 % tetramisole , 0 . 1 % tricaine , or paralyzed transiently by lowering the temperature to 8 11C for 10 20 min using a temperature control system ( Y . Rabin and B . Podbi