740 journals, 8885 papers, 32749 sentences.

Genetics 515 papers with 2299 sentences.
Development 486 papers with 2708 sentences.
Dev Biol 445 papers with 2361 sentences.
J Biol Chem 408 papers with 1496 sentences.
PLoS One 337 papers with 935 sentences.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 307 papers with 1088 sentences.
Curr Biol 279 papers with 1005 sentences.
Cell 275 papers with 1475 sentences.
Genes Dev 221 papers with 1199 sentences.
PLoS Genet 207 papers with 980 sentences.
J Neurosci 183 papers with 872 sentences.
Nature 177 papers with 554 sentences.
Dev Cell 157 papers with 820 sentences.
EMBO J 130 papers with 664 sentences.
Neuron 125 papers with 716 sentences.
Nucleic Acids Res 123 papers with 350 sentences.
Mol Cell Biol 118 papers with 618 sentences.
J Cell Sci 111 papers with 479 sentences.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 105 papers with 212 sentences.
J Mol Biol 96 papers with 311 sentences.
Gene 86 papers with 222 sentences.
Mol Biol Cell 83 papers with 284 sentences.
Mol Cell 76 papers with 430 sentences.
Genome Res 72 papers with 197 sentences.
J Cell Biol 72 papers with 317 sentences.
Aging Cell 70 papers with 200 sentences.
RNA 70 papers with 241 sentences.
FEBS Lett 58 papers with 125 sentences.
Nat Cell Biol 58 papers with 309 sentences.
Mol Biochem Parasitol 56 papers with 148 sentences.
Science 52 papers with 73 sentences.
BMC Genomics 51 papers with 111 sentences.
G3 _ORB_ Bethesda _CRB_ 50 papers with 112 sentences.
Genes Cells 48 papers with 186 sentences.
Nat Neurosci 46 papers with 203 sentences.
Cell Rep 45 papers with 102 sentences.
Mech Ageing Dev 44 papers with 95 sentences.
Hum Mol Genet 42 papers with 140 sentences.
J Neurochem 41 papers with 127 sentences.
Int J Parasitol 40 papers with 107 sentences.
Infect Immun 40 papers with 209 sentences.
Sci Rep 39 papers with 61 sentences.
Elife 38 papers with 115 sentences.
Dev Dyn 37 papers with 126 sentences.
Nat Genet 37 papers with 132 sentences.
Cell Metab 36 papers with 125 sentences.
Biochim Biophys Acta 34 papers with 98 sentences.
BMC Dev Biol 34 papers with 125 sentences.
Genome Biol 33 papers with 89 sentences.
Biochemistry 33 papers with 98 sentences.
Nat Methods 31 papers with 83 sentences.
PLoS Pathog 30 papers with 142 sentences.
Mol Cells 30 papers with 72 sentences.
Mech Dev 29 papers with 154 sentences.
FASEB J 27 papers with 92 sentences.
J Mol Evol 26 papers with 53 sentences.
Cell Death Differ 24 papers with 91 sentences.
Mol Biol Evol 23 papers with 56 sentences.
J Exp Biol 23 papers with 56 sentences.
Appl Environ Microbiol 23 papers with 95 sentences.
Nat Struct Mol Biol 23 papers with 73 sentences.
Mol Gen Genet 22 papers with 54 sentences.
Dev Genes Evol 21 papers with 57 sentences.
Genomics 21 papers with 74 sentences.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 20 papers with 45 sentences.
Oncogene 20 papers with 75 sentences.
Exp Gerontol 20 papers with 31 sentences.
Genesis 20 papers with 67 sentences.
J Biochem 20 papers with 55 sentences.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 19 papers with 36 sentences.
FEBS J 18 papers with 67 sentences.
Glycobiology 18 papers with 45 sentences.
Mol Genet Genomics 18 papers with 77 sentences.
Autophagy 18 papers with 57 sentences.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 17 papers with 62 sentences.
J Bacteriol 17 papers with 63 sentences.
Free Radic Biol Med 17 papers with 38 sentences.
EMBO Rep 17 papers with 79 sentences.
Microbiology 17 papers with 68 sentences.
Eur J Biochem 17 papers with 48 sentences.
DNA Repair _ORB_ Amst _CRB_ 16 papers with 59 sentences.
Aging _ORB_ Albany NY _CRB_ 16 papers with 39 sentences.
Arch Biochem Biophys 15 papers with 37 sentences.
BMC Biol 15 papers with 43 sentences.
Mutat Res 15 papers with 36 sentences.
Biophys J 15 papers with 25 sentences.
Toxicol Sci 14 papers with 31 sentences.
Exp Cell Res 14 papers with 34 sentences.
FEMS Microbiol Lett 14 papers with 38 sentences.
Environ Toxicol Chem 14 papers with 28 sentences.
BMC Evol Biol 14 papers with 22 sentences.
Cell Cycle 14 papers with 34 sentences.
Worm 13 papers with 23 sentences.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 13 papers with 43 sentences.
BMC Bioinformatics 13 papers with 27 sentences.
Traffic 12 papers with 45 sentences.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 12 papers with 38 sentences.
Bioinformatics 12 papers with 17 sentences.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 12 papers with 32 sentences.
Mol Microbiol 12 papers with 62 sentences.
Mol Cell Proteomics 11 papers with 32 sentences.
Lab Chip 11 papers with 16 sentences.
Neurobiol Dis 11 papers with 22 sentences.
Nat Commun 11 papers with 29 sentences.
Eukaryot Cell 11 papers with 61 sentences.
J Neurosci Methods 11 papers with 31 sentences.
Biol Open 11 papers with 30 sentences.
Biol Pharm Bull 10 papers with 17 sentences.
Methods 10 papers with 13 sentences.
Dev Growth Differ 10 papers with 17 sentences.
Mol Pharmacol 10 papers with 38 sentences.
Neural Dev 10 papers with 21 sentences.
Environ Sci Technol 10 papers with 12 sentences.
J Proteome Res 10 papers with 19 sentences.
J Nematol 10 papers with 17 sentences.
DNA Cell Biol 9 papers with 24 sentences.
Worm Breeder _SQ_ s Gazette 9 papers with 10 sentences.
Cell Res 9 papers with 17 sentences.
Neurobiol Aging 9 papers with 34 sentences.
Mol Cell Neurosci 9 papers with 51 sentences.
J Agric Food Chem 9 papers with 22 sentences.
BMC Neurosci 9 papers with 33 sentences.
Dev Comp Immunol 9 papers with 23 sentences.
Cell Motil Cytoskeleton 9 papers with 34 sentences.
Genes Brain Behav 9 papers with 27 sentences.
Evol Dev 9 papers with 26 sentences.
Proc Biol Sci 8 papers with 16 sentences.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 8 papers with 26 sentences.
Parasitology 8 papers with 16 sentences.
Anal Chem 8 papers with 15 sentences.
Structure 8 papers with 11 sentences.
Vet Parasitol 8 papers with 12 sentences.
RNA Biol 8 papers with 18 sentences.
J Lipid Res 8 papers with 16 sentences.
J Neurobiol 8 papers with 21 sentences.
Neurosci Lett 8 papers with 11 sentences.
Am J Hum Genet 8 papers with 26 sentences.
Antioxid Redox Signal 8 papers with 19 sentences.
Chemosphere 8 papers with 17 sentences.
Proteomics 8 papers with 16 sentences.
Biogerontology 8 papers with 25 sentences.
J Struct Biol 8 papers with 25 sentences.
BMC Cell Biol 8 papers with 24 sentences.
Mitochondrion 8 papers with 18 sentences.
Cell Host Microbe 8 papers with 47 sentences.
Cell Death Dis 8 papers with 24 sentences.
J Environ Sci _ORB_ China _CRB_ 7 papers with 23 sentences.
Invert Neurosci 7 papers with 19 sentences.
Front Genet 7 papers with 13 sentences.
Ann N Y Acad Sci 7 papers with 9 sentences.
Anal Biochem 7 papers with 17 sentences.
Neurosci Res 7 papers with 8 sentences.
J Vis Exp 7 papers with 8 sentences.
Exp Parasitol 7 papers with 11 sentences.
BMC Mol Biol 7 papers with 34 sentences.
Protein Sci 7 papers with 12 sentences.
Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 7 papers with 24 sentences.
J Comp Neurol 7 papers with 25 sentences.
Biotechniques 7 papers with 11 sentences.
Physiol Genomics 7 papers with 17 sentences.
Proteins 7 papers with 13 sentences.
Genome 7 papers with 25 sentences.
Learn Mem 6 papers with 20 sentences.
Nanoscale 6 papers with 8 sentences.
Cell Microbiol 6 papers with 40 sentences.
PLoS Comput Biol 6 papers with 7 sentences.
Parasit Vectors 6 papers with 6 sentences.
Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 6 papers with 7 sentences.
Cell Mol Life Sci 6 papers with 26 sentences.
Brain Res 6 papers with 18 sentences.
Anesthesiology 6 papers with 13 sentences.
Dev Neurobiol 6 papers with 19 sentences.
Neurosci Bull 6 papers with 17 sentences.
Virulence 6 papers with 19 sentences.
Cell Calcium 5 papers with 9 sentences.
Nat Biotechnol 5 papers with 5 sentences.
Biol Chem 5 papers with 14 sentences.
Environ Microbiol 5 papers with 18 sentences.
Photochem Photobiol 5 papers with 16 sentences.
BMC Genet 5 papers with 26 sentences.
Metallomics 5 papers with 14 sentences.
Mar Drugs 5 papers with 12 sentences.
J Exp Zool 5 papers with 13 sentences.
BMC Biotechnol 5 papers with 21 sentences.
Dis Model Mech 5 papers with 29 sentences.
Biochimie 5 papers with 17 sentences.
DNA Seq 5 papers with 11 sentences.
Evolution 5 papers with 7 sentences.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 5 papers with 12 sentences.
Biofouling 5 papers with 6 sentences.
J Helminthol 5 papers with 13 sentences.
Age _ORB_ Dordr _CRB_ 5 papers with 13 sentences.
J Neurophysiol 5 papers with 10 sentences.
J Neurogenet 5 papers with 19 sentences.
Cell Stress Chaperones 5 papers with 16 sentences.
PLoS Biol 5 papers with 20 sentences.
Fundamental and Applied Nematology 5 papers with 8 sentences.
Dev Genet 5 papers with 14 sentences.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 5 papers with 10 sentences.
Cancer Res 5 papers with 9 sentences.
J Theor Biol 5 papers with 17 sentences.
Front Microbiol 5 papers with 9 sentences.
J Mol Neurosci 5 papers with 11 sentences.
Nanomedicine 5 papers with 7 sentences.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol 5 papers with 15 sentences.
J Am Chem Soc 5 papers with 10 sentences.
Neuroscience 5 papers with 10 sentences.
Parasitol Res 4 papers with 10 sentences.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res 4 papers with 10 sentences.
J Immunol 4 papers with 16 sentences.
Mol Genet Metab 4 papers with 6 sentences.
Electrophoresis 4 papers with 5 sentences.
Bioelectromagnetics 4 papers with 9 sentences.
Gene Expr Patterns 4 papers with 8 sentences.
Toxicol Lett 4 papers with 10 sentences.
Parasitol Int 4 papers with 12 sentences.
Genome Biol Evol 4 papers with 14 sentences.
DNA Res 4 papers with 9 sentences.
Nematology 4 papers with 5 sentences.
Mol Biosyst 4 papers with 9 sentences.
Mol Biol Rep 4 papers with 7 sentences.
J Biomol Struct Dyn 4 papers with 4 sentences.
Biomed Res Int 4 papers with 12 sentences.
ISME J 4 papers with 12 sentences.
Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist 4 papers with 9 sentences.
Methods Mol Biol 4 papers with 10 sentences.
Oxid Med Cell Longev 4 papers with 5 sentences.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 4 papers with 8 sentences.
Mol Neurodegener 4 papers with 13 sentences.
J Cell Biochem 4 papers with 14 sentences.
J Neurosci Res 4 papers with 14 sentences.
Arch Microbiol 4 papers with 11 sentences.
Protein Expr Purif 4 papers with 8 sentences.
Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 4 papers with 7 sentences.
Neurotoxicology 4 papers with 15 sentences.
J Virol 4 papers with 12 sentences.
J Physiol 4 papers with 9 sentences.
Microb Pathog 4 papers with 22 sentences.
Eur J Cell Biol 4 papers with 12 sentences.
J Hazard Mater 4 papers with 10 sentences.
Nat Immunol 4 papers with 24 sentences.
Biochem Pharmacol 4 papers with 11 sentences.
Int J Dev Biol 4 papers with 6 sentences.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett 4 papers with 9 sentences.
Blood 4 papers with 13 sentences.
Behav Neurosci 3 papers with 5 sentences.
BMC Res Notes 3 papers with 3 sentences.
Glycoconj J 3 papers with 18 sentences.
Protein Cell 3 papers with 5 sentences.
Epigenetics Chromatin 3 papers with 7 sentences.
PeerJ 3 papers with 5 sentences.
Biochem J 3 papers with 6 sentences.
Eur J Neurosci 3 papers with 7 sentences.
J Appl Microbiol 3 papers with 11 sentences.
BMB Rep 3 papers with 5 sentences.
Neurochem Int 3 papers with 6 sentences.
Biochem Mol Biol Educ 3 papers with 5 sentences.
Free Radic Res 3 papers with 10 sentences.
Med Mycol 3 papers with 3 sentences.
Methods Enzymol 3 papers with 3 sentences.
Peptides 3 papers with 5 sentences.
J Alzheimers Dis 3 papers with 4 sentences.
Neuroreport 3 papers with 7 sentences.
Pathog Dis 3 papers with 5 sentences.
Genet Res 3 papers with 7 sentences.
J Food Prot 3 papers with 5 sentences.
Nucleus 3 papers with 8 sentences.
Ecotoxicology 3 papers with 7 sentences.
Cytoskeleton _ORB_ Hoboken _CRB_ 3 papers with 6 sentences.
Lett Appl Microbiol 3 papers with 7 sentences.
Zoolog Sci 3 papers with 4 sentences.
BMC Syst Biol 3 papers with 8 sentences.
Life Sci 3 papers with 9 sentences.
Chromosoma 3 papers with 10 sentences.
Astrobiology 3 papers with 6 sentences.
Genet Mol Res 3 papers with 4 sentences.
Genome Inform 3 papers with 3 sentences.
Int J Mol Sci 3 papers with 3 sentences.
J Exp Zool A Ecol Genet Physiol 3 papers with 7 sentences.
J Appl Toxicol 3 papers with 9 sentences.
Sci Total Environ 3 papers with 7 sentences.
Cell Signal 3 papers with 4 sentences.
Longev Healthspan 3 papers with 9 sentences.
Brain Res Mol Brain Res 3 papers with 5 sentences.
J Microbiol Biotechnol 3 papers with 6 sentences.
Mol Cell Endocrinol 3 papers with 5 sentences.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol 3 papers with 6 sentences.
J Histochem Cytochem 3 papers with 3 sentences.
Int J Antimicrob Agents 3 papers with 8 sentences.
Neurochem Res 3 papers with 3 sentences.
J Basic Microbiol 3 papers with 6 sentences.
J Chromatogr A 3 papers with 5 sentences.
Neuropharmacology 3 papers with 7 sentences.
Adv Exp Med Biol 3 papers with 4 sentences.
Matrix Biol 3 papers with 3 sentences.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 3 papers with 3 sentences.
Acta Trop 3 papers with 6 sentences.
Food Chem 3 papers with 5 sentences.
Biomaterials 3 papers with 7 sentences.
J Gerontol 3 papers with 8 sentences.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol 3 papers with 8 sentences.
Mol Syst Biol 3 papers with 9 sentences.
Res Microbiol 3 papers with 5 sentences.
J Radiat Res _ORB_ Tokyo _CRB_ 3 papers with 6 sentences.
Chembiochem 3 papers with 4 sentences.
J Ethnopharmacol 3 papers with 5 sentences.
J Antimicrob Chemother 3 papers with 3 sentences.
Nat Chem Biol 3 papers with 6 sentences.
Clin Microbiol Infect 3 papers with 8 sentences.
Environ Microbiol Rep 3 papers with 7 sentences.
Oncotarget 3 papers with 4 sentences.
Neuropsychopharmacology 2 papers with 4 sentences.
Micropublication _CLN_ biology 2 papers with 2 sentences.
J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 2 papers with 5 sentences.
Mol Immunol 2 papers with 3 sentences.
Lipids 2 papers with 3 sentences.
J Muscle Res Cell Motil 2 papers with 4 sentences.
J Chem Ecol 2 papers with 4 sentences.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2 papers with 2 sentences.
Biofactors 2 papers with 4 sentences.
Carbohydr Res 2 papers with 3 sentences.
Evol Bioinform Online 2 papers with 3 sentences.
Bioorg Med Chem 2 papers with 5 sentences.
J Biomol Screen 2 papers with 7 sentences.
Chromosome Res 2 papers with 2 sentences.
Mol Brain 2 papers with 12 sentences.
Protein Pept Lett 2 papers with 4 sentences.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2 papers with 2 sentences.
Sleep 2 papers with 5 sentences.
Mol Nutr Food Res 2 papers with 2 sentences.
J Am Soc Nephrol 2 papers with 11 sentences.
Chem Biol 2 papers with 6 sentences.
Neuromuscul Disord 2 papers with 3 sentences.
J Toxicol Environ Health A 2 papers with 2 sentences.
Eur J Nutr 2 papers with 2 sentences.
Microb Biotechnol 2 papers with 5 sentences.
Diabetes 2 papers with 4 sentences.
Nanotoxicology 2 papers with 3 sentences.
Life Sci Space Res _ORB_ Amst _CRB_ 2 papers with 3 sentences.
J Am Aging Assoc 2 papers with 4 sentences.
Radiat Environ Biophys 2 papers with 2 sentences.
Nano Lett 2 papers with 2 sentences.
Pharmacol Res 2 papers with 7 sentences.
Genetica 2 papers with 2 sentences.
IUBMB Life 2 papers with 4 sentences.
Neurotoxicol Teratol 2 papers with 2 sentences.
J Genet Genomics 2 papers with 8 sentences.
Nat Struct Biol 2 papers with 3 sentences.
Pac Symp Biocomput 2 papers with 2 sentences.
Receptors Channels 2 papers with 3 sentences.
J Plant Physiol 2 papers with 4 sentences.
J Antibiot _ORB_ Tokyo _CRB_ 2 papers with 2 sentences.
BMC Microbiol 2 papers with 5 sentences.
CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2 papers with 3 sentences.
Int J Food Microbiol 2 papers with 2 sentences.
ACS Chem Neurosci 2 papers with 3 sentences.
Environ Pollut 2 papers with 2 sentences.
Can J Microbiol 2 papers with 3 sentences.
Mutagenesis 2 papers with 4 sentences.
Mol Cell Biochem 2 papers with 3 sentences.
Transgenic Res 2 papers with 6 sentences.
Anesth Analg 2 papers with 4 sentences.
Biomed Environ Sci 2 papers with 2 sentences.
ACS Chem Biol 2 papers with 7 sentences.
J Med Microbiol 2 papers with 4 sentences.
Mol Ecol 2 papers with 11 sentences.
J Infect Dis 2 papers with 2 sentences.
J Med Chem 2 papers with 3 sentences.
Front Pharmacol 2 papers with 4 sentences.
Food Funct 2 papers with 4 sentences.
J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 2 papers with 3 sentences.
Reprod Toxicol 2 papers with 2 sentences.
J Biosci Bioeng 2 papers with 3 sentences.
Chem Biodivers 2 papers with 3 sentences.
Ann Neurol 2 papers with 4 sentences.
Aquatic Toxicology 2 papers with 4 sentences.
Heredity 2 papers with 5 sentences.
Int J Biol Macromol 2 papers with 4 sentences.
Comp Funct Genomics 2 papers with 7 sentences.
Folia Biol _ORB_ Praha _CRB_ 2 papers with 5 sentences.
Aquat Toxicol 2 papers with 6 sentences.
Planta Med 2 papers with 2 sentences.
Evodevo 2 papers with 4 sentences.
Toxins _ORB_ Basel _CRB_ 2 papers with 2 sentences.
Food Chem Toxicol 2 papers with 12 sentences.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2 papers with 6 sentences.
Toxicology 2 papers with 3 sentences.
Front Mol Neurosci 2 papers with 9 sentences.
J Phys Chem B 2 papers with 2 sentences.
Chem Senses 2 papers with 9 sentences.
Microsc Microanal 2 papers with 4 sentences.
J Cell Physiol 2 papers with 4 sentences.
Eur J Immunol 2 papers with 8 sentences.
J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol 2 papers with 3 sentences.
Can J Biochem Cell Biol 2 papers with 5 sentences.
Biometals 2 papers with 5 sentences.
J Biomed Opt 2 papers with 2 sentences.
Biomed Opt Express 2 papers with 2 sentences.
Nat Med 2 papers with 9 sentences.
Roux _SQ_ s Archives of Developmental Biology 2 papers with 3 sentences.
Mamm Genome 2 papers with 13 sentences.
Environ Mol Mutagen 2 papers with 4 sentences.
Commun Integr Biol 2 papers with 3 sentences.
Mol Membr Biol 2 papers with 2 sentences.
J Biol 2 papers with 21 sentences.
J Photochem Photobiol B 1 papers with 2 sentences.
Front Endocrinol _ORB_ Lausanne _CRB_ 1 papers with 1 sentences.
J Ginseng Res 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Mol Plant Pathol 1 papers with 2 sentences.
Journal of Biosciences 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Pestic Biochem Physiol 1 papers with 4 sentences.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 1 papers with 2 sentences.
Trends Biochem Sci 1 papers with 1 sentences.
FEMS Yeast Res 1 papers with 2 sentences.
Integr Comp Biol 1 papers with 1 sentences.
J Carcinog 1 papers with 4 sentences.
BMC Chem Biol 1 papers with 2 sentences.
Indian J Med Microbiol 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Bioresour Technol 1 papers with 3 sentences.
Histochem Cell Biol 1 papers with 3 sentences.
Rev Sci Instrum 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Bioinformation 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Int J Environ Res Public Health 1 papers with 2 sentences.
Plant Physiol 1 papers with 1 sentences.
J Comput Biol 1 papers with 1 sentences.
J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Chem Commun _ORB_ Camb _CRB_ 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Int Microbiol 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Langmuir 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Biol Cell 1 papers with 2 sentences.
J Gen Physiol 1 papers with 6 sentences.
J Pept Sci 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Redox Biol 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Diabetes Care 1 papers with 2 sentences.
Physiol Behav 1 papers with 1 sentences.
J Pharm Pharmacol 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Toxicol Res _ORB_ Camb _CRB_ 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Nucleic Acids Symp Ser 1 papers with 1 sentences.
J Neural Transm 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Fungal Biol 1 papers with 1 sentences.
BMC Ecol 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Mol Phylogenet Evol 1 papers with 3 sentences.
J Funct Foods 1 papers with 3 sentences.
Rejuvenation Res 1 papers with 3 sentences.
Carbohydr Polym 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Genes Cancer 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Open Biol 1 papers with 1 sentences.
International Journal of Invertebrate Reproduction and Development 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 1 papers with 5 sentences.
J Nutr Biochem 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Pest Manag Sci 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Database _ORB_ Oxford _CRB_ 1 papers with 2 sentences.
J Therm Biol 1 papers with 2 sentences.
Fitoterapia 1 papers with 4 sentences.
J Mol Graph Model 1 papers with 5 sentences.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 1 papers with 2 sentences.
J _PRD_ Gerontol _PRD_ 1 papers with 2 sentences.
Cell Biochem Funct 1 papers with 2 sentences.
OMICS 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Vet Res 1 papers with 2 sentences.
Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 1 papers with 6 sentences.
Neoplasia 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol 1 papers with 2 sentences.
Sci China Life Sci 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Virology 1 papers with 4 sentences.
Cell Regul 1 papers with 2 sentences.
Proc IEEE Int Symp Biomed Imaging 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Phytopathology 1 papers with 7 sentences.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Cryobiology 1 papers with 2 sentences.
Channels _ORB_ Austin _CRB_ 1 papers with 7 sentences.
Genes Genet Syst 1 papers with 3 sentences.
Gen Comp Endocrinol 1 papers with 2 sentences.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1 papers with 3 sentences.
Front Biosci 1 papers with 2 sentences.
Micron 1 papers with 2 sentences.
Journal of Health Science 1 papers with 3 sentences.
Nutr Res Pract 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Br J Pharmacol 1 papers with 2 sentences.
Int J Artif Organs 1 papers with 2 sentences.
Small GTPases 1 papers with 3 sentences.
Bull Math Biol 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Eur J Pharm Sci 1 papers with 3 sentences.
Comp Biochem Physiol C 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Water Res 1 papers with 1 sentences.
J Exp Zool A Comp Exp Biol 1 papers with 5 sentences.
J Inherit Metab Dis 1 papers with 8 sentences.
Genet Res _ORB_ Camb _CRB_ 1 papers with 1 sentences.
BMC Infect Dis 1 papers with 2 sentences.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 1 papers with 1 sentences.
J S C Acad Sci 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 1 papers with 2 sentences.
J Thromb Haemost 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Nat Protoc 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Neurodegener Dis 1 papers with 4 sentences.
Nephron Exp Nephrol 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Hum Mutat 1 papers with 5 sentences.
BMC Biochem 1 papers with 2 sentences.
Neurogenetics 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Behav Genet 1 papers with 1 sentences.
elife 1 papers with 3 sentences.
Front Mol Biosci 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Cell Commun Adhes 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Transcription 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Biophysics _ORB_ Nagoya-shi _CRB_ 1 papers with 3 sentences.
Cancer 1 papers with 3 sentences.
Biol Res 1 papers with 1 sentences.
J Clin Biochem Nutr 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Stem Cell Reports 1 papers with 7 sentences.
Transfusion 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Journal of Comparative Physiology A 1 papers with 4 sentences.
Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun 1 papers with 4 sentences.
Enzyme Microb Technol 1 papers with 2 sentences.
New Phytol 1 papers with 2 sentences.
Experientia 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer 1 papers with 3 sentences.
Theor Appl Genet 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Springerplus 1 papers with 3 sentences.
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Toxicon 1 papers with 3 sentences.
Mol Neurobiol 1 papers with 1 sentences.
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J Membr Biol 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1 papers with 2 sentences.
J Dairy Sci 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Plant J 1 papers with 4 sentences.
Microbes Infect 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Cancer Biol Ther 1 papers with 1 sentences.
J Invertebr Pathol 1 papers with 1 sentences.
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Phytomedicine 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Neurosci Res Suppl 1 papers with 2 sentences.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys 1 papers with 2 sentences.
Limnol Oceanogr 1 papers with 3 sentences.
Vaccine 1 papers with 5 sentences.
Arch Pharm _ORB_ Weinheim _CRB_ 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Int J Med Microbiol 1 papers with 8 sentences.
Mol Hum Reprod 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Journal of Cell Biology 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Chem Res Toxicol 1 papers with 1 sentences.
J Proteomics 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Environ Toxicol 1 papers with 3 sentences.
Biomedicine _ORB_ Taipei _CRB_ 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Eur J Med Chem 1 papers with 1 sentences.
J Cell Commun Signal 1 papers with 2 sentences.
J Huntingtons Dis 1 papers with 2 sentences.
Phys Rev Lett 1 papers with 1 sentences.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1 papers with 3 sentences.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Microbiol Res 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Blood Cells Mol Dis 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 1 papers with 3 sentences.
Cell Div 1 papers with 8 sentences.
Biomed Chromatogr 1 papers with 1 sentences.
J Comp Physiol B 1 papers with 1 sentences.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1 papers with 3 sentences.
Biol Sci Space 1 papers with 1 sentences.
MBio 1 papers with 3 sentences.
Nutr Metab _ORB_ Lond _CRB_ 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 1 papers with 2 sentences.
Plant Cell 1 papers with 10 sentences.
Biotechnol J 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Eur Biophys J 1 papers with 3 sentences.
Arch Pharm Res 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Braz J Med Biol Res 1 papers with 2 sentences.
Mycopathologia 1 papers with 5 sentences.
Aging Dis 1 papers with 2 sentences.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 1 papers with 3 sentences.
Front Aging Neurosci 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Canadian Journal of Botany 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Leuk Res 1 papers with 3 sentences.
Indian J Microbiol 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Microsc Res Tech 1 papers with 1 sentences.
J Environ Monit 1 papers with 2 sentences.
Can J Genet Cytol 1 papers with 2 sentences.
Biol Reprod 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Microbiologyopen 1 papers with 4 sentences.
Molecules 1 papers with 2 sentences.
Toxicol Rep 1 papers with 5 sentences.
Am J Trop Med Hyg 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Drug Discov Ther 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Eur J Cancer 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Banbury Report 1 papers with 5 sentences.
mSphere 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Hum Gene Ther 1 papers with 6 sentences.
Biochem Genet 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Protoplasma 1 papers with 2 sentences.
Front Synaptic Neurosci 1 papers with 2 sentences.
Mol Endocrinol 1 papers with 2 sentences.
J Med Food 1 papers with 3 sentences.
Nutrients 1 papers with 2 sentences.
J Mol Cell Cardiol 1 papers with 4 sentences.
Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 1 papers with 2 sentences.
Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Brain 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Int J Biochem Mol Biol 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Neurobiol Learn Mem 1 papers with 6 sentences.
Journal of Experimental Zoology 1 papers with 2 sentences.
Histochem J 1 papers with 3 sentences.
Beilstein J Org Chem 1 papers with 2 sentences.
Front Nutr 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Plant Cell Physiol 1 papers with 3 sentences.
Biol Psychiatry 1 papers with 2 sentences.
Korean J Genet 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Pediatr Res 1 papers with 3 sentences.
Int J Nanomedicine 1 papers with 2 sentences.
Water Environ Res 1 papers with 2 sentences.
Mol Reprod Dev 1 papers with 3 sentences.
Opt Express 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Res Rep Trop Med 1 papers with 1 sentences.
J Pineal Res 1 papers with 3 sentences.
Prion 1 papers with 6 sentences.
Front Behav Neurosci 1 papers with 1 sentences.
IEEE Trans Nanobioscience 1 papers with 1 sentences.
J Mater Chem 1 papers with 1 sentences.
BMC Physiol 1 papers with 2 sentences.
Int J Mol Med 1 papers with 8 sentences.
Translation _ORB_ Austin _CRB_ 1 papers with 5 sentences.
Psychopharmacol Bull 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Genet Anal 1 papers with 2 sentences.
FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 1 papers with 4 sentences.
Comp Biochem Physiol C Pharmacol Toxicol Endocrinol 1 papers with 2 sentences.
J Immunol Methods 1 papers with 2 sentences.
Cell Biol Int 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Analyst 1 papers with 2 sentences.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol 1 papers with 1 sentences.
J Biomed Sci 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Network 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Amino Acids 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Silence 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Front Neuroanat 1 papers with 3 sentences.
Mol Cell Biol Res Commun 1 papers with 5 sentences.
Front Comput Neurosci 1 papers with 1 sentences.
Small Gtpases 1 papers with 2 sentences.
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Genetics 515 papers with 2299 sentences.
PaperID WBPaper00000082 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : In support , similar response defects for the other compounds avoided by wild type have been observed in all the mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000393 SentenceID s140 SENTENCE : The shifted plates were also scored for unfertilized oocyte production which followed the inverse of progeny production ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000393 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : In addition , quantitative accumulation assays agreed with the tracking results ( data not shown ) . it had normal chemotaxis , as shown in Figure lb .
PaperID WBPaper00000393 SentenceID s250 SENTENCE : Large variation and reduced sperm number is found with wild-type males in the presence of hermaphrodites as well ( data not shown ) , indicating that varying numbers of sperm have been transferred to hermaphrodites during mating .
PaperID WBPaper00000486 SentenceID s145 SENTENCE : Both suppressors also suppress r2200 ( data not shown ) , so that they appear to be allele nonspecific , and an allele of sup-9 was found among four EMS-induced revertants of n200 ( Table 3 legend ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000486 SentenceID s147 SENTENCE : This genotype was confirmed by showing suppressor activity and by complementation testing ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000486 SentenceID s182 SENTENCE : We also showed that Df ( sup-9 ) / + , like sup-9 / + , does not suppress e1500 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000514 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : Strains GG192 , GG193 , GG193 * and GG195 gave results very close to those for GG201 and GGIW ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000515 SentenceID s138 SENTENCE : Slight degradation of the original starting material complicates the gel pattern somewhat , but all major peptides found in wild-type paramyosin are also present in the unc-15 ( e1214 ) ; sup3 ( st5 ) paramyosin ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000515 SentenceID s166 SENTENCE : Further , paramyosin levels are nearly two-fold greater in unc-15 ( e1214 ) ; sup-7 ( st5 ) animals grown at 15 " as compared to 25 " ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000564 SentenceID s42 SENTENCE : Mapping dominmt suppressors of unc-93 ( e1500 ) : The reference allele sup-ll ( n403 ) was shown to be autosomal , linked t o dpy-5 I ( approximate recombination frequency p = 8 % ) and unlinked to the markers dpy-IO I I , unc-93 ( e1500 ) I I I , dpy-13 IV and dpy-11 V ; the other dominant suppressor mutations were also found to be linked to dpy-5 I ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000565 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : Although we found that the most severe allele of flu-2 was not gamma-radiation hypersensitive ( data not shown ) , we irradiated zygotes that were less than 2 hr old , whereas BHAT and BABUirradiated animals that were up to 26 hr old .
PaperID WBPaper00000608 SentenceID s160 SENTENCE : Three-factor crosses have also been carried out with some of the mutants , allowing them to be placed more precisely on the current genetic map ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000635 SentenceID s162 SENTENCE : Mutants in categories A and B failed to lay eggs in response to levamisole and to phentolamine ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000635 SentenceID s220 SENTENCE : egl-2 animals appear to be hypersensitive to imipramine : bloated animals respond more quickly than do wild-type animals or bloated animals of other egl genotypes ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000635 SentenceID s221 SENTENCE : Both bloated and unbloated egl-2 animals are sensitive to imipramine , resistant to serotonin and variably responsive to phentolamine ; unbloated animals fail to respond to levamisole , whereas bloated animals respond well ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000635 SentenceID s75 SENTENCE : In addition , for many of the mutants that released progeny , individuals varied with respect to the earliest stage of progeny observed on the plate ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000675 SentenceID s110 SENTENCE : In addition , the presence of acetyl-coA during the incubation at 22 " had almost no effect on the inactivation kinetics of the mutant enzyme , although it significantly improved the stability of the wild-type enzyme ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000675 SentenceID s180 SENTENCE : However , preliminary ChAT assays of a number of unc-17 mutants indicated no ChAT deficiency ( data not shown ) , and preliminary complementation results indicated that the rho-1 alleles b401 and p l 1 5 2 each complemented the unc-17 allele e245 for coordinated locomotion .
PaperID WBPaper00000675 SentenceID s198 SENTENCE : and e876 , lead to ChAT levels at least half those of wild type ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000675 SentenceID s66 SENTENCE : fraction ChAT activity is presented as fractional conversion , i . . , the fraction of the choline initially present that was converted to acetylcholine , with blank subtracted ( RAND JOHNSON 1981 ) . and When this assay is used , enzymatic activity is linear with the number of animals assayed ( as long as they are synchronous ; see Figure 1 ) and with time to at least 20 hr ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000727 SentenceID s109 SENTENCE : chromosome Similar results were obtained using unc-43 ( e408 ) as the Bristol chromosome marker which is only 1 . 1 map units from unc-22 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000732 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : Most spontaneous unc-54 mutations ( 50 of 65 ) exhibit no detectable abnormalities in these experiments ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000733 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : , and rad-7 inactivation were similar to those reported previously , Those mutants not tested at 0 hr , i . . , those bearing the rad-2 mutation , were UV irradiated 4 hr after egg collection ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000733 SentenceID s42 SENTENCE : The UV-radiation sensitivities were also determined at 24 hr after egg collection for the five multiple mutants for which synergistic interactions were observed previously ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000733 SentenceID s54 SENTENCE : Animals were placed on MMS-containing agar medium as eggs and subsequently scored for stage of arrest . trations of MMS and scored for the terminal stage of development ( Figure 2 ; and HERMAN1982a ) , developmental data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000733 SentenceID s59 SENTENCE : The mutants were also examined by placing L4 larvae on plates containing various concentrations of MMS and scoring their progeny for predominant stage of developmental arrest . Both rad-2 and rad-3 mutants , but not rad-1 and rad-7 , were significantly hypersensitive ( Figure 3 ; data not shown ) which is consistent with previously reported results ( HARTMAN HERMAN and 1982a ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000733 SentenceID s60 SENTENCE : All six double mutants , as well as the quadruple rad mutant , were similarly tested ( Figure 3 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000733 SentenceID s68 SENTENCE : The six double rad mutants and the quadruple rad mutant were also 7irradiated ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000862 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : Other enzymes such as a- and pglucosidase , a- and P-galactosidase and a-fucosidase were fully active in all the extracts ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000862 SentenceID s85 SENTENCE : We also have compared pH dependence of the activity , affinities for substrate and inhibitors , native molecular weights , isoelectric points and chromatographic behaviors of the four enzymes and have not detected any clear differences ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000898 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : One class of revertant that was obtained comprises mutations that are tightly linked ( within 0 . 2 % ; data not shown ) to n983 ; these linked revertants , here represented as n983-rev , appear to be null alleles of sup-10 by two criteria .
PaperID WBPaper00000898 SentenceID s21 SENTENCE : sup-18 map data : Two-factor ( data not shown ) and three-factor crosses established that sup-18 is a new locus on LG 111 .
PaperID WBPaper00000898 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : The n983 mutation , like sup-10 , is linked to lin-15 X ( within 0 . 5 % ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000914 SentenceID s142 SENTENCE : Mapping of new mutations and defining new genes Each new mutation was assigned to a linkage group ( data not shown ) and then mapped more precisely as described in MATERIALS AND METHODS .
PaperID WBPaper00000915 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : However , the vulval and uterine muscles that are required for egg laying ( TRENT , TSUNG and HORVITZ 1983 ) do not appear to be impaired in unc-105 mutants , because these animals lay eggs and the birefringency of the sex muscles as observed with polarized optics appears normal ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000922 SentenceID s440 SENTENCE : T h e results with X O aninials were uninformative ( data not shown ) , because so many animals ruptured before reaching adulthood .
PaperID WBPaper00000923 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : T h e fem3 ( e2018 ) mutation was shown to be allelic with fem-3 by its failure to complement fem3 ( e1950 ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000923 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : By this test , the dominant tra-2 alleles proved to be unlinked to tra-1 ( data not shown ) and linked to tra-2 .
PaperID WBPaper00000923 SentenceID s69 SENTENCE : Nevertheless , it is possible to rank the phenotypes of the trans heterozygotes in order of increasing somatic masculinization as follows : e2019 < e1941 < e1940 < e1939 < e2021 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000977 SentenceID s48 SENTENCE : This would explain my observation ( data not shown ) that animals that have undergone duplication loss at AB . pr or AB . pl tend , on average , to be more severely semi-Unc-3 than those that have undergone duplication loss one cell division later , i . . , the focus of unc3 ( + ) action appears to be distributed among the de- 385 scendants of both daughters of AB . pr and both daughters of AB . pl .
PaperID WBPaper00000987 SentenceID s109 SENTENCE : X-chromosome Also examined in these experiments was the effect of maternal X-chromosome number on dpy-26 suppression of Zin-l5 ( n767 ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000987 SentenceID s176 SENTENCE : T h e dpy-22 ( e652 ) mutations did not significantly affect fertility of Zin8 ( n11l ) ; Zin-9 ( n112 ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000987 SentenceID s53 SENTENCE : A second allele of dpy-21 , e459 , tested with lin-l5 ( n765 ) and lin-l5 ( n767 ) , gave levels o f suppression indistinguishable from those observed with dpy-21 ( e428 ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00000987 SentenceID s55 SENTENCE : T w o other class B lin-15 alleles , n743 and n744 , were also suppressed by dpy-21 ( e428 ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001002 SentenceID s128 SENTENCE : surface The antiserum also cross-reacted uniformly with t h e surface of live fourth stage larvae ( L4s ) ( Figure 1B ) a n d all other larval stages ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001002 SentenceID s199 SENTENCE : T h e adult-specific labeling pattern of strain DH424 was similar to that observed for PA-1 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001011 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : The enhancement was also seen in X O dpy21 ( e428 ) / dpy-21 ( e459 ) animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001011 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : dpy-27 ( y49 ) was by J . HODCKIN isolated as a suppressor of the XO-specific lethality of xoll ( y 9 ) ( L . MILLERand B . MEYER , unpublished observations ) . dpy-Z8 ( yl ) was isolated and characterized by J . PLENEFISCH and B . MEYER ( unpublished observations ) . s939 , a gift from was D . BAILLIE , shown to be an allele of dpy-28 by its failure and to complement dpy-28 ( yl ) ( J . PLENEFISCH B . MEYER , unpublished observations ) and by its map position between unc-32 ( e189 ) and vab-7 ( e1562 ) ( data not shown ) . dpy ( 1983a ) . y6 , a gift from 26 ( n199 ) is described in HODCKIN E . WOLINSKY , shown to be an allele of dpy-26 by its was failure to complement dpy-26 ( n199 ) and by its map position between unc-ZZ ( e66 ) and unc-30 ( el91 ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001018 SentenceID s256 SENTENCE : To compare the effect of sup22 ( st89 ) on e677 , e723 , e890 , m35 , 2 3 0 8and 2 3 0 9 , , we examined the mobilities of hermaphrodites that were homozygous for sup-Z2 ( st89 ) and one of these alleles ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001019 SentenceID s197 SENTENCE : At 25 " , 30 % were arrested during larval development , whereas 12 % were arrested when grown at 20 " ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001019 SentenceID s301 SENTENCE : chromosomal By these criteria , none of the above chromosomal markers were found to be linked tothe duplication ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001037 SentenceID s130 SENTENCE : Neither negative regulator of tru-2 and tru-3 , or alternatively , heterozygous tru-2 ( gf ) / + X 0 males derived from fog-2 could act independently and positively on the homozygous tru-2 ( gf ) mothers nor + / + X X hermafern genes and fog-I , rendering them insensitive to tru-2 ( gf ) / + motherswere phroditesderivedfrom the negative regulatory action of tru-2 and 3 ( see feminized ( data not shown ; DONIACH 1986a ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001037 SentenceID s144 SENTENCE : However , q122gf does increase the selfact independently , then the phenotype alltra-2 ( s f ) of fertility of q95gfat 15 " ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001037 SentenceID s227 SENTENCE : Essentially identical germ-line and somatic phenotypes were also observed when comparing a marked tru-3 , unc-30 tru-3 m ( - i - ) , z ( - / - ) with or without fog-2 ( q71 ) [ data not shown ] . fem-jfgf ) ; fog-2 double mutant construction : Gain-offunction fem-3 mutants are self-fertile at 15 ' and Mog at 25 " .
PaperID WBPaper00001040 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : The growth of unc-22 ( s7 ) urn31 ( e169 ) individuals follows the same curve as for unc22 ( s7 ) individuals at 20 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001040 SentenceID s54 SENTENCE : - . press recombination ( data not shown ) and by the lack ofvulvaless progeny from the Unc recombinants .
PaperID WBPaper00001040 SentenceID s60 SENTENCE : An approximate two-factor map distance from unc-22 was determinedfor each of these lethal mutations ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001040 SentenceID s66 SENTENCE : A comparison of the density of lethal mutations recovered in the " nT1 screen " between h f - 1 4 and lev-1 shows that lethal mutations are clustered to the left of unc-22 relative to the region to the right ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001040 SentenceID s73 SENTENCE : The inter se complementation tests ( data not shown ) show that 11 more essential genes ( in addition to Zin-3 ; see below ) have been identified in the sDj2 region since ROGALSKI and BAILLIE 1985 .
PaperID WBPaper00001042 SentenceID s187 SENTENCE : Clearly , an mnDp25 ; unc-3 homozygote and an stDp21 ; dpy-7 ( e88 ) heterozygote have much higher levels of ace-1 activity than does wild type , or than do unc3 and dpy-7 which are not different from wild type ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001072 SentenceID s146 SENTENCE : These weak bandsdo not cross-hybridize to a probe consisting of the vector only ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001072 SentenceID s82 SENTENCE : Mapping of mut-4 mutator activity in RW7037 : A further backcross of the RW7037 strain to N2 , with RW7037 isolation of hybridstrains , indicatedthat might have mutator activity restricted to a single region ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001075 SentenceID s115 SENTENCE : This oocyte phenotype appears to be duetothe presence of spe-11 sperm because we have occasionally observed hermaphrodites that lack sperm in one of the gonadal arms ( this phenomenon alsooccasionally occurs in wild-type hermaphrodites ; unpublished observations ) , and the oocytes formed by the spermless arm remain as single cells , but become polyploid like most other spe mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001075 SentenceID s118 SENTENCE : Unmated spe-I 1 males accumulate spermatids that are cytologicallywildtype and canbe induced by pronase treatment to differentiate in vitro into spermatozoa that propel themselves across the substrate normally ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001075 SentenceID s122 SENTENCE : Electron microscopic analysis ofunmatedspe-13malesreveals no obviouscytological defects in spermatocytes or spermatids ( data not shown ) . spe-I3 malesgrown at 25 " are apparently infertile , even though their spermatozoa appear cytologically normal , since they fail to sire progeny in mating experiments ( 80 spe-I3 him-5 males tested ; 20 attempted crossesof four males to one dpy-5 hermaphrodite at 25 " ) . spe-I3 hermaphrodites are completely self-sterileat 25 " and weakly self-fertile at 16 " ( Table 4 ) . spe-I3 hermaphrodites grown at 25 " produce spermatozoa that cancrawlin the spermatheca but are rapidly swept out into the uterus by passing oocytes and are eventually lost ( Table 4 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001075 SentenceID s142 SENTENCE : spe-15 males produce large numbers of spermatidsthat activate in vitro after pronase treatment to form spermatozoa that are cytologically indistinguishable from wild type ( data not shown ) . fer-l ( hclts , hclhs , hc24ts , hc82ts , hc9lts , hc47 , hc80 , hc136 , b232ts ) fer-1 has been studied in detail previously ( WARD and MIWA 1978 ; ARGONand WARD 1980 ; WARD , ARGONand NELSON l ) , and only 198 new information will be discussed .
PaperID WBPaper00001075 SentenceID s162 SENTENCE : Electron microscopic examination of ferl ( h c l ) / n D f 2 3 spermatozoa isolated from males raised under restrictive growth conditions ( data not shown ) 446 S . W . LHernault , D . C . Shakes and S . Ward PO + F 1 tra- 1 eDp6 F2 X unc-73 dpy-5 t spe t + nonUnc unc-13 dpy-5 t r e - 1 I ( only if spe tra males are fertile ) F3 unc- 73 + unc-73 dpy-5 t r a - 7 rc Uric Y t spe t + nonUnc unc-13 dpy-5 t r a - 1 FIGURE 6 .
PaperID WBPaper00001075 SentenceID s178 SENTENCE : We have 198 foundthat , in additionto male-sterility , the fer-6 strains characterized previously ( ARGON WARD and 1980 ; WARD , ARGON and NELSON 1981 ) are temperature sensitive for uncoordinated movement , and have a growth rate that is retarded by 1 day at 25 with respect to wild type ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001075 SentenceID s51 SENTENCE : process In contrast , spe-4 males produce a few cells that appear to be in the process of completing meiosis but fail to produce any spermatids ( Figure 3b ) ; spe-4 / sDf6 males exhibit the same phenotype ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001075 SentenceID s54 SENTENCE : nuclei The total numberof haploid nuclei visualized ina DAPI stained spe-4 male is similar to the number observed in a wild-type male ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001075 SentenceID s56 SENTENCE : nuclei Some apparently haploid sperm nuclei appear in L4 spe-4 larvae during the normal time of spermatogenesis ( data not shown ) , but they must be lost or resorbed because no sperm or haploid nuclei are observed after DAPI staining of the adult reproductivetract of hermaphrodites ( Figure 4a ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001075 SentenceID s71 SENTENCE : L I nDf23 I whole mounts of spe-5 males ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001075 SentenceID s74 SENTENCE : nuclei Some apparently haploid sperm nuclei appear in L4 larvae during the normal time of spermatogenesis , but they must be resorbed or lostbecause few , any , sperm or haploid nuclei observed if are after DAPI staining of the reproductive tract of young adult hermaphrodites ( data not shown , but similar to spe-4 in Figure 4a ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001075 SentenceID s79 SENTENCE : The spe-8 gene is presently defined by seven nonconditional alleles . spe8 mutant hermaphrodites are completely self-sterile , with the exception of hc134ts hermaphrodites , which produce a few progeny at 16 " ( Table 4 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001075 SentenceID s80 SENTENCE : There is one allele of spe-12 , and mutant spe12 hermaphrodites rarely produce any young ( Table 4 ) ; this is also true for spe-I2 / nDf24 hermaphrodites ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001075 SentenceID s87 SENTENCE : FI heterozygotes of genotype spelab will segregate A nonin vitro following pronase treatment to give cytologiB and B non-A FP recombinants , which were picked and scored for cally normal , crawling spermatozoa ( data not shown ) . expression of a Spe phenotype 114 of the Fa self-progeny . in spe-9 ( hc88ts ) males are apparently infertile at restricTABLE 3 tive temperatures ; eight matings of four spe-9 ( hc88ts ) males and onedpy-5 hermaphrodite failed to yield any Deficiency and duplication mappingof spe genes " outcross progeny .
PaperID WBPaper00001075 SentenceID s88 SENTENCE : spe-9 hermaphrodites ( either spe-9 Gene sDp2 hDf6 sDf4 SOP sDf6 nDf25 nDf24 nDf23 eDf3 eDf6 allele ) , raised under restrictive conditions , contain spermatozoa that are motile in the spermatheca and spe-4 + + o + + spe-5 0 + 0 crawl in vitro ( data not shown ) , but are slowly swept spe-8 0 out of the spermatheca by passing oocytes ( Table 5 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001075 SentenceID s92 SENTENCE : Unmated males bearing spe-12 ( either larval period , when spermatogenesis occurs in the spe-12 / spe-I2 or spe-I2 / nDf 24 ; data not shown ) or wild-type hermaphrodite ( HIRSH , OPPENHEIM and any of the fourspe-8 alleles , hc40 , hc50 , hc79 hcl08 , or KLASS 1976 ) . accumulate normal looking spermatids in normal spe-11 ( hc77ts , hc90 ) -Hermaphrodites bearing the numbers .
PaperID WBPaper00001110 SentenceID s125 SENTENCE : This was not observed probably because of the slow development of these hyperploid males , even when compared to their hyperploid hermaphrodite sisters ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001110 SentenceID s194 SENTENCE : The translocation hTl ( I ; V ) ( MATERIALS AND METHODS ) suppresses recombination in the intervals between unc-60 and dpy-ll ( V ) and let-362 and unc-l3 ( Z ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001115 SentenceID s171 SENTENCE : Construction of strains with dpy-29 ; mnDp37 and dpy28 ; yDpI : m n D p 3 7 is a free duplication of most of LG ZZZ , including wild-type copies ofdpy-I , dpy-27 , unc-36 , and dpy28 ( R . HERMAN and KARI , personal communication , and C . data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001115 SentenceID s257 SENTENCE : Similar results were obtained for dpy-27 , dpy-28 or dpy-29 m + z- animals grown at 15 O ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001115 SentenceID s63 SENTENCE : Genetic mappositions of dpy-28 and dpy-29 : dpy-28 ( y ) 1 was mapped to LG III on thebasis oflinkage to unc-32 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001115 SentenceID s67 SENTENCE : In addition , dpy-28 dpy-18 ; eDp6 animals have a Dpy-28 nonDpy-18 phenotype , whereas dpy-28dpy-l8 / eDf2 animals have a Dpy-18 non-Dpy-28 phenotype , indicating dpy-28 is to the left of the endpoints of both eDf2 and eDp6 . d p y - 2 9 ( 1 0 0was mapped to LG V on thebasis of linkage ) to unc-76 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001128 SentenceID s294 SENTENCE : Hybridization of 32P-labeled2 . 3-kb and 2 . 0kb EcoRI fragments derived from cosmid EEG4 to HindIII-digested DNAs from these strains results in disappearance of the normally 5 . 2-kb HindIII hybridization band in n407 strains ( Figures 6 and 7 ) and replacement of the 5 . 2-kb HindIII band with a 12-kb HindIII hybridization band in n360 strains ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001128 SentenceID s295 SENTENCE : Hybridization of the same probe to EcoRIdigested DNA isolated from a strain containing lin14 ( n360 ) results in no 2 . 3-kb EcoRI fragment hybridization band ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001128 SentenceID s296 SENTENCE : Using the same probe , a weak 2 . 8-kb EcoRI hybridization band replacing the normally 2 . 3-kb EcoRI hybridization band can be observed in DNA isolated from a strain containing Zin14 ( n407 ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001128 SentenceID s314 SENTENCE : These data mapped the lin-14 intragenic recombination point to a 27-kb region cloned on cosmid EEG4 . left of the 2 . 3-kb EcoRI fragment lin-14 ( n360 ) DNA alteration ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001128 SentenceID s318 SENTENCE : The n536sd mutation , isolated after EMS mutagenesis ( AMBROS and HORVITZ 1984 ) , is associated with a simple deletion of about 600 bp from the 3 . 8- EcoRI ( right ) fragment . kb Digestion of DNA isolated from strains bearing the n536sd mutation with the restriction enzymes BglII , HzndIII , EcoRI , or XhoI results in a fragment about 600 bp shorter than that fromwild type on Southern blot analysis using 32P-labeled 3 . 8-kb EcoRI ( right ) fragment probe ( Figures 6 and 7 , data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001128 SentenceID s320 SENTENCE : Using 32P-labeled 3 . 8-kb EcoRI ( right ) fragmentprobe , DNA isolated fromstrains containing n355 and analyzed on Southern blots yielded the following DNA alterations : digestion with Hind111 results in a 9-kb ratherthan 6 . 2-kb band ( Figure6 ) , digestion with EcoRI results in a IO-kb rather than 3 . 8-kb band ( data not shown ) , and digestion with BglII results in a 7 . 3-kb rather than 7 . 6-kb band ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001128 SentenceID s347 SENTENCE : Two major mRNA species , one of about 7 kb ( data not shown ) and one of 3 . 5 kb were detected using this probe ( Figure 8 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001128 SentenceID s350 SENTENCE : No other probes from the 45kb region shown in Figure 7 detectedthe 3 . 5-kb transcript ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001128 SentenceID s375 SENTENCE : All cosmid EEG4BglII restriction fragments ( data not shown ) and EcoRI fragments 2 . 3 kb , 3 . 8 kb ( left ) , 1 . 9 kb , and 3 . 8 kb ( right ) were tested .
PaperID WBPaper00001128 SentenceID s386 SENTENCE : We have not determined the effects of the n360 or n407 mutations on the 3 . 5-kb lin-14 transcript . probes as the wild-type lin-14 mRNA , they , at least grossly , contain similar sequences 5 ' to the dominant mutations ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001128 SentenceID s83 SENTENCE : The cloned restriction fragments hybridized to the Bristol non-Tcl-containing alleles ofthese RFLPs in all of these recombinants , and to the 1 . 6-kb larger Bergerac alleles in the Lin-14 ( + Berg ) strain ( data not shown ) , showing that these fragments map to the lin-14 region .
PaperID WBPaper00001128 SentenceID s92 SENTENCE : Using cosmid probes HHG9 , C15G3 and C03B2 from the nP3 region , cosmid probes C02H8 and C12B3 from the nP13 region , and cosmid probe C10B6 from the nP8 region ( data not shown ) , no changes in hybridization pattern were observed on Southern blots of EcoRI-digested or HindIII-digested DNAs isolated from the strains containing Lin-14 alleles .
PaperID WBPaper00001133 SentenceID s253 SENTENCE : The neuroblast Q L and its descendants occasionally migrate anteriorly in egl-5 animals ( data not shown ) , whereas these cells migrate posteriorly in the wild type ( SULSTON and HORVITZ1977 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001133 SentenceID s283 SENTENCE : In egl-41 hermaphrodites raised at 15 " , the Pn . p cells give rise to extra descendants 35 % of the time ( Figure 3 ) and fewer descendants 11 % of the time ( data not shown ) ( N = 101 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001154 SentenceID s12 SENTENCE : T h e kinetics of cyclobutane dimer removal were corroborated in wild-type first-stage larvae ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001154 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : While the induction ratio of ( 6-4 ) photoproducts m . cyclobutane dimers did not change , the total number of induced photoproducts declined throughout development ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001171 SentenceID s201 SENTENCE : Similar masculinization is seen in X X animals homozygous for the sdc2 alleles y 4 0 , y 4 4 , y 5 4 y 8 5 , and weaker phenotypes and are apparentin y93ts animals at 25 , where only 14 % of the animals are visibly masculinized ( Table 4 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001171 SentenceID s49 SENTENCE : 21 / 21 Dpy-6 nondead recombinants gave lin-14 progeny , indicating that sdc-2 is close to ( or to the left of ) lin-14 . f Threefactor mapping o sdc-2 using the xol-1 suppression phenotype : All known mutant alleles of sdc-2 act as suppressors of the XO-specific lethality of xol-1 mutations [ MILLER et al . ( 1988 ) and data not shown ] .
PaperID WBPaper00001192 SentenceID s120 SENTENCE : A different dpy mutation , the hypomorphic allele dpy-ll ( e224 ) , is also weakly but significantly suppressed by smg-4 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001208 SentenceID s251 SENTENCE : Somatic suppression by q95gfwas also observed fortra-l ( ql83gf ) X 0 animals which have a wild-type male tail in the homozygous double mutant ( data not shown ) rather than the incomplete male tail of the qZ83gf single mutant ( Table 3 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001208 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : soma T h e new mutations were shown to be tra-Z alleles by failure to complement the masculinized nongonadal soma phenotype of canonical tra-1 alleles ( e1099 and / or e1781 ) and by three factor mapping with respect to unc-32 and dpy18 ( tra-I maps between unc-32 and dpy-18 ; HODCKIN al . et 1988 ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001208 SentenceID s63 SENTENCE : soma When e1076 is placed in trans to a tra-1 deficiency ( Table lA ) , or in trans to t r a - l ( l f ) alleles e1781 or e1099 ( data not shown ; HODCKIN 1987 ) , the nongonadal soma is further masculinized so that thetail is almost fully male .
PaperID WBPaper00001208 SentenceID s91 SENTENCE : With a smaller tra-1 deficiency ( e1855 , J . HODGKIN , personal communication ) , similar results were obtained ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001256 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : T h e cycle period of the wild type was found to differ less than 10 % over the temperature range by from 20 " to 25 " ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001256 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : In addition , duringobservations of both N2 and osm-5 mutant strains , animalswereobserved to spontaneously leave the bacterial lawn long enough to confirm a dramatic lengthening of the cycle period ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001256 SentenceID s276 SENTENCE : ) osm-5 ( p813 ) eat-Z ( ad465 ) unc-89 ( e2338 ) + + + + + 14 . 3 0 . 5 12 . 7 1 . 4 14 . 3 1 . 3 10 . 7 10 10 . 1 81 56 85 49 69 48 71 94 13 5 10 5 10 Touch to the tail may also reset the clock in a similar way , but less reliably ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001256 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : T h e map data are mostly from Tables 1 and 2 , but some data for unc-16 , unc-25 and unc-47 , and all of the data for unc-101 , unc-33 , unc-44 and cha-1 were obtained from the Caenorhabditis Genetics Center , Columbia , Missouri ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001270 SentenceID s173 SENTENCE : These fog-l / + ; tra double mutants have the same germ-line phenotype seen in fog-l / + heterozygotes ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001270 SentenceID s191 SENTENCE : Consistent with its lack of semidominance in males , qDf3 , is not a dominant suppressorof fem-3 ( gf ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001270 SentenceID s21 SENTENCE : We have examinedfog-1 and fog-I / + males by Nomarski microscopy and find that they possess a normal male somatic gonad and copulatory apparatus ( male tail ) and no sign of vulva formation ( Figure 2 , C and D , and Figure 4 , and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001274 SentenceID s119 SENTENCE : Gastrulation takes place between 100 and 300 min ; most cell proliferation ceases shortly thereafter , andmorphogenesis begins ( for further details see SULSTON al . 1983 ; WOOD 1988 ) . et let-354 ( ct42 , ct76 , ct77 ) : Self-progeny embryos from M / + hermaphrodites showed similar defects in both mitosis and cytokinesis duringthe early cleavages ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001274 SentenceID s208 SENTENCE : The TSP for larval arrest gradually ended by the beginning of morphogenesis ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001274 SentenceID s25 SENTENCE : When ct42 , ct76or ct77 / males were crossed to hermaphrodites carrying letthe 3 5 4 ( h 7 9 ) ( see MATERIALS AND METHODS ) , resulting Mllet-354 animals showed larval arrest , butunlike M / Dfanimals produced in similar crosses , fewer than 5 % grew to the L4 stage ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001274 SentenceID s266 SENTENCE : ' effect lethality have been isolated , and these also suppress the Vab phenotype ( P . E . MAINS et al . , in preparation ) . ct60 also shows a dominant Him phenotype resulting in 4 % male self progeny at 15 " ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001274 SentenceID s273 SENTENCE : They failed to complement one another for the recessive zygotic lethality and also failed to complement the previously identified recessive lethal let-354 ( h79 ) ( data not shown ) as described more fully in a subsequent section .
PaperID WBPaper00001274 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : This was also true of 29 / 29 animals reared at 14 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001274 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : The brood sizes of + / + / + hermaphrodites for both duplications was reduced by about * h compared to + / + at 25 " ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001274 SentenceID s52 SENTENCE : However , a second larger , overlapping deficiency , nDf24 , which does uncover a flanking marker on the left , yielded the same results ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001274 SentenceID s58 SENTENCE : The same is true for asecond deficiency ( eDfl9 ) gave similar results ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001274 SentenceID s58 SENTENCE : This result represents nearly complete rescue , because about 10 % of the embryos from these hermaphrodites should be homozygous for ct45 and lacking the free duplication ( 40 % of the progeny of mnDp37-bearing hermaphrodites did not inherit the duplication ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001274 SentenceID s61 SENTENCE : ) However , sDf2 IV , which does not cover ct59 , showed no decrease in viability relative to ct5Y / + beyond the expected 25 % when heterozygous with c159 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001274 SentenceID s67 SENTENCE : This is unlikely , since a second deficiency , nDf24 , which removes a region overlapping nDf23 , behaved similarly to nDf23 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001274 SentenceID s68 SENTENCE : In addition , ct62 / + I ; eDfl8 / + IV showed no nonspecific decrease ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001305 SentenceID s69 SENTENCE : Quantitative analysis of several of the outcrosses ( data not shown ) verifies that ges-I ( + ) activity behaves , as expected , as a simple dominant characteristic .
PaperID WBPaper00001328 SentenceID s152 SENTENCE : body Furthermore , the body morphology phenotypes of all such mutations ( dpy-13 , dpy-24 , rol-I and vub-10 ) were complemented by the corresponding ram gene mutations ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001353 SentenceID s104 SENTENCE : ditional , recessive , maternal-effect lethality ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001353 SentenceID s116 SENTENCE : Like the class 1 suppressors , the homozygous mutationsresulted in nonconditional maternal-effect lethality ( line 3 ) and class 2 suppressors failed to complement each other as well as the class 1 alleles for the maternaleffect lethal phenotype ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001353 SentenceID s125 SENTENCE : The suppressors in class 1 and 2 failed to complement mei-Z ( b284 ) for the recessive maternal-effect lethality ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001353 SentenceID s130 SENTENCE : It fully complemented class 1 and class 2 alleles as well as a deficiency for the region ( data not shown ) . ct103 is likely to be an allele of mei-I since it is tightly linked to ct46 ( it maps between the closest known markers that flank mei-2 ; see MATERIALS AND METHODS ) , and as shown below , it causes embryonic defects similar to the otheralleles .
PaperID WBPaper00001353 SentenceID s172 SENTENCE : Although the mei-1 alleles alone showed no dominant interactions with zyg-9 ( b244 ) , they did prevent enhancement of ct46 by b244 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001353 SentenceID s181 SENTENCE : There was no dominant suppression ( nor enhancement ) of zyg9 ( b244 ) by the mei-1 alleles ct46ct82 , ct81 and b284 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001353 SentenceID s187 SENTENCE : T h e expected levels of progeny viabilities were seen for hermaphrodites thatwere doubly-heterozygous for all pair-wise combinations of mei-1 ( b284 , ct46ct82 , ct46ct101 or ct46ct103 ) with mei-2 ( ct98 or ct102 ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001353 SentenceID s228 SENTENCE : These larvae were and Tables 3 and 4 , footnote c ) . not recovered to test for further growth , but other in Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy was used experiments , of embryosfromthesemutantsthat to visualize tubulin in early embryosfromhermahatched on plates at 25 " , > 90 % grew to adulthood phrodites homozygous for either a mei-1 allele ( ct46 , ( data not shown ) . ct46ct101 , ct46ct82 , or b284 ) , mei-2 ( ct102 ) or melAn indication of subtle meiotic abnormalities in mei26 ( ct61 ) ( Figure 3 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001353 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : There was little or no enhancement when zyg-9 ( 6244 ) was heterozygous , andthe synergistic effect was not seen at 15O , even when ct46 was homozygous ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001355 SentenceID s135 SENTENCE : ( 1 ) T h e lin-34 mutations dominantly suppress the dominant Vu1 phenotype of let-60 ( dn ) : let-60 ( dn ) / lin-34 animals show the weakly penetrant Muv phenotype of lin-34 / + rather than the phenotype of let-6O ( dn ) / Vu1 Specifically , between 5 % and 20 % of animals of genotypes lin-34 ( n1046 ) or lin-34 ( sy130 ) in trans to each of six let-60 ( dn ) alleles are Muv ( the remaining 80-95 % are wild type , data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001404 SentenceID s106 SENTENCE : T h e allele syl has 100 % wild-type P12 even from a homozygous syl mother ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001406 SentenceID s192 SENTENCE : nuclei inAB , ABp , ABpl or ABpr display apittedappearance instead of the characteristic Ncl phenotype in let ( ar51 ) nuclei ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001406 SentenceID s76 SENTENCE : Although this focus is common , ar48 is unusual in that mutant embryosdie in early embryogenesis , at the comma to two fold stage ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001437 SentenceID s56 SENTENCE : + e2220 pha-1 dpy-18 unc-32 + + tra-1 + + Unc non-Tra + + + unc-32 + + + dpy-I8 unc-32 + + tra I + or unc-32 e2220 # ha-1 unc-32 tra-l + unc-32 + pha-1 dpy-18 nc-32 tra-I + 2 + + + + + dpy-18 } 44 " + e2221 pha-1 + dpy-18 unc-32 + + tra-l + Unc non-Tra unc-32 + pha-1 + dpy-18 unc-32 tra-l + unc-32 dpy-18 unc-32 tra-I + or unc-32 e2221 pha-1 unc-32 + + tra-l + 1 + + + + + + dpy-18 } } 11 " Dpy nonUnc unc-32 + e2220 pha-1 dpy-18 + vab-7 + + + vab-7 + pha-1 dpy-18 unc-32 + e2220 pha-1 dpy-18 + 3 344 All others Unc nonTraand no Vab progeny unc-32 pha-1 unc-32 + + + tra-1 + vab-7 tI013 pha-1 unc-32 + + + tra-1 + + + + 2 unc-32 unc-32 + + + tra-1 or unc-32 t1013 pha-I unc-32 + + + tra-1 + + + + + + 22 " ND 2 36 58 + vab-7 t1013 pha-1 + + unc-32 + + + fer-2 dpy-18 Dpy nonUnc + vab-7 t l O l 3 pha-1 + dpy-18 unc-32 + + + fer-2 dpy-I8 + vab-7 t1013 pha-1 fer-2 dpy-18 unc-32 + + + fer-2 dpy-18 + vab-7 t1013 + fer-2 dpy-18 unc-32 + + + fer-2 dpy-18 or + vab-7 + + ver-2 dpy-18 unc-32 + + + fer-2 dpy-18 + + + fer-2 dpy-18 unc-32 + + + fer-2 dbv-18 151 Genotypes that could not be distinguished were counted together the 77 recombinants that were pha-I ( + ) ( data not shown ) , suggesting that these 15 indeed carried sup-35 ( tlOl3 ) and providing further evidence that sup-35 homozygotes are viablewithoutanyvisible phenotype .
PaperID WBPaper00001438 SentenceID s121 SENTENCE : The locations of these corpses vary somewhat , and are drawn based upon ( 1 ) the anatomy of the pharynx ( ALBERTSON THOMSON and 1976 ) , ( 2 ) cell lineage of the pharynx the ( SULSTON al . 1983 ) and ( 3 ) our obseret vations of ced mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001438 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : The mutation ced-5 ( n1812 ) was mapped to linkage group ZV by linkage to unc-5 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001438 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : The mutation ced-6 ( n1813 ) was mapped to linkage group Z l Z by linkage to unc-32 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001438 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : The mutation ced-7 ( n1892 ) was mapped to linkage group 1 1 by linkage to unc-32 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001438 SentenceID s43 SENTENCE : X chromosome, chromosome The mutation ced-8 ( nl891 ) was mapped to the X chromosome because it showed sex-linkage ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001438 SentenceID s48 SENTENCE : The mutation ced-lO ( nl993 ) was mapped to linkage group IV by linkage to unc-5 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001438 SentenceID s63 SENTENCE : We also tested mutations in each new gene for complementation with mutations in nearby genes { data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001438 SentenceID s66 SENTENCE : All eggs produced by self-fertiliwtion from cedlced hermaphrodites appear mutant ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001439 SentenceID s146 SENTENCE : Similar results were obtained with other lethal alleles ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001477 SentenceID s71 SENTENCE : P granules, granule, granules In a small number of animals , no P granule staining detectable ( Figure40 ; these was animals costained with an antibody to a pharyngeal antigen ( data not shown ) , indicating that they were permeable to antibody and suggesting that P granules were not present .
PaperID WBPaper00001477 SentenceID s85 SENTENCE : granule They also show normal patterns of P granule staining ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001482 SentenceID s100 SENTENCE : In all cases , when a daf-c ; daf-d double mutant was dauer defective at restrictive temperature it was similarly dauer defective at permissive temperature ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001482 SentenceID s101 SENTENCE : With some interesting exceptions ( see below ) , when a duf-c ; daf-d double mutant was dauer constitutive at restrictive temperature , it was much less so or not at all at permissive temperature ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001482 SentenceID s40 SENTENCE : also fully dauer constitutive in phenotype ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001482 SentenceID s58 SENTENCE : We have also constructed the double mutants between three other daf-I 1 mutations ( m51 , m124 and m 1 2 9 4 ) and osm-l ( p808 ) and similarly find strong suppression of dauer constitutivity in each case ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001482 SentenceID s87 SENTENCE : Both triple mutants fail to form partial dauers ( data not shown ) , indicating that daf-12 blocks the induction of partial dauer formation in these mutants .
PaperID WBPaper00001516 SentenceID s209 SENTENCE : cytoplasmic These mutations , while resulting in a terminal phenotype similar to that of par-I or par-4 , appear to have no effects on cytoplasmic localization in early embryos , and do not map to any known par loci . it92 complements both par-1 and par-4 and maps near but to the left of par-1 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001516 SentenceID s346 SENTENCE : T h e ratio of egg length ( anterior diamidino-2-phenylindole DAPI and anti-tubulin to posterior ) to width is 1 . 36 in N2 ( n = 25 ) , 1 . 3 in staining of fixed early embryos ( KEMPHUESet al . 1988 dpy-21 ( n = 22 ) but averages 1 . 1 for dpy-21 par-4 ( it33 ) and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001563 SentenceID s69 SENTENCE : 1 eP64 ZZZ is present only inDP13 Tc ( see Figure 2 , LG ZZZ ) , and stPI28 V is present only in RW7000 ( STS stP128 failed to amplify from DP13 DNA , data not shown ) ; all of the other Tcls shown in Figure 1 have beendetected in both strains .
PaperID WBPaper00001576 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : These mutants also show ectopic binding of the lectin soybean agglutinin ( SBA ) , but not concanavalin A ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001576 SentenceID s344 SENTENCE : In contrast , srf4 ( ct109 ) appeared to have no effect on the recessive ( putative null ) Zin-12 allele n904 am , as lin-I2 ( n904am ) ; srf-4 ( ct109 ) animals had the characteristic vulvaless phenotype seen in Zin12 ( n904am ) animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001576 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : surface We have performed similar surface radiolabeling experiments with representative alleles of the six srfgenes , and found a protein of approximately 10 kD that strongly labels in wild-type animals and is missing or strongly diminished in these mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001576 SentenceID s75 SENTENCE : UnlikeZin-l2 ( n302 ) or srf " 4 ( ct109 ) males , Zin12 ( n302 ) ; srf-4 ( ct109 ) males ectopic have sensory hooks , indicative of P9 . p P 1 . p cells assumingthe and 1 Pl0 . p cell fate , as observed in strong dominant Zin-12 alleles ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001615 SentenceID s106 SENTENCE : body Heteroallelic class l / class 3 animals appeared nearly wild-type in size and ability to move , but muscle disorganization was consistently apparent when the body wall muscle cells were examined using polarized light microscopy ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001615 SentenceID s147 SENTENCE : Like a theirhermaphrodite siblings , the gonads of these males appeared variably abnormal when observed under Nomarski microscopy ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001615 SentenceID s40 SENTENCE : Mutants of genotype ra5 / + or ra14 / + are healthier and have larger brood sizes than homozygous mutant worms ( Table 3 ) , but still of unc-52 441 exhibit some gonad and muscle disorganization , and have a more severephenotypethan ra18 , ra20 or ra21 homozygous animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001615 SentenceID s80 SENTENCE : basement membrane, body, membrane In worms heteroallelic for a class 1 and a class 2 allele this defect was more severe , and in some worms the basement membrane , or the sheath cells surrounding the gonad appeared have disappeared to in places , allowing the oocytes to leak out into the body cavity of the worm ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001622 SentenceID s119 SENTENCE : , the three wild-type transcripts were found to differonly at their 5 ends ( data not shown ; see Figure 2 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001622 SentenceID s124 SENTENCE : Hybridization with single-stranded RNA probesonNorthern blots indicated that all three transcripts are transcribed from the same strand of unc-33 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001622 SentenceID s40 SENTENCE : When hybridized with Tc4 probe , Southern blots of genomicDNA extracted from N2 , TR679 , an outcrossed outcrossed unc-33 ( mn260 ) strain , and three revertant strains revealed novel Tc4-containing fragments in the unc-33 ( mn260 ) strain that were absent from all therevertant strains , the parental strain TR679 , and N2 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001622 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : The 0 . 6-kb EcoRI / SacIprobe detected a 1 . 7-kb DNA fi-agment in the mutant and a 4 . 2-kb fragment in the revertants , TR679 , and N2 when used to reprobe the stripped Southern blot of genomic DNA digested with EcoRI and PstI ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001622 SentenceID s49 SENTENCE : These results confirmed that the 3 . 8- and 1 . 7kb TcCcontaining fragments in unc-33 ( mn260 ) are derived from a single Tc4 insertion in the 4 . 2-kb EcoRI fragment ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001622 SentenceID s70 SENTENCE : Southern blot analysis of DNA from the unc33 ( rh1030 ) strain digested with SacI and hybridized with probes generated fromsix C . elegans transposons indicated that rh1030 was also caused by a Tc4 element inserted in the unc-33 region ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001622 SentenceID s77 SENTENCE : A SacI site was eliminated from the EMS-induced mutation unc-33 ( e572 ) , and a 0 . 5-kb sequencewas deleted in the y-ray-induced unc33 ( mn407 ) mutant ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001622 SentenceID s89 SENTENCE : Only the Tc4 probe revealed novel transposon-containing fragments in the unc-33 ( mn260 ) strain that were absent from all the revertant strains , the parental strain TR679 , and N2 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001669 SentenceID s62 SENTENCE : cytoplasm Although some of the testes examined had a few spermatids , immunofluorescence microscopy with anti-MSP antibodies and ultrastructural examination including immunogold labeling of MSP showed that , as in s p e d homozygotes , spe-6 ( hc4Y ) / + ; eDflY / + mutant spermatocytes fail to form the FBs , and the MSP was distributed througho u t the cytoplasm ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001686 SentenceID s171 SENTENCE : Of the other alleles , one , mn383 , two has a deletion of approximately 6 kb , and the other , mn384 ( a weak allele ) , has a 2-kb insertion ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001686 SentenceID s21 SENTENCE : Such an AUG is present in the intron 53 nucleotides upstream of the second exon , out of frame with respect to the predicted wild-type unc-7 reading frame , and this AUG was included in many of the mutant transcripts analyzed ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001686 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : We have noted and thatthe unc-7 alleles mn382 , wd2 , wd6 , wd7 and bx5 : : Tcl also suppress this hypersensitivity ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001686 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : LGX : lin-2 ( e1309 ) , unc-84 ( e1420 ) , unc-3 ( e151 ) , duf6 ( e1377 ) , osm-l ( p808 ) , sup-lO ( n983 , mn219 ) , mnDf124 ( a gamma-rayinduced recessive lethal that fails to complement both duf-6 and unc-7 and is missing unc-7 sequences , data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001708 SentenceID s105 SENTENCE : T h e masculinization caused by the sdc3 ( null ) / sdc-3 ( Tra ) configuration is specific to interactions between the sdc-3 ( null ) and sdc-3m1-a ) alleles , since sdc-3 ( y52Tra ) doesnot cause transdominant masculinization in combination with mutations in any of the other genes required for dosage compensation Feedback in Sex Determination in X X animals ( dpy-21 , dpy-26 , dpy-27 , dpy-28 , sdc-1 and sdc-2 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001708 SentenceID s106 SENTENCE : Moreover , mutations in other genes required for hermaphrodite sexual development ( tra-1 and tra-2 ) do not cause trans dominant masculinization in combination with sdc-3 ( null ) mutations ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001708 SentenceID s271 SENTENCE : Two copies cation ( MENEELY compensation dpy mutations to feminize sdc-3Rra ) of the duplication mnDplU ( which duplicates approx- Feedback in Sex Determination animals ; the lower the her-I dose , thegreaterthe suppression ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001708 SentenceID s53 SENTENCE : Genetic map position of sdc-3 ( Tra ) mutations : sdc3 ( y52Tra ) was mapped to LG V on the basis of linkage to dpy-11 and unc-42 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001708 SentenceID s71 SENTENCE : All of the sdc-3 ; xol-1 X 0 animals appear to be viable ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001709 SentenceID s345 SENTENCE : A peristaltic wave of posterior isthmus contraction occurs after some but not all pumps ( AVERY and HORVITZ 1987 ) . h e synchronization of the corT pus and terminal bulb is very robust ; it remains after the entire pharyngeal nervous system is killed ( AVERY and HORVITZ 1989 ) , in the presence of several drugs that affect feeding ( data not shown ) , in the presence of relaxation-defectivemutations ( below ) and even when the pharynx is dissected out of the worm ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001709 SentenceID s370 SENTENCE : Inthe most extreme cases pumps turned into yawns during which the entire pharynx : corpus , isthmus , and terminal bulb ; remained contracted ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001709 SentenceID s457 SENTENCE : A very similar effect is produced by killing the motor neuron M 3 [ AVERY ( 1993 ) and data not shown ] .
PaperID WBPaper00001710 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : Morphologically , the somatic gonad , germ line and tail are all normal , and no yolk is observed in the pseudocoelom ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001721 SentenceID s134 SENTENCE : Although we were unable to detect consistent effects in ct46ct82 / + animals ( Table 4 , line 4 , and data not shown ) , a slight increase in the relative proportionof ct46ct82 product to wild type ( using ct46ct82 / ct46ct82 / + strains ) dramatically reduced embryonic viability ( Table 4 , line 1 ; compare withlines2-5 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001721 SentenceID s148 SENTENCE : Two class 3 alleles , ct46sb18 and ct46ct103 , were different , displaying relatively good viability in trans to both wild type and strong trans-suppressors ( Figure 5 , lower right , and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001722 SentenceID s95 SENTENCE : chromosomes chromosomes ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001733 SentenceID s42 SENTENCE : Each appeared to carrya single recessive PUC mutation linked to 6Zi-2 ZI , and the three mutations failed to complement ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001733 SentenceID s66 SENTENCE : Also , unc-31 adult males were very active , and in fact difficult to distinguish from wild-typemales based ontheirbehavior , although they mate inefficiently or not at all ( HODGKIN al . et 1988 ; and our data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001733 SentenceID s84 SENTENCE : T h e unc-26 mutation we used , e205 , turned out to be fully suppressed by a single copy of sup-7 ( data not shown and H . ELLIS , personal communication ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001747 SentenceID s155 SENTENCE : chromosome The second source of pseudolinkage breakdown was recombination between chromosome I and hT2 III ( 4 Dpy-5 , all Unc-36 ; data not shown ) , a region normallv without recombination in hT2 heterozvgotes .
PaperID WBPaper00001747 SentenceID s156 SENTENCE : This . and other experiments giving similar results ( data not shown ) indicate that the crossover suppression in hT2 heterozygotes is not absolute . f Data from M .
PaperID WBPaper00001747 SentenceID s184 SENTENCE : Combining the data from all experiments with hT3 heterozygotes ( Table 2 and data not shown ) , eight Dpy-5 and 2049 wildtype progeny were recovered , for a distance between h916 and dpy-5 of 0 . 4 m . u .
PaperID WBPaper00001748 SentenceID s100 SENTENCE : Ethidium bromide-staining patterns , hybridization to sex-nonspecific probes and deliberate overexposure of autoradiograms all indicate that RNA loading in each sample lane was highly similar and that these RNAs are sex-specific ( data not shown ) . nucleotide male-specific mRNA , was localized within this region by selecting cDNAs created to poly ( A + ) mRNA .
PaperID WBPaper00001748 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : This nearly total sterility is associated with production of large numbers of oocytes ( Table 1 ) and both mutants could produce many progeny following mating to wild-type males ( data not shown ) , as is typical for spe mutants ( e . . , ARGON and WARD1980 ; SIGURDSON , SPANIER and HERMAN 1984 ; LHERNAULT , SHAKES and WARD1988 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001748 SentenceID s59 SENTENCE : Similar experiments were also performed with pSL3 , pSL4 and pSL8 , but pSL3 did not detect any transcript and both pSL4 and pSL8 only hybridized to thesex-nonspecific unc-22 mRNA ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001748 SentenceID s92 SENTENCE : This was due to differing transfer efficiency in this gel region ; this same blot was probed with two sex-nonspecificcDNAs and the intensity of hybridization to a 1 . 1- and a 2 . 5-kb RNA appeared identical in both male and female RNA samples ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001748 SentenceID s93 SENTENCE : body Additional Northernhybridbationexperiments show that fem3 ( g23g / , l animals ( which have a hermaphrodite body , but contain sperm , but no oocytes ; BARTON , SCHEDL and KIMBLE 1987 ) also contain the 1 . 2-kb male-specific mRNA described above ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001773 SentenceID s88 SENTENCE : During a screen for cDNA clones for the nearbyspe17 gene , which affects spermatogenesis ( LHERNAULT , BENIAN n d EMMONS a 1993 ) , one cDNA clone , 12 pSL ( 1598-bp insert ) , that hybridized to the unc-22 giant message was obtained ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001774 SentenceID s205 SENTENCE : In addition , less quantitative information was determined for a second daf-11 allele , m84 , in double mutants with each group 2 Daf-c gene , with similar results ( data not shown , see MATERIALS AND METHODS ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001774 SentenceID s241 SENTENCE : In all cases the resulting strain was fully viable and completely dauer defective under both dauer-inducing and noninducing conditions ( data not shown ) , indicating that daf-12 mutations block concerted activation by both groups of Daf-c genes .
PaperID WBPaper00001774 SentenceID s81 SENTENCE : With these strains , as test temperatures increase , dauer recovery becomes increasingly inhibited ( data not shown ) , presumably accounting for the appearance of dramatic increases in dauer formation at higher temperatures ( SWANSON and RIDDLE 198 1 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001800 SentenceID s122 SENTENCE : Allof these double rubber-band mutants had a severe rubber-band phenotype that varied in expressivity between dead threefold embryos and extremely sick and uncoordinated adults ( data not shown ; also see Table 6 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001800 SentenceID s143 SENTENCE : The sup-lZ ( d ) mutation n2298 had the properties of previously isolated sup-I l ( d ) mutations ( GREENWALD HORVITZ and 1982 , 1986 ) , including a recessive scrawny phenotype and the same pattern of suppressionof the sup-9 ( n1550 ) , sup-lO ( n983 ) , and unc-93 ( e1500 ) mutations ( data not shown ) . sup1 l ( n2298 ) was isolated as a revertant with completely wild-type movement as a consequence of the combined suppressor activities of sup-1 l ( n2298 ) and sup18 ( nlOl # ) , two partial suppressors of sup-9 ( n1550 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001800 SentenceID s174 SENTENCE : The and phenotypes of sup-9 ( nI550 n2360 ) ; unc-93 ( e1500 ) sup-9 ( nI550 n2360 ) / sup-9 ( 0 ) ; unc-93 ( eI500 ) animals were indistinguishable based upon their movements ( Table 8B ) and brood sizes ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001800 SentenceID s207 SENTENCE : By two-factor mapping , we showed that n1435 is linked to dpy-10 ZZ ( recombinationfrequency of about 13 % ; data not shown ) and lin- ?
PaperID WBPaper00001800 SentenceID s210 SENTENCE : Designations indicating the strength of the rubber-band phenotype are explained in the text . sup-IO ( n983 ) worms have a moderate rubber-band phenotype that weaker than the strong rubberis band phenotype of unc-93 ( e1500 ) worms ( GREENWALD and HORVITZ 1986 ) . nation frequency of about 6 . 6 % ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001807 SentenceID s112 SENTENCE : Cryptic starts were also observed in a deletion which retained the original transcriptional start site but retain only 42 bp of upstream sequence ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001807 SentenceID s137 SENTENCE : Lines rescued with the myo-2 : : unc-54chimera expressed unc-54 myosin in bothnon-pharyngeal and pharyngeal muscles ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001807 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : The resulting lines gave appropriate lacZ expression patterns , with one exception : while five independent transgenic lines derived from unc-54 : : lacZ stained just in body-wall it issue , a sixth line shows additional staining in pharyngeal muscle ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001807 SentenceID s223 SENTENCE : T h e served as a decreased frequency and quality rescue , of myo-1 : : lacZ and myo-2 : : lacZ fusions likewise mimicked particularly the ability to rescue the egg-laying defect expression of their endogenous counterparts , express ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001807 SentenceID s287 SENTENCE : Each of the four translational fusions was somewhat more active than similar transcriptional fusions ( Figure 4 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001807 SentenceID s425 SENTENCE : body The resulting constructs showed expression in pharyngeal muscle for the myo1 and myo-2 enhancers and body wall muscle for the unc-54 enhancer ( Figure 7e and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001807 SentenceID s462 SENTENCE : One of these fragments enhances 400 P . G . Okkema et al . ( kb ) 1 a the glp-1 promoter in non-muscle cells ( in the pharyngeal-intestinal valve and a variety of other cells ) , while a second weakly enhances glp-I in muscle ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001807 SentenceID s471 SENTENCE : However , preliminary results with two other genes suggest that the actual situation could be more complex : for hlh-1 , which is trans-spliced to SL1 ( KRAUSEet al . 1990 ) , we observed strong stimulation of a transcriptional fusion following addition of synthetic intron I ; for myo-1 , which is not trans-spliced , we observed no difference between a transcriptional fusion containing synthetic intron I and anequivalent intron-lacking construct ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001807 SentenceID s51 SENTENCE : We mapped t h e 5 ' end of t h e myo-1 , myo-2 and myo-3 mRNAs by S1 nucleaseprotection and sequencing PCR amplified myo-1 primer extension products ( data not shown ) . a n d myo-2 start 136and 83 bp , respectively , upstream of their ATG initiation codons ( Figure 2a ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001807 SentenceID s82 SENTENCE : Nuclease protection experiments confirmed independently that the site identified by PCR was indeed the predominant poly ( A ) site in unc-54 ( data not shown ) ; nonetheless , there could be additional poly ( A ) sites for bothunc-54 and the other myosin heavychain genes .
PaperID WBPaper00001826 SentenceID s137 SENTENCE : synaptic Inaddition , the steady state level of mRNA transcribed from the endogenous unc-4 gene in unc37 ( e262 ) is comparable to wild type during the developmental period ( MILLER al . 1992 ) in which the et VA motor neurons accept synaptic input from interneurons ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001826 SentenceID s60 SENTENCE : Two-factor crosses with bli-4 ( blister ) and unc15 ( muscle defect ) placed w d l 7 d m about 0 . 7 map units to the right of bli-4 or near unc-87 ( data not shown ) ( Figure 5 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001827 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : causes a similar low-penetrant Egl phenotype in lin-12 ( + ) while lin-12 ( n676 ) / lin-12 ( + ) or lin-12 ( n676 ) / lin-12 ( 0 ) and lin-12 ( 0 ) backgrounds ( data not shown ) . hermaphrodites often havean AC and are egg-laying These animals all had lin-12 ( O ) -likeabnormally everted vulvae , competent ( see Table 2 ) , this screen yielded many and 12 / 20 were sterile .
PaperID WBPaper00001828 SentenceID s144 SENTENCE : This " shifting " method was also used for other experiments at25 " ( data not shown ) and seems to give rather variable results . glp-l ( e2144 ) : glp-I ( e2144 ) hermaphrodites are essentially wild type when grown at 15 " and have few germ cells and are sterile when grown at 25 " ( PRIES , SCHNABEL and SCHNABEL1987 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001828 SentenceID s217 SENTENCE : The sell , sel-9 , sel ( urX ) sel-10 sel-l l mutations also relieve and the VPC and early vulval morphogenesis defects ( Table 5 and data not shown ) . sel ( ur40 ) apparently does not suppress the VPC lineage defects ( Table 5 ) , indicating that suppression of the VPC lineage defects is not required for proper egg laying . sel ( ur40 ) does , however , improve early vulval morphogenesis ( data not shown ) . sel mutations enhance the gain-of-function 0 ACEgl defect caused by lin-I2 ( n676n930 ) at 15 " : At the permissive temperature of 15O , a small percentage of lin-l2 ( n676n930 ) hermaphrodites display a 0 AC-Egl phenotype ( Table 6 ) ; because no AC is present , we infer that both Z 1 . ppp and Z4 . aaa adopted the VU fate .
PaperID WBPaper00001828 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : Similar results were obtained with sel-ll ( ar84 ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001828 SentenceID s260 SENTENCE : lin-12 ( + ) : All lin-12 ( + ) ; sel homozygotes lay eggs normally , and examination by Nomarski optics did not reveal any cell fate transformations affecting the AC or VPCs ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001828 SentenceID s263 SENTENCE : In addition , sel ( arX ) sel-10mutations increase the fertility of these ordinarily sterile lin-12 ( 0 ) strains such that they can be readily propagated , although all animals are Egl ( data not shown ) . sel-lO ( ur41 ) can also suppress partially the sterility and 2 AC phenotypes of lin-l2 ( n941 ) animals in the absence of sel ( urX ) ( Figure 2B and data not shown ) . lin-l2 ( h ) alleles : sel-1 , sel-9 , sel ( arX ) sel-10 and sell lmutations suppress the 2 AC defect caused by the hypomorphic mutations lin-l2 ( n676n927 ) or lin12 ( oz48 ) ( Figure 3A ) ; in most cases , however , the sel mutations do not significantly affect the Egl defect caused by these alleles ( Figure 3B ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001828 SentenceID s267 SENTENCE : This effect is strongest with sel ( urX ) sel-10mutations . sel-lO ( ur41 ) has a similar effect in the absence of seE ( urX ) ( data not shown ) . sel ( ar40 ) , which does not suppress the VPC fate defects caused by lin12 ( n676n930 ) , also does not affect VPC fates in lin12 ( d ) mutants .
PaperID WBPaper00001828 SentenceID s268 SENTENCE : sel-10 has a striking additional effect on lin-l2 ( d ) alleles : many ( 6 / 31 ) lin-l2 ( n379 ) ; sel ( urX ) sel-10 and hermaphrodmost ( 47 / 57 ) lin-l2 ( n302 ) ; sel ( arX ) sel-10 ites are sterile ; thoseanimals that are fertile have very low brood sizes ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001828 SentenceID s269 SENTENCE : Closer examination revealed that dying embryos are present inside such animals ; these embryos appear to undergo many rounds of cell division , but begin to degenerate without any morphogenesis occurring ( data not shown ) . sel-lO ( ar41 ) ; lin-l2 ( n302 ) is also a maternal-effect lethal in the absence of sel ( urX ) ( data not shown ) . sel mutations also suppressa partial loss-of-function allele of glp-1 : The lin-12 and glp-1 genes encode similar proteins ( GREENWALD1985 ; YOCHEM , WESTON and GREENWALD 1988 ; AUSTINand KIMBLE 1989 ; YOCHEMand GREENWALD 1989 ) have both and distinct and overlapping functions during C . elegans development .
PaperID WBPaper00001828 SentenceID s278 SENTENCE : Similar results were obtained with sel-l ( ar29 ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001828 SentenceID s293 SENTENCE : Similar results were obtained with sel-9 ( ar26 ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001828 SentenceID s306 SENTENCE : The sel ( ar40 ) and sog ( zu28 ) mutations both map 0 . 01 map units left of dpy-5 on linkage group I ( Table 1 ; A . M . HOWELL J . PRIESS , and unpublished data ) , and both are dominant suppressors of the Egl and 2 AC defects caused by lin-l2 ( n676n930 ) ( Table 11 and data not shown ; A . M . HOWELL J . PRIESS , and unpublished data ) and of the maternal effect embryonic lethality caused by glp-l ( e2142 ) ( Table 12 ; A . M . HOWELL and J . PRIESS , unpublished data ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001828 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : Similar results were obtained with sog ( zu28 ) ( data not shown ) , an apparent allelic ( unpublished data ; see text ) . mutation isolated byJ .
PaperID WBPaper00001828 SentenceID s39 SENTENCE : ' some phenotype in a lin-12 ( + ) background ; however , this is not thecase ( data not shown ) . sel-I and sel ( ar40 ) mutations do have additive effects onthe AC / VU decision in lin-I2 ( n676n930 ) animals ( Table 6 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001828 SentenceID s56 SENTENCE : Most recessive sel mutations showed loose linkage to dpy-1I V ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001828 SentenceID s60 SENTENCE : All 13 dominant sel mutations showed tight linkage to dpy-5 Z ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001828 SentenceID s77 SENTENCE : However , in the absence of sel ( arX ) , either sel-lO ( ar28 ) or sel-lO ( ar41 ) can enhance the 0 AC-Egl phenotype caused by linlZ ( n676n930 ) at 15 " ( Table 6 and data not shown ) . sellO ( ar28 ) and sel-lO ( ar41 ) fail to complement each other for this enhancer phenotype , showing that they are indeed allelic .
PaperID WBPaper00001828 SentenceID s82 SENTENCE : Since the only known phenotype associatedwith sel ( arX ) is cooperation withsel-10 mutations to suppress the lin-lZ ( n676n930 ) Egl phenotype , sel ( arX ) isdifficult to work with and has not been extensively V characterized . sel ( arX ) appears tomap to theleft of sma-1 , and may be responsible for the partially non-Egl phenotype oflin-lZ ( n676n930 ) ; sel ( arX ) sel-lO / mDfl hermaphrodites ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001828 SentenceID s84 SENTENCE : In experiments done in the absence of sel ( arX ) , we have found that sel-lO ( ar41 ) is capable of suppressing the 2 AC defect in lin-lZ ( n676n930 ) and lin-lZ ( n941 ) animals , and causing a strong Muv phenotype and maternal-effect lethality in lin-lZ ( n302 ) animals ( Table 4 , Figure 2 , and data not shown ) . sel dosage experiments and deficiency mapping ( Table 2 ) sDj35 : Males of genotype unc-32 lin-l2 ( n676n930 ) / eTl ; selleT1 him-5 were crossed to hermaphrodites of genotype unc-32 lin-l2 ( n676n93O ) / eTI ; dpy-1I sDf35leT1 , and Unc32 hermaphrodite cross progeny [ of genotype unc-32 lin12 ( n676n930 ) ; selldpy-11 sDf351 were scored for egg laying .
PaperID WBPaper00001832 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : FUdR slightly extended ( by ( 10 % ) median but not maximal life span of these F12worms ( data not shown ) ; similar results were ob ( MITCHELLet al . 1979 ) . tained previously for strain N2 T h e mass-aging protocol also entailed agitation and aeration , which could affect selection by longevity .
PaperID WBPaper00001833 SentenceID s136 SENTENCE : One mutation , q309 , was recovered in a dominant screen ( data not shown ; to be reported elsewhere ) and therefore not included in the frequency calculation . covered in F2 selections forfertilehermaphrodites and one more , 9 3 4 5 , in an F2 screen for germlinespecific suppressors ( all at 20 " ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001833 SentenceID s142 SENTENCE : However , one allele , 9 3 0 3 , is very weakly semidominant at 20 " ( see MATERIALS AND METHODS ) . sog mutations are extragenic and exhibit allelespecific interactions : Both complementation analysis ( Table 2A ; data not shown ) and mapping ( Table 3 ; data not shown ) were done by scoring suppression of the glp-l ( ts ) phenotype at 20 O .
PaperID WBPaper00001833 SentenceID s193 SENTENCE : Suppression of glp-I ( q158 ) was not seen in any case ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001833 SentenceID s224 SENTENCE : At both 15 and 20 , sel-2 ( n655 ) fully complements 9162 for the Fog phenotype ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001833 SentenceID s225 SENTENCE : Furthermore , 9162 does not enhance or suppress the phenotype of lin-l2 ( q269 ) animals ( as does sel-2 ) : neither the egg-laying nor the sterile defects of lin-12 ( 9269 ) werealtered in 9162dpy-l7 ( e164 ) lin12 ( q269 ) animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001833 SentenceID s234 SENTENCE : No suppression of glp-l ( q158 ) was seen ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001834 SentenceID s102 SENTENCE : Germlineproliferation was sufficiently high temperature ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001834 SentenceID s111 SENTENCE : In each case , germlineproliferation in theoperatedgonadarm stopped after ablation of its distal tip cell while proliferation continued in the intact gonad arm ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001834 SentenceID s17 SENTENCE : Each of the 18 dominant suppressors is linked to the Upon retesting , suppressors in the latter group also original glp-l ( ts ) mutation on LG ZZZ ( data not shown ) . rescued both the germline and embryonic glp-I pheNo unlinked dominant suppressors were recovered . notypes ( Tables 5 and 6 ) and all suppressors remained Twelve dominant suppressors representing a range of dominant upon retesting ( Table 5 ) . have not been We suppressor efficiencies ( see below and Tables 5 and 6 ) able to detect a novel visible phenotype for any of were selected for three-factor mapping using unc-36 them in a glp-I ( ts ) background , even at 15O where the and dpy-18 .
PaperID WBPaper00001834 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : Since germline proliferation in suppressor mutations located in the third , sixth and dominant suppressor strains is dependent upon the seventh repeats may allow these repeats to substitute distal tip cell and since glp-l ( ts ) sup ( x ) / + + strains genfor the normal function of the fourth repeat , they i . . , erated during mapping of the suppressors lack an may interact with a target protein that normally binds obvious phenotype ( data not shown ) , the suppressors tothefourthrepeat .
PaperID WBPaper00001834 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : ( mu ) to the left and -7 . 8 mu to the right of glp-1 Frequencies with which suppressors were isolated : ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001834 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : In no case was the original glp-l [ ts ) mutant lesion corrected , however , because each suppressor strain contains at least occasional Glp animals if raised at a sufficiently high temperature ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001852 SentenceID s104 SENTENCE : , and the distribution of the remaining crossovers was similar to that seen when hermaphrodite progeny were examined ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001852 SentenceID s107 SENTENCE : Again , the reduction and patternof exchange on the X chromosomein him-5 males was very similar to that in him-5 hermaphrodites ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001852 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : Similar results were seen with him-8 ( e1489 ) / ecDf4 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001852 SentenceID s62 SENTENCE : Wealso examined recombination inseveral overlapping intervals and found results comparable to those presented ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001853 SentenceID s250 SENTENCE : Roller severe phenotypes as heterozygotes over a deficiency mutants have long been considered to be a subset of then as homozygotes , while the strong alleles exhibit and 1986 ) . the morphological mutants ( KUSCH EDGAR no such effect ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001854 SentenceID s75 SENTENCE : The result showed that all the revertants lost the T c l that caused the original mutations ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001884 SentenceID s108 SENTENCE : In addition , the observed cs embryonic phenotypes were the same as mei-I null alleles ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001884 SentenceID s119 SENTENCE : Twelveclones were isolated ; most appeared by restriction digest analysis to represent anested family originating from the 3 ' end of the gene ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001884 SentenceID s130 SENTENCE : This DNA fragment was subjected to asymmetric PCR sequencing ( MURRAY1989 ) , which showed that it exactly matched the genomic sequence ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001884 SentenceID s142 SENTENCE : Northern blots using pHR3O as a probe showed that similar levels of this mRNA accumulated at each stage of the life cycle ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001923 SentenceID s127 SENTENCE : All four new alleles were tightly linked to dpy-9 ( data not shown ) , consistent with their classification as daf-1 mutations ( EDGLEY RIDDLE 1990 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001942 SentenceID s102 SENTENCE : In addition , daf-2 ( mg43 ) ; d a f l 2 ( m 2 0 ) double mutants display the same growth arrest observed indouble mutants between d a f - l 2 ( m 2 0 ) and a temperature-sensitive allele of daf-2 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001942 SentenceID s44 SENTENCE : In addition , we note that many of the partial dauers formed in daf-l6 ( m27 ) ; daf7 ( e1372 ) doublemutantsare SDS resistant although percentage the of SDSresistant dauers decreases over time ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001942 SentenceID s61 SENTENCE : In addition , this result suggests that daf-16 has a role in the early stagesof dauer differentiation . d a f - l 6 ( r n g l l ) does not accelerate all development because this strain did not reach sexual maturity and begin laying eggs faster than wild type ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001942 SentenceID s77 SENTENCE : Examination of synchronized populations indicated that many of the daf-I 6 / + animals initially arrest at the dauer stage , but then recover over 1-3 days ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001942 SentenceID s78 SENTENCE : The dominant suppression is neither allele-specificfor d a f - I 6 nor for daf-23 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001942 SentenceID s97 SENTENCE : In addition , although the single mutant allele of daf-18 does not suppress daf-2 mutants as strongly as d a f - 2 3 mutants , 10 % of d a f 2 ( e 1 3 7 0 ) ; d a f 18 ( e1375 ) animals bypass dauer arrest and the dauers that form are defective and recover from the dauer stage within 24 hr ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001955 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : In all cases , the non-Unc cross progeny were asfrequent as or more frequent than the Unc progeny from the same cross , indicating that theduplications tested do not significantly reduce the viability of 3A , 2X animals ( other data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001955 SentenceID s25 SENTENCE : Similar estimates with mnDp8 indicated that 28 . 4 % of the 3A , 2X mnDp8 progeny were feminized ( data not shown ) , again a similar estimate to what was seen previously .
PaperID WBPaper00001955 SentenceID s88 SENTENCE : This was not significantly different from the broods amonguninjected animals or from the ratio in broods with no intersexes ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001956 SentenceID s279 SENTENCE : body The muscle defects in sDf33 embryos are apparently not limited to myosin heavy chain accumulation , since sDf33 embryos failed to stain when tested with antisera to two other body muscle components : paramyosin and twitchin ( data not shown ) . sDf33 embryos showed considerable differentiation of other it issues .
PaperID WBPaper00001956 SentenceID s284 SENTENCE : 1992 ) with antibody to the UNC33 product ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001956 SentenceID s298 SENTENCE : heterozygotes showed no staining for esterase activity ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001958 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : The pattern of Tc5-hybridizing bands forstrain TR445 , the non-mutator grandparent TR679 , indistinguishof is able from that of Bristol ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001958 SentenceID s30 SENTENCE : The remaining nine unc-22 mutants exhibited no restriction fragments of altered mobility on genomic Southern blots ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00001991 SentenceID s98 SENTENCE : However , examination of dpy-30 X et X animals using Nomarski optics revealed the HSN neurons that are present ( data not shown ) , indicating that the Egl phenotype is not caused by a sexual transformation .
PaperID WBPaper00002016 SentenceID s196 SENTENCE : bodies However , they do show a slight tendency to coil their bodies , and they are slower growing and have slightly smaller brood sizes than N2 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002016 SentenceID s213 SENTENCE : We observed that mutants double carrying unc52 ( e669su250 t and any one of the four suppressor s ) mutations showed partial restoration of myofilament lattice structure when grown at 25 " ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002016 SentenceID s99 SENTENCE : Body Body wall muscle in C . elegans is arranged in four longitudinal strips that run the length of the animal ( WATERSTON All arrested embryos and lar1988 ) . vaedisplayed disruptions in the patterns of birefringence ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002033 SentenceID s100 SENTENCE : The [ in-17 ( , , 671 ) modest hypersensitivity of h - 1 7 mutants to pheromone is difficult to interpret because first , Iin-17 ( n6771 cells other than the phasmid socket cell are affected in lin-17 mutants ( STERNBERG HORand VITZ 1988 ) , and second , the same lin-17 mutants were not hypersensitive to pheromone at 20 " ( data not shown ) . wild type Maternal effect of duf-21 : To quantify the maternal rescue of the Daf-c phenotype of daf-21 ( p673 ) , dpy-11 daf-21 / + + and daf-Zl / + individuals were allowed to lay eggs for 16-24 hr at 25 " .
PaperID WBPaper00002033 SentenceID s102 SENTENCE : To be sure that the daf-3 mutation did not suppress any chemotaxis defects caused by group 2 mutations , we assayed response of each group 2 single mutant to MA , and response of group 2 daf-e ; daf-12 double mutants to one concentration of each of the five attractants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002033 SentenceID s114 SENTENCE : As an additional control , we determined that daf-3 did not suppress or enhance the response of two daf-1 I mutants to 10 " IAA ( s a l 95 and m84 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002033 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : All other experiments were done with approximately 3 units of pheromone per plate . sults were observed for two other cilium-structure mutants , d a f 1 0 and che-ll ( data not shown ) , in which all amphid and phasmid neurons are defective but the IL neurons are normal ( ALBERT et al . 1981 ; PERKINS al . et 1986 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002033 SentenceID s25 SENTENCE : Animals with each type of kill were also grown absence of pheromone the in and were not dauer constitutive ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002033 SentenceID s69 SENTENCE : This inconsistencywas shown to be due to differences in the strain of OP50 used as a food and source ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002034 SentenceID s184 SENTENCE : In the same test , ct50 behaves as a loss-of-function alleleequivalent in severity to y 1 4 , suggesting that it is not a true null ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002059 SentenceID s106 SENTENCE : Low penetrance gonad morphology defects were detected in mab-19 males ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002059 SentenceID s109 SENTENCE : The gonad failed to reflex dorsally and / or ventrally during outgrowth , leading toan abnormally shapedgonad ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002059 SentenceID s111 SENTENCE : Strains containing the 6x38 allele exhibited somewhat reduced male fertility ( data not shown ) , but males from bx83-containing since strains mated well , this defect may result from a second mutation closely linked to the 6x38 allele .
PaperID WBPaper00002059 SentenceID s113 SENTENCE : Neither mab-19 allele was temperaturesensitive : male phenotypes and penetrance were identical at 16 " , 20 " and 25 " ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002059 SentenceID s193 SENTENCE : In all cases , the missing ray phenotype of the double mutant the was sum of the mab-I9 phenotype and the phenotype of the other mub gene ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002059 SentenceID s219 SENTENCE : mab-19maleswere mated uDfl / dpy-8 unc-18 to balanced heterozygous hermaphrodites , and F , nonDpy nonUnc hermaphrodite cross progeny were picked and allowed self-fertilize . to All 107 F , hermaphrodites produced 1 / 4 F2Dpy Unc animals ( data not shown ) , indicating that all nonDpy nonUnc F , s were genotypically mab-l9 / dpy-8 unc-18 .
PaperID WBPaper00002059 SentenceID s245 SENTENCE : AU embryos , regardlessof genotype , showedstage-specific , weaknuclearstaining with this antibody ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002059 SentenceID s95 SENTENCE : Both 6x38 and bx83 were recessive ( Table 3 , data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002074 SentenceID s288 SENTENCE : With yDp9 , however , we found that X 0 animals with both yDpl4 and yDp9 are twofold less viable than yDPl4 / + X 0 animals in the + same strain background ( Table 6 , and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002074 SentenceID s52 SENTENCE : chromosomal All of these duplications behave genetically asfree duplications , and for four of them , including yDpl3 and yDpl5 , an extra chromosomal element indicative of a free duplication was found when oocyteswere stained with 4 , & diamidino-2-phenylindole ( DAPI ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002086 SentenceID s106 SENTENCE : Preliminary results from RT-PCR experiments suggest that transcripts carrying class 1 mutations are never ( or only rarely ) made in these revertant strains ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002086 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : One set of primers produced a second , larger fragment in addition to the wild-type-sized fragment thatwas expected ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002086 SentenceID s48 SENTENCE : DNA from e998 / e998 or wild-type animals did not produce a PCR product with these primers , whereas DNA from u t l l l homozygous mutants consistently produced a 220-bp fragment ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002086 SentenceID s78 SENTENCE : The e669 and e998 mutants also exhibit the wildtype MH2 staining pattern at this early developmental stage ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002087 SentenceID s232 SENTENCE : We also found that dyf-6 ( both alleles ) , dyf-7 and dyf-12 complement vab3 , which maps in the same region ; mutationsin vab3 lead to disorganization in anterior sensory anatomy ( LEWIS and HODCKIN 1977 ) and variable reduction in dye filling ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002112 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : From these experiments we determined that qDj3 , qDf6 and qDf7 fail to complement lin11 , whereas the remaining deletions complement lin-I1 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002113 SentenceID s300 SENTENCE : 65 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002113 SentenceID s353 SENTENCE : A time course study showed that in wild type and fog-I single mutants , proximal germ cells first reach pachytene duringmid-L4 ( Figure 9 ) ; within a few hours these cells differentiate as either sperm ( in wild type ) or oocytes [ in fog-I ( y ) ] ( BARTONand KIMBLE 1990 ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002113 SentenceID s365 SENTENCE : poles, spindle, spindle poles Further , anti-tubulin staining ( data not shown ) reveals that the spindle poles contain asters , structures that are not present in germ cells undergoing female meiotic divisions ( ALBERTSON 1984 ; ALBERTSON and THOMSON 1993 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002113 SentenceID s501 SENTENCE : The four C2 alleles confer a Mog phenotype at 20 and 25 " but at 15 " result in a phenotype similar to that of class B alleles : sperm then undifferentiated germ cells arrested in meiotic prophase ( see below and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002113 SentenceID s551 SENTENCE : In contrast , the C3 allele , o z l 0 , is not defective for oogenesis ( Table 2 ) and it is able to fully complement gld-1 ( q266 ) ( C3 / q266 is fertile , data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002113 SentenceID s577 SENTENCE : ( If ) animals are female ] ( HODGKIN 1986 ) . the In q93oz50 ; fern-3 ( If ) and ozl16 ; fern-3 ( If ) double mutants , male germline development ( spermatogenesis ) was eliminated and all germ cells arrested as undifferentiated cells in pachytene ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002113 SentenceID s580 SENTENCE : This antibody decorated sperm and spermatocytes in both mutants but failed to stain the pachytene-arrested germ cells ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002114 SentenceID s154 SENTENCE : Second , complementation data show that C1 and C2 alleles are defective for oogenesis and that these alleles can cause germ cells to arrest at pachytene in certain combinations of gld-1 trunsheterozygotes ( FRANCIS al . 1995 ) . et Third , thepachytene arrested germ cells are not overtly intersexual as they do not express the sperm-specific antigens detected by the SP56 monoclonal antibody ( data not shown ) ( WARD a .
PaperID WBPaper00002114 SentenceID s192 SENTENCE : In ablated wild-type gonads , all distal germ cells enter meiotic prophase and reach the pachytene stage within 28-32 h r after DTC elimination ; these cells later differentiate as oocytes ( KIMBLE and WHITE1981 ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002114 SentenceID s198 SENTENCE : spindle Because dividing cells display both a spindle pole morphology ( data not shown ) and metaphase plate configuration typical of mitotic germ cells , thev appear to have returned to a mitotic cell cycle .
PaperID WBPaper00002114 SentenceID s205 SENTENCE : % l . p , Z4 . a and Z4 . p ) are killed in wild type ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002114 SentenceID s206 SENTENCE : Similarly , when Z1 or Z4 ( o r their four daughters ) are ablated X X g l d - 1 ( Turn ) 1 , l in larvae , germ cells undergo one or divisions but then two cease dividing ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002114 SentenceID s233 SENTENCE : Note that f o g 1 ( lf ) no effect on premeiotic proliferation by gldhas I ( Tum ) germ cells nor does it increase the rate of tumor et growth in gld-I ( Tum ) animals ( FKANCIS al . 1995 ) ( data not shown ) Ablation of somatic gonad cells : Ablations of specific cells of the hermaphrodite somatic gonad were performed using anitrogen pulse laser ( Laser Sciences Inc .
PaperID WBPaper00002114 SentenceID s285 SENTENCE : More detailed examination of one feminized triple mutant [ fog-1 ( 9180 ) gld-1 ( q485 ) ; gEpl ( q175 ) ] revealed that all germ cells in these animals enter meiotic prophase at the same time as do germ cells in gld-1 ( Tum ) ; glp-1 ( 0 ) double mutants ( data not shown-see MATERIALS AND METHODS ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002114 SentenceID s301 SENTENCE : Third , the germline these strains lacks in any evident distal / proximal polarity , as all germ cells appear to enter the meiotic pathway at about thesame time during larval growth ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002114 SentenceID s62 SENTENCE : In particular , unlike fern-3 ( @ ) animals , which make only sperm at 25 " , some gZd-I ( Turn ) / + ; fern-3 ( gf ) XX animals make both sperm and oocytes and are self-fertile ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002127 SentenceID s145 SENTENCE : Rather , the rate of dying of the population of mutants is slower than the wild-type rate at all chronological ages ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002127 SentenceID s181 SENTENCE : Although it is verystrong , the maternal effect is not strict : one zygotic copy of c l k - l ( + ) is also sufficient for a wild-type phenotype : c l k - l / animals derived from clk-l / clk-l mothers appear almost entirely wild type , except for a small ( < lo % ) delay in the embryonic development time compared to animals with a fully wild-type pedigree ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002127 SentenceID s223 SENTENCE : None of the other phenotypes that we have shown to be affected in clk-1 mutants appears to correlate in severity with the speed of embryonic development ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002148 SentenceID s208 SENTENCE : A single let-60 ( gf ) allele , syl03 , was recovered . sy103 , like the other four let-60 ( gf ) alleles , is semidominant ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002148 SentenceID s209 SENTENCE : We recovered s y l 0 3 as an F1 ( dominant ) suppressor of let-23 and mapped it to the let-60 region of linkage group N ( data not shown ) . sy103 was sequenced by BEITEL al . ( 1990 ) andshown et to be identical to the other let-60 rus ( gf ) alleles .
PaperID WBPaper00002148 SentenceID s406 SENTENCE : A sZi-1 mutation does not suppress the sex myoblast phenotype associated with a sem-5 mutation ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002194 SentenceID s152 SENTENCE : Restriction sites were determined by single and double digests and those within the central 8-kh h R I fragment confirmed hy sequencing . length coding region probe ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002194 SentenceID s191 SENTENCE : No RT-PCR product was proet duced ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002194 SentenceID s267 SENTENCE : Worms grown in medium containing the ODC inhibitor DFMO ( 0 . 1 mM ) showed no difference in phenotype compared with the wild type , despite the fact that extracts prepared from worms grown in the presence of the inhibitor had no detectable enzymatic activity ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002194 SentenceID s84 SENTENCE : Chromosomal Chromosomal localization of odc-1 : A C . ekguns Yac polygrid mapping ( COULSON blot et al . 1991 ) was probed with sequences encompassing the full length odc-1 coding region and revealed two positive Yacs , Y37G2 and Y44A7 ( data not shown ) , indicating that odc1 is located in the middle of LG V near the gene dpy11 .
PaperID WBPaper00002277 SentenceID s172 SENTENCE : 1 and 2 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002277 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : Genetics 141 : 513-526 ( October , 1995 ) 514 H . A . Wilkinson and I . Greenwald endogenous lin-12 gene ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002277 SentenceID s249 SENTENCE : It is interesting to note that in a lin-12 ( d ) mutant , which has up to six 2 " lineages ( due to the transformation of the VPCs ) , expression of the reporter gene is more consistently detected in the N cells and the daughters of the T cells of each pseudovulva than it is in the N cells and the daughters of the T cells in a lin-12 ( + ) background ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002277 SentenceID s97 SENTENCE : 0-galctosidase activity is also detected in allsixof the W daughters in both lin12 ( 0 ) and lin-lZ ( d ) mutants ; this is consistent with the interpretation that lin-12 activity is not required per se to generate the pattern observed ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002279 SentenceID s103 SENTENCE : See text for description of phenotypes . mitotic cells becomes visible in the proximal gonad of 15 % of animals examined ( Figure 7 , 72 hr and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002279 SentenceID s105 SENTENCE : During proliferation ( Figure 7 and data not shown ) ; in some L4 stage , meiosis gradually increases giving rise to animals this proliferation is extensive ( . g Figure 6 , C .
PaperID WBPaper00002279 SentenceID s108 SENTENCE : nuclei In contrast , germline proliferation eration appear to have excessive distal mitosis because arrests in 100 % of gv-3 hermaphrodites examined durtheir mitotic regionsare larger than those N2 animals of ing L3 stage ( Figure 7 , 32-40 hr ) ; all germ nuclei ex ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002279 SentenceID s170 SENTENCE : ( om40 ) doublemutants , suggesting that the AC does not signal ectopic proliferation ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002279 SentenceID s175 SENTENCE : ( om40 ) hermaphrodites at restrictive temperature ( 25 " ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002279 SentenceID s177 SENTENCE : A an aside , we noted that s older oocytes in fm-l ; ego-3 animals usually contained 12 regions of DAPI staining , rather than the usual six , as if homologues had separated from each other ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002279 SentenceID s198 SENTENCE : nuclei In contrast , glp-l ( ; ego-l ( om18 ) animals always have overproliferative germlines in that mitotic nuclei can be found throughout the gonad ; however , the level of proliferation is partially decreased ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002279 SentenceID s219 SENTENCE : Although we have not characterized them in detail , morphological abnormalities in embryogenesis are often obvious within the first few cell divisions ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002279 SentenceID s229 SENTENCE : This defect is variable , with a low percentage of hermaphrodites producing so few germ cells that they do not form oocytes ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002279 SentenceID s48 SENTENCE : Genetic mapping and complementation tests : Linkage and complementation were determined by standard tests ( Tables 1 and 2 ; data not shown ; see Figure 3 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002279 SentenceID s51 SENTENCE : Each mutation was assigned to a linkage group and subsequently mapped more precisely using combinations of three-factor ( Table 1 ; data not shown ) and deficiency ( Table 2 ; data not shown ) mapping .
PaperID WBPaper00002279 SentenceID s94 SENTENCE : PROXIMAL PROLIFERATION T h e late qo-3 germline phenotype is seen in adults and is more variable than the early phenotype ( Figures B . 6 , C and D , and 7 , 64-96 hr , and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002279 SentenceID s98 SENTENCE : During the first 48 h r of adulthood , oogenesis becomes visible before spermatogenesisin 82 % of animals examined , whereas spermatogenesis preceeds oogenesis in 13 % of animals ( Figure 7 and data not shown , / n , > 90 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002305 SentenceID s123 SENTENCE : Though we could not measure the strength of these contractions , we determined thatthey do notoccur at inappropriate times during the defecation motor program ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002305 SentenceID s139 SENTENCE : The unc-43 ( n498 ) mutation , describedabove asEgl and Exp ( Mac-d ) , is also locomotion defective , and confers a moderateDpy phenotype ( Mac-h ) that is suppressed by amutation in unc-54 ( our data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002305 SentenceID s151 SENTENCE : In both cases , unc-54did not suppress the Dpy phenotypes ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002305 SentenceID s166 SENTENCE : ( ' 4 0 t h homozygous and heterozygous Mac-h mutanb laid early eggs even in theabsence of serotonin ( Egl-c ; egg-laying constitutive ) , and were not easily distinguished from each other . indicating that it requires functional egg-laying muscle A ( data not shown ) . single revertant of unc-l lO ( e1913 ) has been isolated and it has no obvious defects ( D . THIERRY-MIEG , personal communication ; and our observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002305 SentenceID s187 SENTENCE : Several recombinants in the unc-27 uex-2interval failed to separate unc110 ( e1913 ) from the phenotype lethal ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002305 SentenceID s225 SENTENCE : Additional alleles of each genewere assayed with no drug ( data not shown ) and for serotonin response , with the following results : eglU ( n2656 ) 0 . 0 ( 34 ) , egl-23 ( n2579 ) 0 . 0 ( 48 ) , egl-36 ( n2 ?
PaperID WBPaper00002305 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : chromosome, chromosomes Linkage to chromosomes was established by two-factor mapping of Mac mutations with recessive markers on each chromosome ( data not shown ) as previously described ( BRENNER 1974 ; WOOD 1988 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002305 SentenceID s55 SENTENCE : Genes that were somewhat similar phenotypically were excluded on thebasis ofmap data ( Table ) and distinct 1 phenotypes ( egl-12 , egl-4 , and egl-18 mutations cause weaker Egl defects and no EMC defect , data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002306 SentenceID s133 SENTENCE : In all muscle characteristics examined , no differences were seen compared t o wildtype controls ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002306 SentenceID s183 SENTENCE : Although transposon tagging has been used to isolate other Unc genes in C . ekgans ( MOERMANet al . 1986 ) , we were unable to detect an allele-specific polymorphism on Southern blots of unc-l17 ( e2478 ) genomic DNA probed with Tcl or any other transposable element , dueto the background of other Tcl-hybridizing bands ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002306 SentenceID s199 SENTENCE : Of the first 20 insert-containing clones picked from the library , four were found to be worm-specific and contained in Y39A1 and Y60D9 alone ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002307 SentenceID s235 SENTENCE : The fused duplications involving sDp3 were that of sDp3 ( Table 2 , lines 5 and 6 ) , despite the fact extremely stable mitotically ( data not shown ) , however , that the DNA content of qDp3 appears to be less than perhaps as a consequenceof their large size .
PaperID WBPaper00002341 SentenceID s199 SENTENCE : None of these mutants as heterozygotes caused a significant change in the ad820sd / + pumping rate ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002341 SentenceID s227 SENTENCE : 1993 ) , also cause Pf 210- reduced pumping ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002341 SentenceID s229 SENTENCE : neuromuscular synapses, synapses, synaptic The observation in the EPG o f fast synaptic transmissionfrom MC , thegeneticevidencesuggesting that cholinergic transmission required for MC funcis tion , and the experiments of AWRYandHORW " ( 1991 ) showing the stimulatoryef ' ftct of nicotine on chn-1 pharynxes , led u s to test cholinergic drugs with specificity forthenicotinicacetylcholinereceptor ( nAChR ) , a receptor used at Fast neuromuscular synapses in vertebrates ( KANDEI . and % X X l , R A l : M 1991 ) . d-tubocurarine ( dTC ) , a competitiveantagonist o f this receptor ( TAYLOR 1991 ) , blockedpumpingreversiblv ( Figure 8 ) . whereas ACh , carbachol , nicotine , a n d DMPP , agonists of this receptor ( TAYLOR 1991 ) , caused pharyngeal contraction ( Table 7 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002341 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : In contrast , ablation of other neurons individually or in combinations does not eliminate the I-phase transients ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002341 SentenceID s250 SENTENCE : We found that eat-l8 ( ad820sd ) pharynxes showed a mild resistance to the effects of nicotine and carbachol , e a t ( a d l l l 0 ) pharynxes showed a stronger resistance to the effects of nicotine , and eat-2 mutants showed the same response to nicotine as wild-type pharynxes ( Table 7 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002341 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : The 13 other eat-2 mutants responded to 100 p M nicotine like ad1113 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002341 SentenceID s69 SENTENCE : nuclei eat-2 and eat-I8 mutations probably d o n o t block the ability of MC to develop since the MC nuclei are present and are properly positioned in eat-2 and eat-18 mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002341 SentenceID s70 SENTENCE : synaptic Since these transients were eliminated after the MC neurons were killed ( Figure 3B ) but persisted after other neurons were killed ( data not shown ) , we conclude that they represent excitatory synaptic transmission between MC and the muscle .
PaperID WBPaper00002341 SentenceID s72 SENTENCE : The presence of the bursts is not a unique consequence of the lack of snt-1 function , since the EPGs of at least two other mutants , unc-26 ( md250 ) and unc-l04 ( rh43 ) , have I-phase bursts that are indistinguishable from those in the sntl ( md290 ) EPG ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002341 SentenceID s78 SENTENCE : membrane Furthermore , the E phase of viewed in BRADY wild-type EPGs occasionallyconsists of several small positive spikes followed by a large positive spike that triggers muscle contraction ( data not shown ) , suggesting that in wild-type , too , MC transmission can occur as a burst . The demonstration thatMC causes abrupt and apparently periodicchanges in pharyngeal muscle membrane potential indicates that the neurogenic model can explain the role of MC in pumping .
PaperID WBPaper00002342 SentenceID s116 SENTENCE : I s cDNAs detcct the wild-type size 3 . 1-kb transcript and the novel 2 . 7-kb transcript in fm35 RNA ( Figure 4B , lane 3 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002342 SentenceID s117 SENTENCE : The clas11 cDNAs detect only the wild-type size 1 . 4-kb transcript ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002342 SentenceID s191 SENTENCE : 4 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002342 SentenceID s194 SENTENCE : The values shown for the m u t a n t strains represent an average of t w o experiments i n which RSA was isolated from two independently cultured populations of worms for Northern analysis ( A , C , and E . and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002342 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : nuclei The number andmorphology of germ nuclei in L1 and L2 larvae are apparently normal ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002342 SentenceID s79 SENTENCE : Further Southern analysiswith the cDNAs ( data not shown ) allowed us to approximately position the 3 . 1- and 1 . 4 kb transcripts relative to the restriction map of the rescuing genomic clone pSC105 ( Figure 3B ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002343 SentenceID s202 SENTENCE : The double mutant exited thedauer state much more slowly , often taking several weeks ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002343 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : fraction At 20 " we observed a biphasic lifespan curve : all the animals a p peared unhealthy , and the great majority of double mutants died much sooner than wild type , whereas a small fraction lived for a much longer period ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002343 SentenceID s62 SENTENCE : chromosome To verify the presence of age-I , we displaced the daf-16 chromosome by crossing the putative daf16 ; agel fer-I5 mutant with + / uric-29 males ( unc-29is closely linked to daf-16 ) and identifymg Unc Fer animals among the descendants of the cross-progeny , To determine whether age1 was present , we examined the lifespans of these animals , to see whether they exhibited extended lifespans relative to control unc-29 and N2 animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002355 SentenceID s158 SENTENCE : A two-factor cross with lon-2 ( e678 ) placed ls20 -27 map units to the right of lon-2 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002355 SentenceID s166 SENTENCE : The expression of mc-3lacZ , unc86lacZ and un , c-5lacZwas not affected by the fmg-3 ( ls20 ) mutation ( data not shown ) . mec- $ lac % was expressed , like mpc-71ac % , in the BDU neurons of pag-3 mutants ( Figure 5 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002398 SentenceID s166 SENTENCE : Several methods are available for performing this analysis and among these methods the most straightforwardone is simply regressing phenothe type on each marker ; because most of our markers are fairlyclose together , very little , if any , information is gained with an interval mapping approach ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002398 SentenceID s172 SENTENCE : Two markers [ stPlOl on II ( t = -2 . 80 , P = 0 . 0066 ) and stP6l on the X ( t = + 2 . 97 , P = 0 . 0039 ) ] were found to have a significant association with a QTL for maximum life span ; the pattern of effects was otherwise very similar between mean and maximum life span ( data not shown ) ; of course these measures are not independent .
PaperID WBPaper00002398 SentenceID s175 SENTENCE : QTLs for maximum fertility were found most closely linked to the same markers ( data not shown ) ; again the pattern of marker effects isvery similar for both mean and maximum hermaphrodite self-fertility as expected for nonindependent measures .
PaperID WBPaper00002446 SentenceID s143 SENTENCE : All three mutants in the spe-27 raised the possibility thattheirmutant phenotypes complementation group were rescued with pAM125 , might arise from disrupting the intron rather than the confirming that they are allelic ( data not shown ) . coding region .
PaperID WBPaper00002446 SentenceID s159 SENTENCE : The integrity of all RNAs used in this experiment was confirmed by Northern blot analysis using an actin gene as a probe ( data not shown ) . bp SspI fragment from pBlusecriptSK + inserted in a unique SspI site of intron 111 ; PAM132 has a 552-bp Ssp1 fragment from pBluescriptSK- inserted into the same site .
PaperID WBPaper00002446 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : Controls with no antisense RNA were for essentially blank except staining to the gut , which presumably represents endogenous alkaline phosphatase activity ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002446 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : Similarly , mutant male spermatids appear normal by electron microscopy ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002446 SentenceID s69 SENTENCE : The brood sizes of these heterozygous hermaphrodites were identical to wild type ( data not shown ) , so there is no indication of lack of complementation between any of these genes .
PaperID WBPaper00002447 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : The ev509 allele of unc73 does not appear to be stronger than e936with respect to movement , and m454 : : Tcl shows more spontaneous movement than e936 ( Figure Z ) , while rh40 animals show as little or less movement ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002447 SentenceID s166 SENTENCE : Animals carrylng unc-73 ( e936 ) and the mutations j e l , je2 , je3 , je5 , je6 , orje7 have a movement phenotype that is indistinguishable from unc-73 ( + ) animals at all stages of development ( Figure 2 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002447 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : Similar results were obtained for the unc-73 mutants when a 2 < mdiameter circle was used ( data not shown ) . and sup-39may map between these deficiencies or under one of them .
PaperID WBPaper00002448 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : Additional Northern analysis showed that BBlC exclusively recognized a 2 . 4-kb RNA species , while BBlF exclusively recognized a 1 . 5-kb RNA species ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002448 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : We found similar results with let23 ( n1045cs ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002448 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : We based this screen upon the observation that , at therestrictive temperature of 25 " , animals of the genotype glp-I ( e2142 ) ; selI ( el948 ) / arDfl produce live progeny , while glp1 ( e2142 ) ; sel-I ( el 948 ) / sel-l ( + ) animals do not ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002485 SentenceID s25 SENTENCE : These double mutants could recover with low efficiency ( data not shown ) , contrast to douin ble mutants with one group 1 and one group 2 Daf-c mutation , which are completely dauer recovery defective ( THOMAS al . 1993 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002486 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : The survival of uge-l ( hx546 ) the wild type , N2 , at 20 J / m ' was reproducible in more is significantlydifferentfromwildtype , N2 , ( P < 0 . 0001 ; than 50 independent experiments ( Tables 1 and 2 and Wilcoxon ( Gehan ) statistic ) . data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002486 SentenceID s21 SENTENCE : We observed served no difference in U V resistance of embryos beUvr in cUz-I ( e2519 ) , one allele which extends adult life , tween age-I mutants and wild type ( data not shown ) . but not in another allele , cA-I ( qm30 ) , which does not AU lifeextension ( Age ) mutants show increased U V show such an extension .
PaperID WBPaper00002559 SentenceID s21 SENTENCE : To compare loadings , the Northern blot illustrated in Figure 1 was rehybridized at reduced stringency with a heterologous probe , Ce-myo-1 ( MILLERet al . 1986 ) ; this indicated that the L1 lane containedsubstantially more poly ( A ) + RNA than the other lanes ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002559 SentenceID s268 SENTENCE : However Cl + tm-l appears to have no affect on the development of the somatic gonad and germ-line of wild-type X 0 animals and t m l ( nu1l ) mutant XXanimals ( data not shown ) . tional data for the second , third and fourth conserved regions .
PaperID WBPaper00002559 SentenceID s59 SENTENCE : The exception was a probe madefrom the 5 ' 300 bp found only inthe longer cDNA product generated by RT-PCR ( MATERIALS AND METHODS , and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002559 SentenceID s75 SENTENCE : Inspection of Cb intron 6 for the polyadenylation signal AAUAAA reveals two perfect matches ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002560 SentenceID s43 SENTENCE : All four clones shared and ; a similar EcoRI restriction pattern ( data not shown ) therefore , only the lambda clone the largest insert , with 4 . 7 kb , lambda PK11 , was analyzed in detail .
PaperID WBPaper00002560 SentenceID s82 SENTENCE : In addition , the relative positions of the firstsix splicing events are conserved between C . fmggsae and C . ekgans ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002561 SentenceID s141 SENTENCE : Similarly , BO342 does not detect an RFLP when the duplication DNA is digested with AscI or double digested with NotI and Sfir ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002561 SentenceID s142 SENTENCE : In addition , whileC50D8 detects an AscI RFLP and is thus clearly contained within the duplication , it does not detect a NotI / AscI RFLP ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002561 SentenceID s144 SENTENCE : C30F8 does not detect a NotI or SjiI RFLP ( data not shown ) , suggesting that theduplication ends in the in cosmid coverage . gap However , the physical end of the duplication is more complex thana simple termination of the DNA sequences from this region .
PaperID WBPaper00002561 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : The map is drawn based on the single digest results shown in B and theresults of double digests ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002561 SentenceID s53 SENTENCE : chromosomal The cosmids F42G4 from the lin-29 contig and F29C12 fromthe unc-52 contig hybridized to many chromosomal bands generated by each restriction digestion ( data not shown ) , making it impossible to construct a map .
PaperID WBPaper00002561 SentenceID s63 SENTENCE : DNA from mes-l ( bn74 ) animals exhibited an allele-associated polymorphism initially detected in DNA digested with NotI and ASCIand probed with cosmid T04A4 ( data not shown ; see Figure 2A for map ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002561 SentenceID s91 SENTENCE : The physical maps are drawn based on results shown in B and data not shown .
PaperID WBPaper00002649 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : However , examination of double mutant L4 larvae showed no increase in the number of animals with sperm over the number seen in adulthood ( data not shown ) , arguing against the idea that sperm are first formed and then degraded .
PaperID WBPaper00002707 SentenceID s154 SENTENCE : nuclear, processes Z lacking a nuclear localization signal . F1 offspring of injected mothersshowed staining in nine pairs of neurons as well asin processes exiting through the amphid pore ( data not shown ) , the same pattern seen in a wild-type background ( Figure 4F ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002707 SentenceID s194 SENTENCE : Although fewer than 10 % of duf-I ( m40 ) or daf-8 ( e1393 ) became dauer larvae at this temperature , in combinationwith pklh > 90 % became dauer larvae ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002707 SentenceID s202 SENTENCE : As daf-11 and duf-21 , syls30showeda synergisticeffect with duf-8 ( e1393 ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002707 SentenceID s206 SENTENCE : Similar results were o h tained with 1324 ( data not shown ) . other previously No described Daf-c allele is completely suppressed by mutations in both che-3 and daf-5 .
PaperID WBPaper00002707 SentenceID s208 SENTENCE : Both activated @ a-3 transgenic lines showed a synergistic effect with dar8 ( 1393 ) ( data not shown ) as do daf-I 1and d + 21 ( THOMAS al . 1993 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002707 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : All four transgenic strains showed appropriate responses to food and temperature : restricting food and elevating temperature resulted in the formation of more dauer larvae ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002707 SentenceID s40 SENTENCE : The resistance to exogenous pheromone , but not the Daf-c phenotype , was also seen when wild-type @ a-2 and @ a-3 were overexpressed as transgenes ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002707 SentenceID s74 SENTENCE : @ -3 ( pk35 ) , tlouhlc * mutant ) , and dauer l a n w quickly recover from the dauel- stage at both 15 " and 2 . 5 " ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002770 SentenceID s100 SENTENCE : This possibility was examined in preliminary experiments , comparingsurvival after exposureto heat shock , with variable results ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002770 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : The Tc3 probe detects -30 bands on such blots , corresponding to 15 elements ( because there is an EcoRI site in the element ) , and with as Tcl , most races exhibit a distinctive pattern of bands ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002771 SentenceID s101 SENTENCE : At this time the mutantembryos slowed and within 30 min ceased movement , excepting residual movement of the tail ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002771 SentenceID s185 SENTENCE : Rhodamine phalloidin staining of these " floppy " Unc animalsrevealedlocalizedmusclepositiondefects that are remarkably reminiscent of mua-3 mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002771 SentenceID s210 SENTENCE : We observed no difference in number of seam cells in mup4 mutant embryos and WT embryos as assayed by the seam cell marker ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002771 SentenceID s211 SENTENCE : adherens junction, cuticular, filaments, junction To assess whether hypodermal cells were capable of differentiation , we tested for the expression and localization ofseveral hypodermal specific antigens and structures including ( 1 ) a filamentous antigen in seam cells ( GOHand BOGAERT 1991 ) , recognized by the antibody Ne2 / b4 . 14 ( data not shown ) ; ( 2 ) a specialized cuticular structure , alae , visualized by Nomarski optics ( data not shown ) ; ( 3 ) the adherens junction protein , recognized by mAb MH27 ( Figure 8 ; PRIESS HIRSH and 1986 ; WATERSTON 1988 ; PODBILEWICZ WHITE and 1994 ) ; and ( 4 ) hypodermal intermediate filaments in regions where muscle apposes hypodermis in mutant embryos , recognized by mAb MH4 ( Figure 6D ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002771 SentenceID s224 SENTENCE : Furthermore , costaining with the paramyosin andtheadherensjunction antibodies revealed that there is a tight correlation of muscle position defects and abnormal hypodermal cell shapes in threefold embryos ( data not shown ) . conclude that the hypoderWe mis in the threefold Mups appears WT until the time of muscle displacement and that the hypodermal defects in the threefold Mups are contemporaneous with muscle displacement .
PaperID WBPaper00002771 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : In addition , analyses of ar60 and mg36 mutants show that ar60 and mg36 are variably expressed , since -90 % of themutantsarrest as threefold / Ll Mups , andthe remaining 10 % arrestearlier in embryogenesis appearing morphologically as either bean or twofold ( Table 4 ) , Although we have not determined if the other six alleles are variably expressed , all eight alleles cause an identical threefold Mup phenotype as assayed under the dissecting microscope and by phalloidin staining ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002773 SentenceID s539 SENTENCE : body, nuclei In mnDf57 embryos ( possibly in qDfl0 embryos too , see Table 4A ) , the reduction in the number of LIN-26 positive nuclei in the head , which was paralleled by an almost matching increase in the body , was probably caused by anterior and ventral hypodermal migration defects , as evidenced by MH27 staining ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002773 SentenceID s548 SENTENCE : nuclei These cells had small nuclei , were located in the anterior part of the head ( Figure 6 , A-D ) and were notsurrounded by the MH27-reactive antigen ( Figure 6E and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002773 SentenceID s549 SENTENCE : body Also these cells were not found in young embryos , at a time when the only cellsto express LIN-26 are hypodermalcells in the body and the tail ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002773 SentenceID s587 SENTENCE : Strikingly , ozDf2embryos had no pharynx by MH2i andNomarski criteria ( Figure 7 and data not shown ) , raising the possibility that absence of the pharynx and presence o f additional LIN-26 positive cells are linked .
PaperID WBPaper00002773 SentenceID s628 SENTENCE : granules First , nDp2 and i / D / 2 wcre lacking normal MH27 staining in t h e gut ( Figure 7 , E , G , I and K ) or gut birefringent granules under Nomarski optics ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002774 SentenceID s410 SENTENCE : The silencing does not appear to be easily reversible , since we have not observed the reemergence of expression in silenced lines ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002774 SentenceID s42 SENTENCE : Antisense probes generated from either gests another mechanism whereby gene expression may plasmid gave similar results ; no signal was detected with sense be differentially repressed in the postembryonic germprobes ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002774 SentenceID s447 SENTENCE : Instead , dilution of kt-858 sequences resulted in Therefore , as a second approach toward obtaining lines that exhibited overall decreases in somatic exprestransgene activity in the germline , we hoped to modify sion while germline expression was not observed ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002811 SentenceID s106 SENTENCE : This experiment also showed that thetemperature-sensitive period for the let-ri0 [ gnKY ) sterility defect is later than that for the multivulva phenotype , since animals shifted from 15 " to 25 " during theL4 stage were nonMuv and sterile ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002811 SentenceID s128 SENTENCE : At 25 " , bt-hO ( ga89 ) animals exhibit a multivulva phenotype ( Tables 1 and 2 and Figure 1D ) and a male mating-defective phenotype ( data not shown ) , which are phenotypes seen at all temperatures in animals containing the gain-of-function mutation Zet-60 ( nl046 ) ( Figure 1B ; FERGUSON HOKVITZ and 1985 ; FERGUSON a1 . et 1987 ; WOOD 1988 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002811 SentenceID s130 SENTENCE : However , vulval induction and male mating appear virtually normal in leL-60 ( ga89 ) animals at 15 " ( Table 1 ; Figure 1C : and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002811 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : Oocytes accumulate behind the spermatheca1opening , and hermaphrodites lay mostly unfertilized oocytes ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002811 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : In wild-type animals , a single rowof oocytes emerge from the gonadal syncytium at the point where the gonad arm reflexes ; in kt60 ( gu89 ) animals , two rows of oocytes are often seen emerging at this point ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002811 SentenceID s25 SENTENCE : body At25 " , let-6O ( gu89 ) animals are larger than wildtype in circumference and appear to be filled with fluid , such that the intestine and gonad arms are often floating in an enlarged body cavity ( Figure 1D and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002811 SentenceID s70 SENTENCE : ( syl ) and lin-2 ( n397 ) mutations enhance the multivulva phenotype of let-60 ( n1046 ) by a mechanism that is not yet understood SIMSKE , HAJNAL , R . HOSKINS A . and S . K . KIM , unpublished results ) , but these mutations have no such effect on the multivulva phenotype of let-60 ( gu89 ) ( data not shown ) . was built by mating letThe strain mpk-I ( n2521 ) ; let-6O ( gu89 ) 60 ( gu89 ) ; him-5 ( e1490 ) males raised at 15 " with unc-79 ( e1068 ) mpk-l ( n2521 ) hermaphrodites .
PaperID WBPaper00002811 SentenceID s75 SENTENCE : The Egl phenotype seen in some of these animals at 25 " ( Table 3 ) is due to weak effects on vulval induction similar to that described for the mpk-l ( ku1 ) mutation ( WUand HAN1994 ) ( data not shown ) . gupI ( n1329 ) was built by mating N2 The strain let-6O ( gu89 ) ; males into the strain lin-7 ( e1413 ) unc-52 ( e250 ) ; gupl ( n1329 ) lon-2 ( e678 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002811 SentenceID s888 SENTENCE : We found that gap-l ( n1329 ) did not dramatically increase thepenetrance of the multivulva phenotype caused by let-60 ( n1046 ) , either in let-60 ( n1046 ) homozygotes ( Table 4 ) or in let-hO ( n1046 ) / + heterozygotes ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002812 SentenceID s296 SENTENCE : nuclear The nuclear and other cytological phenotypes of spe-5 ( hcllO ) / sDf4 sperm were similar to that of spe-5 ( hcllU ) homozygous cells , suggesting that this represents the null phenotype of spe-5 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002812 SentenceID s324 SENTENCE : nuclei When nuclei fail to segregate to developing spermatids , MSP is diffusely scattered throughout the cell with no clear segregation pattern ( Figure 5AA ) ; this is also true for tubulin , actin , and the 1CB4 antigen ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002812 SentenceID s73 SENTENCE : nuclei If this hypothesis is true , it would alsoexplain the unusual tubulin morphology observed in spe-5 terminal spermatocytes , where tubulin staining occasionally appears as clumps that co-localizes with the nuclei ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002812 SentenceID s77 SENTENCE : We have detected no effects o n of growth or morphogenesis any somatic it issues in these mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002898 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : Parallel experiments using EMS indicate that lethality remains below 20 % u p to 140 m EMS ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002898 SentenceID s66 SENTENCE : Reversion frequency using EMS was measured as 1 . 1 X in parallel experiments ( data not shown ) . of the paralyzed , rubber-band phenotypecan be accomplished by null mutations in one ofseveralknown genes : sup-9 , suplo , sup-18 or unc-93 , or by dominant mutations in sup-11 ( GREENWALD HORVITZ and 1982 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002898 SentenceID s86 SENTENCE : There is no apparent difference in thedistribution of revertant alleles in these four genes as a function of ENU concentration ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002958 SentenceID s102 SENTENCE : Mating wild- twitching in arrested embryos indicatedthe differentiation of gut and muscle , respectively ( LAUFER et al . 1980 ) . type hermaphrodites to M / + males did not result in an Zet-354 ( & 42 ) : Defects were similar to those previously increase of inviable embryos relative to controls ( data not shown ) , again indicating that the embryonic lethalreported for the other dominant mutations of the locus ( UNS1990b ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002958 SentenceID s104 SENTENCE : granules M / + and + / progeny werefound in quently incomplete , resulting in multinucleated cells . equal frequency among the adult F ( data not shown ) , 1 Embryos arrested with several hundred cells , some disindicating that the M / + males mated efficiently at the played twitchingand gut granules , but none exhibited restrictive temperature and thattheir M / + progeny did any morphogenesis . not arrest during larval development .
PaperID WBPaper00002958 SentenceID s109 SENTENCE : envelope, nuclear, nuclear envelope In embryos et Although some of the new mutations had decreased from sb48 / + hermaphrodites , nuclear envelope breakmale mating efficiencies , all were capable of siring large down in PI was usually delayed relative to wild type , and numbers of cross progeny ( data not shown ) . the P1 division lagged behind that of AB from between In summary , although five ofour eight new mutations the normal 3 min to up to 10 min .
PaperID WBPaper00002959 SentenceID s102 SENTENCE : The Zag-2 ( d ) allelesin trans to S D f O supWith all other lin-12 alleles tested ( including n952 and n302 ) pressed slightlybetter than when in trans to any of the the suppressionby lag-2 ( n1255 ) was also temperature sensitive ( data not shown ) . point mutations tested .
PaperID WBPaper00002959 SentenceID s107 SENTENCE : Temperature di of suppression : The degree tt iy v peratures ( all lin-l2 ( d ) mutationswereslightly more of suppression of Zin-l2 ( d ) mutations for vulval inducpenetrant for certainlineagetransformationstested at 15 " , data not shown , and I . GREENWALD , tion was determined for each suppressor mutation at personal 15 " , 20 " and 25 " , as shown in Table 7 .
PaperID WBPaper00002959 SentenceID s135 SENTENCE : Genotypes analyzed were sup1 7 ( n1260 ) ; lin-l2 ( n302 ) and lin-l2 ( n137 ) ; lag-2 ( n1255 ) . genes partially or completely suppressed the Muv phenotype of strong Lin-l2 ( d ) alleles , despite suppressing AC / W more weakly than lag-2 ( sa37 ) and lag2 ( n1255 ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002959 SentenceID s176 SENTENCE : At25 " , glpl ( e2142 ) affects only embryos , while glpl ( e2141 ) affects both embryos and distal tip cell regulation the germline . selM ( su54 ) of acted as a dominant enhancer of glpl ( e2142 ) , and the strain couldnot be maintained ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002959 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : For lag-2 ( n1255 ) and the supl 7 alleles n316 , n1260 , and n1258 , combinations with other lin-l2 ( d ) alleles wereconstructed ( including at least one suppressor allele from each gene with n137 , nl77 , and n769 ) , and these combinations also all showed suppression to an extent expected from the strengths of the lin-I2 alleles ( data not shown ) . lin-IZ ( d ) extragenic suppressor mutations are rare : In the search for extragenic suppressor mutations , we isolated 109 probable intrageniclin-12revertants , about one per 1500 mutagenized genomes screened .
PaperID WBPaper00002959 SentenceID s266 SENTENCE : Mutations in six of the seven genes suppressed Muv phenotype seen the in strong Zin-l2 ( d ) mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002959 SentenceID s65 SENTENCE : unc-32 ( e189 ) and unc-46 ( eI77 ) were present as markers in many of these strains and had no effect on suppression ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00002959 SentenceID s94 SENTENCE : Whether the parent of each counted brood was suppressed or not was not correlated with the degree of suppression of the progeny ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003119 SentenceID s193 SENTENCE : cuticles In contrast , the ve33 allele is semi-dominant ; precocious alae are detected on the cuticles of ve33 / animals with a frequency and appearance similar to that of ve33 homozygotes ( Data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003119 SentenceID s98 SENTENCE : Post-dauer suppression of these defects is also observed for animals bearing the ve17 , ve19 , ve21 , ve23 and ve35 alleles ( data not shown ) . ve34 also maps to LG X and produces a precocious alae phenotype , but it fails to suppress the Egl and dauer defective phenotypes of lin-4 .
PaperID WBPaper00003120 SentenceID s199 SENTENCE : centrosome, centrosomes, microtubules Note that the AB centrosome is spherical , while the P1 1 , the centrosomes ( arrows ) , together was not clear from the DIC images whether the centrosome had divided , but under immunofluorescence microscopy , microtubules appeared to be organized around a single large centrosome ( data not shown ) , consistent with a defect in duplication .
PaperID WBPaper00003120 SentenceID s62 SENTENCE : Like spd-1 , the Unc phenotype of stu-16 appeared more penetrant than the sterile phenotype ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003120 SentenceID s85 SENTENCE : The effect of this mutation may be kinetic ; that is , the cyk-2 may simply slow the progression ganized in spd-2 embryos ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003122 SentenceID s90 SENTENCE : pDP # DH28 was made by in vitro mutagenesis ( Leatherbarrow and Fersht 1986 ) of a wild-type genomic Ce-fem-2 clone ( pDP # DH11 ) that can completely rescue fem-2 mutant defects [ data not shown ; insert includes the minimal rescuing region shown in Pilgrim et al . ( 1995 ) ] .
PaperID WBPaper00003160 SentenceID s178 SENTENCE : These samples also contained endogenous bacterial proteins that were visible on Coomassie blue-stained gels ( data not shown ) and usually did not react with the antiserum .
PaperID WBPaper00003160 SentenceID s179 SENTENCE : However , the uppermost band in lane 3 did react with this antiserum and appears to be an endogenous bacterial protein , since we observed the same band in partially purified samples of unrelated GST fusion proteins ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003160 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : chromosome Genetic mapping and complementation tests : The suppression of the let-60 ( gf ) Muv phenotype caused by n1855 , n2515 , and n2525 displayed linkage to let-60 and dpy-20 on chromosome IV ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003160 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : chromosome However , these mutations partially complemented several other suppressor mutations located on chromosome IV ( data not shown ) and thus appeared to define one complementation group .
PaperID WBPaper00003160 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : Genetic mapping and complementation experiments were used to analyze the recessive abnormal vulva phenotype caused by n1790 , n1761 , and ky54 . n1761 failed to complement n1790 and ky54 for this phenotype , suggesting these three mutations represent one complementation group ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003160 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : These six lin-1 mutations did not cause significant hermaphrodite sterility ( data not shown ) , suggesting that lin-1 is not involved in germ cell maturation .
PaperID WBPaper00003160 SentenceID s48 SENTENCE : dpy-13 mutants did not display significant larval lethality or abnormal vulvae ( data not shown ) . e This strain also contained unc-54 ( r293 ) ; the Unc phenotype is suppressed by smg-1 ( Pulak and Anderson 1993 ) . in signaling genes , such as lin-45 raf ( Han et al . 1993 ) , and are less severe than the defects in vulval formation caused by strong loss-of-function mutations in signaling genes .
PaperID WBPaper00003160 SentenceID s74 SENTENCE : However , 90 % of all proteins have one or more S / TP sequences ( data not shown ) , and yet a particular MAP kinase does not phosphorylate all these proteins or every S / TP sequence within a target protein .
PaperID WBPaper00003177 SentenceID s101 SENTENCE : Specifically , let-60 ( n1046 ) single mutants have a Muv phenotype , but mpk-1 ( ga111 ) ; let- 60 ( n1046 ) double mutants have a wild-type vulval phenotype ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003177 SentenceID s103 SENTENCE : We found that mpk-1 ( ga111 ) / mpk-1 ( ga117 ) heterozygotes are wild-type , but that mpk-1 ( ga111 ) / mpk-1 ( ku8 ) heterozygotes are Egl although they have a normal pattern of vulval cell fates ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003177 SentenceID s165 SENTENCE : Specifically , lin-25 ; hs-mek ( gf ) ; hs-mpk-1 ( gf ) and sur-2 ; hsmek ( gf ) ; hs-mpk-1 ( gf ) animals have an Egl and Pvl phenotype ( indicating reduced expression of the 1 cell fate by P6 . p ) , but not a Muv phenotype ( which would indicate increased expression of vulval cell fates by P3 . p , P4 . p , or P8 . p ; Table 6 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003177 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : Three mutations isolated in a clonal screen for sterile and vulvaless animals were mapped using STS polymorphisms ( data not shown ; Williams et al . 1992 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003177 SentenceID s206 SENTENCE : The heterozygous mpk-1 ( ga111 ) / mpk- 1 ( ga117 ) mothers are not sterile , though they do show reduced fecundity ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003177 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : Molecular characterization of mpk-1 alleles : 1 ( ku8 ) Egl phenotype ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003178 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : This work was arrangements in a ct61 background and have found no supported by studentships from the Natural Sciences and Engineering changes relative to wild type ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003178 SentenceID s63 SENTENCE : A fragment of the appropriate size was cloned and sequenced and shown to represent the trans-splicing of SL1 to the 5 end of the mel-26 sequence ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003178 SentenceID s99 SENTENCE : There is no indication that the mel-26 ( ct61 ) allele has any effect on the size or abundance of the mel-26 message ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003179 SentenceID s103 SENTENCE : The ratio of nondauer-to-dauer larva progeny was approximately 3 : 1 , except for m41 heterozygotes , which segregated only 12 8 % dauer larvae , indicating that the Daf-c phenotype was maternally rescued in approximately half of the m41 homozygous progeny ( Table 9 ; data not shown for ts alleles where no maternal rescue was seen ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003179 SentenceID s115 SENTENCE : In most daf-2 mutants , matricide , resulting in a " bag of worms " phenotype ( Trent et al . 1983 ) , was observed at a low frequency ( 20 % ) , occurring more readily at 22 . 5 than 15 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003179 SentenceID s125 SENTENCE : Seclaid was also reduced ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003179 SentenceID s160 SENTENCE : This is also true of e1370 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003179 SentenceID s162 SENTENCE : In the case of class 2 alleles ( e1370 , e1391 , and m596 ) , the majority of animals exhibited greatly reduced pumping during the first 40 % of the life span , but in class 1 ( e1371 , m41 , and sa193 ) mutants , as in wild-type populations , the majority of animals exhibited greatly reduced pumping only in the second half of the life span ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003179 SentenceID s261 SENTENCE : Maximum survival was also enhanced ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003179 SentenceID s264 SENTENCE : With regard to thermotolerance , the e1370 double mutants were slightly less tolerant than e1370 , whereas the e1391 double mutants were slightly more tolerant ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003179 SentenceID s267 SENTENCE : Conversely , death by internal hatching was strongly suppressed by daf-12 ( m20 ) in the class 2 alleles e1370 and e1391 but not e979 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003179 SentenceID s271 SENTENCE : Addition of daf-12 ( m20 ) resulted in most cases in a marginal increase in the severity of the phenotype ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003179 SentenceID s59 SENTENCE : The severely Age allele sa223 was also strongly Itt ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003258 SentenceID s40 SENTENCE : With spot embryo DNA as template , two fragments , 680 bp and 995 bp , were produced , corresponding in size to those expected for the LGIII and LGI primer pairs , respectively ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003258 SentenceID s97 SENTENCE : PCR was performed to test these predictions ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003259 SentenceID s110 SENTENCE : Such animals are severely Unc , moving ture of body-wall muscle when viewed by polarized light microscopy ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003259 SentenceID s70 SENTENCE : They exhibit vigorous motility , muscle , vulval muscle , and diagonal muscles of the male indicative of near-normal body-wall muscle function , tail ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003364 SentenceID s104 SENTENCE : -C . Labbe , S . Hekimi and L . A . Rokeach analysis on staged-worm protein extracts revealed that ROP-1 levels are also stable ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003364 SentenceID s118 SENTENCE : The same results were obtained with a rop-1 : : gfp reporter construct ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003364 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : No ROP-1 protein was detected , even when the primary antibody concentration and exposure times were greatly increased ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003364 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : Thus , we scored the brood size and the life span of rop-1 mutants , but observed no difference between wild-type and rop-1 mutant worms at either 15 , 20 , or 25 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003364 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : Using this method , we could not observe any difference between the levels of 5S rRNA in wild-type and rop-1 mutant strains ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003364 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : Yet the levels of tRNA in wild type and the rop-1 mutant strain appeared the same ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003364 SentenceID s55 SENTENCE : The mutations observed maintained in general the ratio of purine : pyrimidine in the 5S molecule and were principally located in the regions defined as loop B-stem III-loop C and stem V-loop E ( data not shown ; O ' Brien and Wolin 1994 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003364 SentenceID s77 SENTENCE : Nevertheless , the levels of CeY RNA in these strains were comparable to those observed in Figure 3B and were still much lower than in the wild type ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003390 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : It is trans-spliced to an SL1 leader sequence and begins at exon 2 ( data not shown ; Figure 2 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003390 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : They were mapped using standard marked strains ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003390 SentenceID s321 SENTENCE : Evidence suggests that both the long and short transcripts of fox-1 are sufficient to cause XO lethality when overexpressed in males ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003390 SentenceID s66 SENTENCE : All forms are also present in a pure population of adult male animals . lacZ driven from the fox-1 promoter is ubiquitously expressed in the embryo from at least the 1820 cell stage up to the threefold stage ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003390 SentenceID s71 SENTENCE : chromosomes Construction of fox-1 ( g f ) : To achieve stable overexpression of fox-1 , extrachromosomal arrays of RO4B3 and pRF4 were integrated into the chromosomes and mapped ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003531 SentenceID s114 SENTENCE : By Western analysis , we were able to detect a protein of the predicted size of SPE-12 ( 35 kD ) present in purified him-5 spermatids only when probing with anti-SPE-12 immune serum ; preimmune serum failed to recognize this protein ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003531 SentenceID s135 SENTENCE : Residual full-size SPE-12 seen in the digested samples is not likely due to incomplete digestion , since longer protease incubation times did not diminish its strength ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003531 SentenceID s80 SENTENCE : The hcEx052 transgenic array also restores self-fertility to hc149 and hc152 hermaphrodites , confirming that members of the spe-12 complementation group are allelic ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003531 SentenceID s89 SENTENCE : spe-12 ( hc149 ) cDNAs were smaller than those from the other alleles and wild type and lacked exon III ; this changes the downstream reading frame , resulting in a premature stop codon that prevents translation of the transmembrane domain and C terminus ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003531 SentenceID s91 SENTENCE : In addition , mutant hermaphrodites are equally sterile as homozygotes and trans-heterozygotes in all allelic combinations and show no additional abnormalities when in trans to the underlying deficiencies nDf24 or nDf25 ( L ' Hernault et al . 1988 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003532 SentenceID s1 SENTENCE : MATERIALS AND METHODS briggsae genome that appeared to be very tightly linked upon further analysis ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003532 SentenceID s109 SENTENCE : The small region CISc corresponds to a sequence necessary for normal lin-26 expression in the somatic gonad ( den Boer et al . 1998 ) . don in lin-26B ( TGG to TAG , nts 29 , 66329 , 665 in that is not detected by lin-26A-specific exons ( data not shown ) , suggesting that lin-26A is a minor isoform or F18A1 ) , whereas it transforms a methionine codon into an isoleucine codon in lin-26C ( ATG to ATA ) , which is possibly a transcription intermediate ( see also below ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003532 SentenceID s179 SENTENCE : We observed that pML225 but not pML224 could rescue the lethality and sterility caused by lin-26 ( mc15 ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003532 SentenceID s211 SENTENCE : Expression of the lir- 1 : : lacZ construct pML169 , which should reflect the expression of all lir-1 isoforms , and of the lir-1 : : lacZ construct pML165 , which should reflect only the expression of lir-1 isoforms starting after the second exon , were first very weakly detected at the 200-cell stage and then clearly detected at the 350-cell stage in major hypodermal cells ( Figure 6 , E and H ) and at the early comma stage in those same hypodermal cells , as well as in support cells and in all minor hypodermal cells ( Figure 6F and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003532 SentenceID s53 SENTENCE : We performed RT-PCR experiments to confirm the existence of cDNAs ( Figure 3 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003532 SentenceID s85 SENTENCE : By Northern blot analysis , we detected a large band in the 1 . 2-kb range ( Figure 3A ) that can be resolved upon longer migration into two main bands with estimated sizes of 1 . 2 and 1 . 3 kb ( data not shown ) , the expected sizes of lir-1A and / or lir-1E and of lir-C . RT-PCR experiments confirmed the existence of the three alternative lir-1 splice variants and indicated that RNA from ( A ) wild-type C . elegans or ( B ) C . their relative abundance remains stable during development ( Figure 3C ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003532 SentenceID s91 SENTENCE : The lin-26C isoform is at least 20-fold less abundant than the lin- 26B isoform in L1 larvae , 50-fold less abundant in embryos , and essentially not detectable at other stages ( Figure 3C and data not shown ) , indicating that it is a minor isoform , probably active only in a subset of cells ( see discussion ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003533 SentenceID s124 SENTENCE : Four transmitting lines made by injecting constructs including only the her-1b coding sequences exhibited no apparent lethality ( data not shown ) , indicating that these sequences as DNA are not toxic to XX animals .
PaperID WBPaper00003533 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : First , a construct containing the 3 . 4-kb P2 region ( pF10HA ; Figure 2 ) was observed to cause apparent hermaphrodite-specific lethality when carried by transgenic worms as an extrachromosomal array ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003533 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : Moreover , all these animals appeared to be complete males , based on gonad ( data not shown ) and tail morphology ( see Figure 4 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003533 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : Estimation of P2 transgene copy numbers in the two integrants ctIs1 and ctIs32 was based on Southern blots probed with P2 DNA sequences , which hybridize both to a band corresponding to the endogenous her-1 sequence as well as to the P2 transgenes ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003533 SentenceID s71 SENTENCE : In both of the two transmitting lines obtained , we observed no masculinized ani- 710 and 4564 copies of P2 sequences per array , respectively ( data not shown ; see materials and methods ) . mals over several generations .
PaperID WBPaper00003598 SentenceID s37 SENTENCE : All seven mutations were recessive to their wild-type alleles and affected DTC migration zygotically ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003598 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : This analysis assigned mig-14 ( k124 ) and mig-19 ( k142 ) to linkage group II ( LGII ) ; mig-17 ( k113 ) to LGV ; and vab- 3 ( k121 ) , vab-3 ( k143 ) , and mig-20 ( k148 ) to LGX ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003598 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : Mutations within the same linkage group , mig-14 and mig-19 , as well as vab-3 ( k121 ) and mig-20 complemented each other ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003644 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : Similar results were obtained in a comparison of embryonic RNAs from these two strains ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003663 SentenceID s121 SENTENCE : Northern blots indicated that sym-1 produces an 2 . 5-kb transcript and that its accumulation is unaffected by mec-8 mutation ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003663 SentenceID s154 SENTENCE : A Northern blot indicated that sym-5 produces an 2 . 7-kb transcript , the accumulation of which is unaffected by mec-8 mutation ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003663 SentenceID s55 SENTENCE : Temperature-shift experiments indicated that the temperature-sensitive period corresponded to the first half of embryogenesis ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003663 SentenceID s93 SENTENCE : ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003719 SentenceID s112 SENTENCE : In particular , lin- 49 mutants are inviable at 25 ( Table 6 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003719 SentenceID s149 SENTENCE : We have observed that mutant animals are variably Unc , Sma , and Egl , and some cell lineages in both males and hermaphrodites can be disrupted ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003719 SentenceID s61 SENTENCE : We observed similar effects in lin-59 mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003720 SentenceID s12 SENTENCE : chromosome The suppression of the let-60 ( gf ) Muv phenotype caused by n2527 displayed linkage to lon-2 on chromosome X ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003720 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : chromosome The seven other suppressor mutations that are positioned on chromosome X complemented the n2527 suppression of let-60 ( gf ) Muv phenotype , indicating that the complementation group defined by n2527 contains only one mutation ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003720 SentenceID s162 SENTENCE : It is likely that polymorphisms occur at a similar frequency throughout the of the Muv phenotype ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003720 SentenceID s65 SENTENCE : The deficiency uDf1 is likely to delete cdf-1 because it fails to complement unc-6 ( Savage et al . 1989 ) and mup-2 ( data not shown ) , which are positioned right and left of cdf-1 , respectively . uDf1 does not delete lon-2 , and uDf1 homozygotes die as embryos ( Savage et al . 1989 ) . f Non-Lon self-progeny of let-60 ( gf ) dpy-20 ; lon-2 / uDf1 hermaphrodites . g amEx28 , amEx29 , and amEx31 are extrachromosomal arrays that contain the transformation marker pRF4 and pJJ4 , pJJ5 and pJJ6 , respectively ( see materials and methods ; Figure 2 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003776 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : Late fertility was found to have a QTL map very similar to that of total fertility , while the map for early fertility is nearly identical to that for population growth ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003777 SentenceID s128 SENTENCE : In agreement with Montgomery et al . ( 1998 ) we also found that lin-15A ( RNAi ) and lin- 15B ( RNAi ) animals had a normal vulva whereas injection of lin-15A dsRNA together with lin-15B dsRNA caused a Muv phenotype ( data not shown ; see also Tabara et al . 1998 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003777 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : Specifically , we can detect three precursors at 3 . 3 , 4 . 2 , and 6 . 2 kb ; the 3 . 3-kb precursor ( the most abundant of them ) starts , based on its size , at the beginning of lir-1 exon 3 , while the other two presumably start in lir-1 intron 1 ( data not shown ; note that we have previously reported the existence of a lir-1 RT- PCR product beginning at lir-1 exon 3 ; Dufourcq et al . 1999 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003777 SentenceID s37 SENTENCE : This technique was first described using that the corresponding lir-1 sequences were indeed deleted , single-stranded RNA ( Guo and Kemphues 1995 ) ; howrather than translocated somewhere else in the genome , by carrying out PCR reactions on homozygous lir-1 ( mc33 ) animals ever , it was subsequently recognized that doubleusing various primer pairs internal to the mc33 deletion : in stranded RNA is the active molecule ( Fire et al . 1998 ) ; no case did we find a band that would indicate the presence the term RNAi itself was coined by Rocheleau et al . of translocated lir-1 sequences ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003777 SentenceID s53 SENTENCE : Yet , RNAi against full-length lir-2 or a fragment coding for its zinc fingers ( Figure 3E ) , or full-length lir-3 ( data not shown ) , failed to give a significant phenotype .
PaperID WBPaper00003777 SentenceID s82 SENTENCE : lir-1 ( mc33 ) mcDf3 embryos , like embryos homozygous for the overlapping deficiency mnDf106 ( Chanal and Labouesse 1997 ) , had 50 % additional cells compared to wild-type embryos ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003778 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : Other evidence supporting the functional conservation of lin-3 in the two species is that a C . elegans lin-3 : : lacZ construct was expressed in the AC of C . briggsae when introduced as a transgene ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003778 SentenceID s62 SENTENCE : When we performed RT-PCR on RNA extracted from C . elegans of mixed developmental stages , we were indeed able to amplify sequences encoded by exon C2 , although with very low efficiency ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003778 SentenceID s79 SENTENCE : All three are recessive alleles ( data not shown ) and cause completely penetrant lethality when homozygous .
PaperID WBPaper00003779 SentenceID s25 SENTENCE : chromosomes Failure to detect crossovers in these experiments indicates that spermatocyte meiosis as well as oocyte meiosis is defective in him-14 mutant hermaphrodites , corroborating our cytological observations of rampant missegregation of chromosomes during spermatocyte meiosis in both males and hermaphrodites ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003815 SentenceID s140 SENTENCE : Finally , we demonstrated that reporter transgenes equivalent to transgenes C and D but lacking a NLS could also promote the presence of extra cells ( data not shown ) , suggesting that the NLS is not required for this phenotype .
PaperID WBPaper00003815 SentenceID s173 SENTENCE : No significant extra cell survival was detected in nonheat-shocked animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003815 SentenceID s37 SENTENCE : Furthermore , we examined ced-3 mRNA size and level in 11 of these 50 ced-3 mutants ( n717 , n718 , n1040 , n1129 , n1163 , n1165 , n1286 , n1949 , n2426 , n2430 , and n2433 ) and found that all 11 produced ced-3 mRNA of roughly the same size and abundance as in the wild type ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003815 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : Interestingly , we found that the CED-3 ( n2871 ) protein expressed in Escherichia coli lacked proteolytic activity ( data not shown ) , suggesting that the QACQG sequence is functional only in specific sequence contexts .
PaperID WBPaper00003815 SentenceID s56 SENTENCE : Although all eight ced-3 alleles suppressed the lethality caused by the weak ced-9 ( n1950 n2161 ) mutation ( data not shown ) , not all suppressed the stronger ced-9 ( n1950 n2077 ) mutation .
PaperID WBPaper00003815 SentenceID s60 SENTENCE : Using a second assay of ced-3 activity , we observed that ced-9 ( n1950 n2077 ) ; ced-3 ( n2447 or n2443 ) animals were severely egg-laying defective , presumably as a consequence of the deaths of the HSN neurons required for egg laying ( data not shown ; Hengartner et al . 1992 ) , whereas ced-9 ( n1950 n2077 ) ; ced-3 ( n717 ) animals were egg-laying competent .
PaperID WBPaper00003815 SentenceID s69 SENTENCE : Similar results were observed using other enzymes ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003815 SentenceID s71 SENTENCE : In support of this interpretation , we were able to amplify a wild-type-sized DNA fragment from ced- 3 ( n2452 ) animals using PCR and primers located upstream of exon 1 and at the 5 end of intron 3 ( primers SHA2 and PCR2 , Table 1 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003815 SentenceID s72 SENTENCE : However , we could not amplify any DNA fragments from ced-3 ( n2452 ) animals using PCR and primer pairs located at the 3 end of intron 3 and in intron 4 ( primers PCR3 and PCR4 , Table 1 ) , in introns 4 and 7 ( primers PCR5 and 650 , Table 1 ) , or in intron 7 and downstream of the ced-3 stop codon ( primers BD1 and 1200 , Table 1 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003815 SentenceID s77 SENTENCE : The size and level of the message were not discernibly different from those of the wild-type message ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003815 SentenceID s79 SENTENCE : Sequence determination of the resulting bands suggested that splicing occurred at positions 1 , 2 , 3 , 0 , 1 , 2 , and 3 ( , upstream ; , downstream ) of the wild-type splice site ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003815 SentenceID s87 SENTENCE : All lacZ and GFP reporter transgenes we examined were expressed in many cells throughout the animal primarily during embryogenesis , starting at about the 200-cell stage , and during the first larval period ( L1 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003815 SentenceID s88 SENTENCE : Very weak expression was seen in a small number of cells after the L1 stage ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003815 SentenceID s89 SENTENCE : Expression was detected both in cells that normally die and in those that normally live ( data not shown ) , consistent with previous experiments suggesting that ced-3 activity is present both in cells that do and in cells that do not die ( Shaham and Horvitz 1996a ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003827 SentenceID s100 SENTENCE : cytoplasm Translation of the predicted mRNA the hybrid protein in sel-5 ( ) lin-12 ( ) hermaphrodites . results in a premature stop codon due to a shift in the The hybrid protein seems to localize predominantly to ORF in the kinase domain ( the alternative amino acids the cytoplasm of various cells ( including Z1 . ppp and QIQMTRFDQSERWTGECIYDG are predicted before Z4 . aaa ; data not shown ) and is excluded from the nuthe stop codon ) . cleus ( Figure 4 ) ; several independent transgenic lines Both SEL-5A and SEL-5B can complement selshowed a similar pattern of subcellular localization .
PaperID WBPaper00003827 SentenceID s102 SENTENCE : In hermaphrocient ; we observed what appears to be transient rescue dites , strong lin-12 ( d ) mutations cause a highly penein some lines in early generations that was lost in later trant Multivulva phenotype , because the cells P3 . p-P8 . p , ones ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003827 SentenceID s103 SENTENCE : Cosmid F35G12 , which contains also called the vulval precursor cells ( VPC ) , adopt a sel-5 ( ) , also shows this behavior ( data not shown ) , so particular vulval fate , termed " 2 we believe the lack of antisuppression reflects low exdovulvae .
PaperID WBPaper00003827 SentenceID s115 SENTENCE : sel-5 displays it issue-specific interactions with lin-12 : o " , and generate pseuo " fate , We also explored potential interactions between sel-5 SEL-5 Facilitates lin-12 Activity TABLE 6 Cell-type-specific suppression of lin-12 ( d ) by sel-5 Average no . of % males pseudovulvae in with Genotypea hermaphrodites pseudovulvae 0 ( n many ) 0 ( n many ) lin-12 ( n950 ) 5 . 2 ( n 80 ) 92 . 6 ( n sel-5 ( n1250 ) lin-12 ( n950 ) 5 . 1 ( n 80 ) 97 . 0 ( n sel-5 ( n1254 ) lin-12 ( n950 ) 5 . 3 ( n 80 ) 96 . 1 ( n sel-5 ( ok149 ) lin-12 ( n950 ) 4 . 9 ( n 94 ) 96 . 0 ( n lin-12 ( n137 ) 5 . 09 ( n 44 ) b ND sel-5 ( n1254 ) lin-12 ( n137 ) 4 . 79 ( n 42 ) b ND Strains were grown at 15 unless otherwise indicated ; similar results were obtained with strains grown at 20 . a Males were obtained from strains carrying him-5 ( e1490 ) in addition to the lin-12 or sel-5 allele shown . b Scored hermaphrodites grown at 20 . c The presence of at least one dorsal coelomocyte was confirmed by Nomarski microscopy . and Kimble 1987 ; Priess et al . 1987 ) , and saw no effect on total brood size , maternal effect lethality , or fertility ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003827 SentenceID s116 SENTENCE : We also injected glp-1 ( ar202 ) hermaphrodites with sel-5 yk7a7 dsRNA and did not see any suppression of the gain-of-function mitotic proliferation defect of this allele ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003827 SentenceID s75 SENTENCE : The presence of these two splice variants was also confirmed by the appearance of two equally abundant bands of the appropriate sizes ( 3 . 7 and 2 . 4 kb ) on a Northern blot of total N2 ( wild-type ) RNA probed with the complete sel-5 gene ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003828 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : As a heterozygote , it suppresses the abnormal sensitivity of unc-79 , but as a homozygote , it does not suppress the abnormal sensitivity or the fainting phenotype of unc-79 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003877 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : The single ORF of the NeSL element includes a centrally located RT domain with excellent agreement ( data not shown ) to the 11 highly conserved motifs identified in the RT domain of all non-LTR elements ( Malik et al . 1999 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003877 SentenceID s88 SENTENCE : Because the only protein domain common to all non-LTR elements is the RT domain , we aligned the complete RT domain from NeSL-1 to that of other non-LTR elements ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003907 SentenceID s104 SENTENCE : The anterior-most intestinal cell became stained from the L3 stage ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003907 SentenceID s159 SENTENCE : When a fluorescent dye , DiI , was injected into the pseudocoelom , they accumulated the dye , indicating that they retained phagocytic activity ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003907 SentenceID s160 SENTENCE : We could not detect any abnormality in the gross morphology of the nervous system of nc4 visualized with GFP ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003907 SentenceID s161 SENTENCE : The pattern of GFP expression by p5E5 in nc4 was indistinguishable from that in wild-type animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003907 SentenceID s166 SENTENCE : For nc3 mutants , a protein was detected by both immunoblotting ( Figure 1F ) and immunostaining ( data not shown ) , suggesting that nc3 encodes a truncated EAT-20 protein initiated at a cryptic start site or translated from mRNAs spliced in an abnormal manner , for example by exon-skipping .
PaperID WBPaper00003907 SentenceID s182 SENTENCE : The distance between the anterior and the posterior turning points of the gonadal arms was also shorter in nc4 animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003907 SentenceID s196 SENTENCE : In weak Eat mutants , such as eat-4 and eat- 11 , intestinal autofluorescence is indistinguishable from that of wild-type animals , whereas intestinal autofluorescence of medium to strong Eat mutants , such as eat-6 , eat-8 , eat-10 , and eat-13 , is weak ( Figure 6E and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003907 SentenceID s200 SENTENCE : eat-20 mutants have abnormal eating behavior : Though we could not detect any morphological defect in the pharynx by light microscopic observation ( data not shown ) , the starved appearance , which is characteristic of previously isolated Eat mutants defective in feeding ( Avery 1993a ) , prompted us to examine the pharynm .
PaperID WBPaper00003907 SentenceID s216 SENTENCE : synaptic The EPGs of eat-20 appear to be normal in all respects , including positive transients in the excitation phase , negative transients in the relaxation phase , and M3 inhibitory post synaptic potentials ( IPSPs ) in the plateau phase ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003907 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : Though p5E5 contains a 2-kb genomic fragment derived from LGV at the 5 side in addition to the fragment corresponding to the eat-20 gene , we confirmed that an extrachromosomal array of p5E5 and that of p5E5del , in which the 2-kb fragment was deleted , gave the same GFP expression pattern ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003907 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : Since homozygous eat-20 ( nc2 : : Tc1 ) expressed EAT-20 normally as revealed by immunoblot ( Figure 1F ) and immunostaining analyses ( data not shown ) , we screened nc2 : : Tc1 by PCR in an attempt to detect deletion mutations that arose after imprecise transposon excision ( Zwaal et al . 1993 ; Plasterk 1995 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003907 SentenceID s56 SENTENCE : First , hermaphrodites trans-heterozygous for nc4 and eat-17 ( ad707 ) , or nc6 and eat-17 ( ad707 ) were indistinguishable from wild-type animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003907 SentenceID s57 SENTENCE : Second , fosmid H30A04 did not rescue the starved appearance of ad707 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003907 SentenceID s92 SENTENCE : In addition , GFP was detected in a subset of neurons : IL1 , OLQ , BAG , and ALN ( Figure 2 , AC ) , several circumpharyngeal cells ( Figure 2D ) , and coelomocytes ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003950 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : For other gels where separation was sufficient to allow the determination of the individual radioactivity in these two bands located one nucleotide apart , the amount of radioactivity in the 1 and wt splice site products in both the unc-73 ( e936 ) ; sup-39 ( ) and unc-73 ( e936 ) ; sup-39 ( je5 ) animals was roughly equal ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003950 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : At high RNase A / T1 concentrations ( 1 : 50 dilution of RNaseA / T1 stock supplied with kit ) the 23 splice form could be detected as two different bands of higher mobility indicating digestion at the point where 23 nucleotides of this mRNA form looped out from the probe , while the wt and 1 splice forms were not internally cleaved ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003952 SentenceID s49 SENTENCE : The effect of excluding extreme lines is to somewhat reduce estimates of both U and s , but the latter estimates are still surprisingly high ( e . . , for productivity , s 0 . 5 , data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003952 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : The difference in precision becomes smaller if the experiment is noiser ( e . . , VL / VEL 2 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003992 SentenceID s100 SENTENCE : Since 8-bromo-cGMP induced dauer recovery in daf-11 ( sa195 ) dauers ( data not shown ) , one set of experiments was scored particularly frequently to be certain that the drug blocks dauer formation rather than inducing rapid recovery .
PaperID WBPaper00003992 SentenceID s107 SENTENCE : In contrast , exposure to dauer pheromone had no effect on expression of a full-length daf-11 : : gfp fusion in any cells ( data not shown ) , suggesting that pheromone affects this pathway at a level other than daf-11 transcription .
PaperID WBPaper00003992 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : In contrast to tax-4 mutants , tax-2 mutants do not form dauers even at 27 ( data not shown ) , a condition that induces dauer formation more strongly than 25 ( M . Ailion , personal communication ; Malone et al . 1996 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003992 SentenceID s63 SENTENCE : At 5 mm , 8-bromo-cAMP caused developmental arrest in the wild type , but 0 . 5 mm 8-bromo-cAMP allowed normal growth and had no effect on dauer formation in any of the Daf-c strains ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003992 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : ( C ) Alignment of the guanylyl cyclase domain of DAF-11 and its closest relative outside of C . elegans , the sea urchin speract receptor ( accession no . p16065 ) . blot analysis revealed a Tc1 insertion present in strains containing m597 and absent in recombinants and revertants not containing m597 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003992 SentenceID s95 SENTENCE : NA , not applicable ; NT , not tested . in any of several amphid neurons ( including the ASJ class ) slightly increased the likelihood of dauer formation , with no clear pattern of critical cells ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003993 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : This probe identified a prominent RNA of 4 . 7 kb , corresponding to the fulllength Cr-tra-2A-encoding message , as well as a weak band at 1 . 6 kb ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003998 SentenceID s120 SENTENCE : At 20 , daf-2 ( m577 ) males formed homosexual clumps , and male life span was reduced to a similar degree as in N2 males ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00003998 SentenceID s30 SENTENCE : Varying the frequency of transfer had little an increase in mortality rate with increasing age , this effect on hermaphrodite life span where live E . coli was 20 % may have died from delayed effects of earlier maleused , or male life span where UV-killed E . coli was used ( data not shown ) . male interactions , rather than senescence .
PaperID WBPaper00004202 SentenceID s101 SENTENCE : body, nuclei --Continued . expression was also seen in body wall muscles , intestinal nuclei , distal tip cells , and many neurons ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004202 SentenceID s105 SENTENCE : Transgenes expressing either of these LIN- 13 : : GFP hybrid proteins fully rescue the Muv and sterility defects of lin-13 ( n387 ) and appear to have identical 1133 expression patterns ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004202 SentenceID s114 SENTENCE : As with lin-13 : : lacZ , we do not see a reliable expression of LIN-13 : : GFP in the VPCs , although we occasionally detect GFP in one or two VPCs in fixed and antibody-stained hermaphrodites ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004202 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : The interaction with lin-13 ( n387 ) / was weak or not detectable for other class A mutations and not detectable for class B mutations ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004202 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : Northern and 5 rapid amplification of cDNA ends analyses indicate that the lin-13 transcript is 7 kb in length and appears to be SL1 trans-spliced at the 5 end ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004202 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : All of these apparent zinc fingers appear to be conserved in C . briggsae lin-13 ( based on a sequence available via the Washington University genome sequencing consortium ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004202 SentenceID s40 SENTENCE : The 5 end was determined from a PCR product generated using the SL1 trans-spliced leader sequence ( Krause and Hirsh 1987 ) and an internal lin-13 primer ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004203 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : Consistent with prior data ( see Web site in the previous paragraph ) , some CB4856 polymorphisms discovered in the dpy-18 region 1143 were single-base changes ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004203 SentenceID s32 SENTENCE : One PCR product that included the 5 end of the prolyl-4- hydroxylase -subunit gene from dpy-18 ( e499 ) was significantly smaller than the comparable wild-type product ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004203 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : Body, body, chromosome The first deletion removes 776 bp starting at 684 , extending through the start AUG 1144 K . L . Hill et al . TABLE 2 dpy-18 body length measurements Body length Genotype n ( m ) N2 15 865 dpy-18 ( e499 ) / dpy-18 ( e499 ) 39 569 dpy-18 ( e499 ) / tDf7 38 59 dpy-18 ( e499 ) ; pKH9 10 834 dpy-18 ( e364 ) / dpy-18 ( e364 ) d 14 756 dpy-18 ( e364 ) d / tDf7 15 691 a See materials and methods for calculation of P values . b Hemizygous animals were compared to homozygotes for the same dpy-18 allele . c NA , not applicable . d Full genotype of the dpy-18 ( e364 ) chromosome is spe-16 ( hc54ts ) dpy-18 ( e364 ) ; spe-16 has no effect on body length ( data not shown ) . and ending at 92 .
PaperID WBPaper00004203 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : Progeny of the injected animals showed a primarily Dpy phenotype , similar to that of dpy-18 ( e364 ) or dpy-18 ( e499 ) homozygotes ( data not shown ) , suggesting that the dpy-18 ( null ) phenotype is Dpy .
PaperID WBPaper00004203 SentenceID s67 SENTENCE : RT-PCR using the SL1 forward primer generated abundant product , but no product was obtained using the SL2 forward primer , demonstrating that dpy-18 is SL1 trans spliced ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004203 SentenceID s68 SENTENCE : Sequencing of the 1145 SL1 RT-PCR product revealed that the SL1 spliced leader sequence is spliced to the dpy-18 transcript 1 bp 5 to the proposed start AUG codon ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004203 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : While pBHdpy-18 : : gfp2 , which contains only 2008 bp of upstream sequence and the putative start AUG codon , showed robust expression ( Figure 3 ) , other dpy-18 : : gfp fusions that included intron 2 ( and other dpy-18 sequences ) were expressed inconsistently and at low levels ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004204 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : This probe identified a prominent RNA of 4 . 7 kb , corresponding to the fulllength Cr-tra-2A-encoding message , as well as a weak band at 1 . 6 kb ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004310 SentenceID s111 SENTENCE : egl-4 unc-31 and unc-64 ; egl-4 double mutants do not show Syn-Daf phenotypes ( M . Ailion and J . H . Thomas , data not shown ; I . Katsura , personal communication ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004310 SentenceID s114 SENTENCE : We examined the expression of a daf-7 : : GFP fusion gene in egl-4 ( n478 ) mutants , and found that unlike unc-3 mutants , mutations in egl-4 do not affect expression of the DAF-7 TGF- ligand ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004310 SentenceID s118 SENTENCE : We examined egl-4 mutants and found that they also have foraging and male mating defects ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004310 SentenceID s216 SENTENCE : This is not specific to the daf-16 ( mgDf50 ) allele , since daf-16 ( m27 ) mutants show similar defects ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004310 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : The egg-laying phenotype of egl-4 mutants is variably responsive to both serotonin and imipramine ( a serotonin reuptake inhibitor ; S . A . Daniels and P . Sengupta , data not shown ; Trent et al . 1983 ) , suggesting that egl-4 could function both preand postsynaptically .
PaperID WBPaper00004310 SentenceID s231 SENTENCE : Qualitative examination also indicates that the Din phenotype of egl-4 is suppressed by daf-3 and daf-5 , but not by daf- 16 , daf-12 , or osm-3 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004310 SentenceID s256 SENTENCE : In addition , egl-32 ( n155 ) does not enhance the Daf-c phenotype of egl-4 ( n478 ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004310 SentenceID s259 SENTENCE : egl-32 mutants also exhibit weak defects in the responses to NaCl and lysine ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004310 SentenceID s3 SENTENCE : We placed odr-9 in the same genetic interval as the previously identified gene egl-4 using standard three-factor mapping crosses ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004310 SentenceID s48 SENTENCE : Both expression and localization of ODR-10 were unaltered in n478 mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004310 SentenceID s68 SENTENCE : However , daf-3 and daf-5 mutations fail to suppress the aldicarb resistance phenotype of egl-4 mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004310 SentenceID s69 SENTENCE : However , egl-4 mutants dye-fill normally , and no obvious defects in the morphology of the neurons were visible ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004310 SentenceID s73 SENTENCE : egl-4 mutants were found to be wild type in their responses to these stimuli ( data not shown ) , indicating that mutations in egl-4 affect the functions of a restricted subset of neurons .
PaperID WBPaper00004404 SentenceID s44 SENTENCE : For scd-3 alleles , daf-c ; scd / males were used , since scd-3 males do not mate ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004404 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : From our screens , all isolated alleles that completely suppressed were alleles of daf-3 , daf-5 , or daf-12 ( sa244 , sa312 , sa323 , sa327 , sa328 , sa756 , sa793 , sa319 , sa324 , sa325 , sa251 , sa314 , sa322 , sa737 , and sa796 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004404 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : For example , in the case of the daf-14 ( m77 ) EMS screen , the level of suppression varied from 20 to 100 % depending upon the suppressor mutation ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004404 SentenceID s60 SENTENCE : A similar map position ( within the egl-15 unc-9 interval ) was obtained independently for scd-1 ( sa318 ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004404 SentenceID s88 SENTENCE : Life spans of scd-1 ( sa248 ) , scd-2 ( sa249 ) , and sa315 were wild type ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004404 SentenceID s9 SENTENCE : Although the screens were capable of isolating both recessive and dominant suppressors , all alleles were recessive ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004405 SentenceID s108 SENTENCE : Under these conditions , daf-3 responded strongly to pheromone while osm-6 ( and several other Dyf mutants ) did not respond at all ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004405 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : In support of this 1050 M . Ailion and J . H . Thomas TABLE 1 Dauer formation in synthetic Daf-c mutants Dauer formation ( % ) Genotype 15 25 unc-64 ( e246 ) ; unc-3 ( e151 ) 6 ( 236 ) 100 ( 272 ) unc-64 ( e246 ) ; unc-31 ( e928 ) 77 ( 210 ) 100 ( 212 ) unc-31 ( e928 ) ; unc-3 ( e151 ) 18 ( 202 ) 99 ( 316 ) unc-64 ( e246 ) ; unc-31 ( e928 ) ; daf-3 ( e1376 ) 87 ( 176 ) 100 ( 204 ) daf-5 ( e1385 ) ; unc-64 ( e246 ) ; unc-31 ( e928 ) 81 ( 197 ) 99 ( 135 ) unc-64 ( e246 ) ; unc-31 ( e928 ) ; daf-12 ( m20 ) 0 ( 177 ) 0 ( 173 ) daf-5 ( e1385 ) ; unc-31 ( e928 ) ; unc-3 ( e151 ) 0 ( 263 ) 100 ( 348 ) unc-31 ( e928 ) ; daf-12 ( m20 ) unc-3 ( e151 ) 0 ( 155 ) 0 ( 204 ) unc-64 ( e246 ) 1 ( 177 ) 1 ( 178 ) unc-31 ( e928 ) 0 ( 228 ) 0 ( 271 ) unc-3 ( e151 ) 0 ( 237 ) 33 ( 325 ) daf-3 ( e1376 ) 0 ( 296 ) 0 ( 365 ) daf-5 ( e1385 ) 0 ( 199 ) 0 ( 278 ) daf-12 ( m20 ) 0 ( 270 ) 0 ( 341 ) In all tables with dauer counts , the number in parentheses is the number of animals counted . idea , the unc-64 ; unc-31 double mutant was completely suppressed by mutations in daf-16 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004405 SentenceID s135 SENTENCE : C . elegans appears to have four other CNG channel subunits encoded in its genome , all of which appear to be -subunits , supporting this idea ( Bargmann 1998 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004405 SentenceID s147 SENTENCE : tax-4 and tax-2 mutants were capable of FITC dye-filling by all six cells , though filling of ASJ and ASI was often weaker or not detectable ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004405 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : The osm-9 ( n1601 ) null mutant had the same phenotype as N2 at 27 ( data not shown ) , suggesting that sensation of the 27 stimulus occurs by a different mechanism .
PaperID WBPaper00004405 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : The Syn-Daf mutant aex-3 is not hypersensitive to dauer pheromone ( data not shown ) , indicating that pheromone hypersensitivity is not a property of all Syn-Daf mutants .
PaperID WBPaper00004405 SentenceID s162 SENTENCE : Surprisingly , all such double mutants had a Syn-Daf phenotype at temperatures from 15 to 25 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004405 SentenceID s167 SENTENCE : Double mutants of unc-3 , unc-31 , and unc-64 with daf-3 were not Syn-Daf and exhibited the same epistasis relationships as the double mutants with daf-5 under conditions that permitted scoring of suppression ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004405 SentenceID s173 SENTENCE : daf-5 mutations also only partially suppress daf-1 and daf-14 mutants at 27 ( data not shown ) , consistent with the daf-7 results .
PaperID WBPaper00004405 SentenceID s179 SENTENCE : Similar results were seen with the sa205 allele of daf-5 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004405 SentenceID s195 SENTENCE : Similar results were seen with daf-3 in place of daf-5 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004405 SentenceID s206 SENTENCE : Mutations in daf-3 and daf-5 completely abolished starvation-induced dauer formation of daf-7 or unc-3 mutants but had no discernible effect on starvation-induced dauer formation of unc-64 or unc-31 mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004405 SentenceID s220 SENTENCE : The unc-64 , unc-31 , and unc-3 mutants also did not exhibit any dominance at 27 ( Ailion et al . 1999 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004405 SentenceID s221 SENTENCE : To verify that daf-7 dominance was not allele specific , we tested the daf-7 ( m62 ) mutant and found that it also was partially dominant at 27 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004405 SentenceID s264 SENTENCE : chromosomes tra-2 ( q276 ) XX males exhibited a hypersensitive response to pheromone similar to N2 XO males ( data not shown ) , indicating that the increased male response comes as a result of being Dauer Formation at 27 TABLE 13 Dominance of Daf-c genes at 27 Dauer formation at Genotype 27 . 0 ( % ) / 2 ( 131 ) / daf-7 ( e1372 ) dpy-1 ( e1 ) 52 ( 84 ) a / daf-1 ( sa184 ) ; / dpy-11 ( e224 ) 0 ( 63 ) / dpy-5 ( e61 ) daf-8 ( e1393 ) 0 ( 37 ) / unc-24 ( e138 ) daf-14 ( m77 ) 0 ( 34 ) / unc-42 ( e270 ) daf-11 ( sa195 ) 5 ( 39 ) / daf-2 ( e1370 ) dpy-17 ( e164 ) 0 ( 24 ) a A total of 58 % of males and 48 % of hermaphrodites formed dauers . phenotypically male and not from the number of X chromosomes .
PaperID WBPaper00004405 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : Furthermore , N2 dauers formed at 27 recover rapidly at 27 ( data not shown ) , which can make scoring difficult , even in synchronized broods .
PaperID WBPaper00004405 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : The Hid phenotype of unc-3 , unc-31 , and unc-64 was not allele specific . unc- 3 ( e54 ) , unc-3 ( e95 ) , unc-3 ( cn4146 ) , unc-31 ( u280 ) , unc-31 ( e169 ) , unc-64 ( md1259 ) , and unc-64 ( md130 ) were all found to have a Hid phenotype ( Ailion et al . 1999 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004405 SentenceID s39 SENTENCE : Dauer formation is partially suppressed by drying of the plate ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004405 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : TJ2 shows auxotrophic differences from OP50 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004405 SentenceID s79 SENTENCE : cilia Similarly , the mec-1 ( e1066 ) and mec-8 ( e398 ) mutants , which have defects in the fasciculation of the amphid cilia ( Lewis and Hodgkin 1977 ; Perkins et al . 1986 ) , are not Daf-d at lower temperatures and are not Hid ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004406 SentenceID s115 SENTENCE : 43 and the goa-1 / egl-30 network in the egg-laying system , unc-93 ( gf ) and unc-103 ( gf ) , which cause animals to become bloated with retained eggs in addition to their effect on locomotion ( Greenwald and Horvitz 1980 ; Park and Horvitz 1986 ) , were not noticeably suppressed for egg laying by goa-1 ( sa734 ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004406 SentenceID s140 SENTENCE : Furthermore , the double mutants become as bloated with retained eggs as the syIs9 [ goa-1 ( gf ) ] and egl-30 ( lf ) single mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004406 SentenceID s168 SENTENCE : However , since egl-10 ( null ) mutants are not as severely lethargic as unc- 43 ( gf ) ( data not shown ) , a second UNC-43 target that also regulates GOA-1 activity is required to explain the entire unc-43 ( gf ) effect on locomotion rate .
PaperID WBPaper00004406 SentenceID s181 SENTENCE : We found that glr-1 ( lf ) suppressed none of the unc-43 ( gf ) phenotypes ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004406 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : GOA-1 may inhibit EGL-30 directly , act on a regulator of the EGL-30 pathway such as EAT-16 or DGK-1 , or function in parallel to EGL-30 . dispersal of the single mutant exceeds that of the double mutant at later timepoints ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004406 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : Assaying these alleles , we found that eat-16 ( sy438 ) shows strong but incomplete suppression in the radial assay , similar to the eat-16 alleles isolated in our screen ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004406 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : These alleles cause animals to move in a rapid but ineffective manner that results in little dispersal from a point of origin ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004406 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : For eat-11 , we analyzed sa833 since this allele confers greater hyperactivity and egg-laying activity than other eat-11 alleles ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004406 SentenceID s42 SENTENCE : Because of this variability , we also assayed eat-16 ( sa609 ) and obtained similar results ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004407 SentenceID s71 SENTENCE : Mutations in soc-2 / sur-8 suppress this Clr pheno- In males , three cells in the preanal ganglion , P9 . p , Mutations in genes in the Ras / MAP kinase pathway and B revealed that and B ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004407 SentenceID s89 SENTENCE : Southern blot analysis at low stringencies with lin-25 probes suggested that lin-25 genes have diverged significantly during evolution ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004408 SentenceID s102 SENTENCE : On the basis of the observations that 20 % of ga62 homozygous animals die during embryogenesis ( data not shown ) and that ga62 causes phenotypes similar to those caused by mutation of the -catenin homolog , BAR-1 , we performed a complementation test to determine whether ga62 might be a reduction-of-function mutation in mom-3 .
PaperID WBPaper00004408 SentenceID s112 SENTENCE : nuclear The cells that were generated did not participate in vulval formation and began to lose their characteristic " hypodermal " nuclear morphology ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004408 SentenceID s113 SENTENCE : Unlike bar-1 ( ga80 ) and mom-3 / mig- 14 ( ga62 ) mutants , egl-18 ( ga97 ) mutants do not display a highly penetrant defect in cell-fate determination by P12 ( Table 3 ) or in migration of the Q L progeny ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004408 SentenceID s114 SENTENCE : However , like these other mutants , ga97 males mate poorly ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004408 SentenceID s116 SENTENCE : cuticle Observation of egl-18 ( ga97 ) L4 stage larvae by Nomarski microscopy showed that those animals that display the Rol phenotype have an abnormally twisted head region , suggesting a defect in the cuticle or hypodermis in this region ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004408 SentenceID s125 SENTENCE : Finally , ga82 mutants also display a P12 to P11 cell-fate transformation , but at much lower penetrance than that seen in bar-1 or mom-3 / mig-14 mutants ( 12 % ; Table 4 ) . sem- 4 ( ga82 ) mutants do not display an obvious Q L descendant migration defect ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004408 SentenceID s137 SENTENCE : For each of these single mutants the percentage of animals in which none of the vulval precursor cells adopts an induced fate ( a vulvaless phenotype ) is 10 % ( Table 2 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004408 SentenceID s142 SENTENCE : We believe that this synergistic spewed gonad phenotype also prevented us from isolating a double-mutant strain containing egl-18 ( ga97 ) and mom-3 / mig-14 ( ga62 ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004408 SentenceID s178 SENTENCE : The ga91 / n156 transheterozygote has a Pvl / Egl phenotype like that of ga91 homozygous animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004408 SentenceID s210 SENTENCE : nuclei In addition , staining with antibodies to the transcription factor LIN-31 , which is present in the nuclei of P1 . pP11 . p , shows that the only LIN-31-expressing nuclei are present in the ventral hypodermal region , and the number of LIN-31-expressing nuclei is comparable to the number of hypodermal nuclei observed by microscopy ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004408 SentenceID s214 SENTENCE : These larvae generally fail to thrive ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004408 SentenceID s216 SENTENCE : Further , when pvl-4 ( ga96 ) is placed in trans to the deficiency mnDf83 , only a few lumpy or misshapen ga96 / mnDf83 larvae are found , which die as young L1 animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004408 SentenceID s219 SENTENCE : In addition to this defect in Pn . p cell number pvl ( ga79 ) animals also often have a misshapen vulval structure ( data not shown ) ; however , the exact nature of the vulval defect for pvl ( ga79 ) has not been determined .
PaperID WBPaper00004408 SentenceID s228 SENTENCE : Subsequent observation of these ga81 mutants showed that the anchor cell did descend ventrally in these animals , sometimes making the correct contacts with the P6 . pxxx cells and forming a wild-type-looking vulva ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004408 SentenceID s230 SENTENCE : In these animals the vulval structure that was formed was often misshapen ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004408 SentenceID s40 SENTENCE : chromosome The mutants with of that chromosome ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004408 SentenceID s42 SENTENCE : In fact , only when Wnt signaling and Ras signaling are both compromised do most VPCs adopt the F fate ( Eisenmann et al . 1998 , and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004408 SentenceID s44 SENTENCE : In most animals , only one of these three cells is affected , although animals in which two or all three of P5 . p , P6 . p , and P7 . p adopted an uninduced cell fate ( 3 or F ) were seen ( the latter % abnormal % % gonad % Spew N vulva P12 . p migration N 0 Many 0 0 0 Many 3 781 68 90 2 330 5 396 37 89 0 144 20 604 75 43 53 110 0 459 11 6 2 104 9 418 62 0 4 115 16 434 44 2 6 100 11 441 27 0 6 100 1 390 55 12 3 109 1 360 77 11 4 101 20 317 ND ND ND 4 317 63 0 0 115 7 670 54 0 0 100 7 328 99 / 70 97 10 200 7 419 99 / 84 90 71 100 5 495 99 / 23 25 12 100 34 673 87 / 35 65 66 100 63 551 93 / 10 80 ND 30 are true vulvaless animals and are 10 % of ga80 hermaphrodites ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004408 SentenceID s48 SENTENCE : STS mapping and three-factor crosses indicate that the bar-1 locus is located between unc-6 and dpy-7 on linkage group X . The deficiency uDf1 fails to complement bar-1 ( ga80 ) , and the Egl mutant phenotype of these animals is not substantially different from that of ga80 homozygotes ( data not shown ) , suggesting that ga80 may be a null mutation .
PaperID WBPaper00004408 SentenceID s56 SENTENCE : However , a vulval precursor cell adopting the F fate then fuses without dividing in the L3 stage at the same time as P4 . pP8 . p begin their first round of cell division , as judged by MH27 staining ( Eisenmann et al . 1998 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004408 SentenceID s77 SENTENCE : Most bar-1 ( ga80 ) animals move forward well but do not move backward as well as wild-type animals and often coil upon themselves ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004408 SentenceID s78 SENTENCE : Finally , bar-1 ( ga80 ) mutant males have a reduced efficiency of mating , as many more bar-1 ( ga80 ) males than wild-type males are routinely required to successfully sire cross-progeny ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004408 SentenceID s88 SENTENCE : In these mutant animals fewer than three Pn . p cells adopted induced cell fates only P6 . p in D , P6 . p and P7 . p in E , and P5 . p and P7 . p in F . the 3 fate , or abnormal fates causing too few vulval cells to be generated , and the cells P3 . p and P4 . p usually adopt the F fate . ga62 mutants also have defects in P12 cell-fate specification ( Table 3 ) and Q L progeny migration ( Figure 4H ) , and ga62 males mate poorly ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004408 SentenceID s94 SENTENCE : Indeed , we found that these two mutations fail to complement for the Egl phenotype ( data not shown ) , suggesting that ga62 is a new allele of mig-14 .
PaperID WBPaper00004442 SentenceID s58 SENTENCE : The additional staining cells in the ga57 animal represent either extra VPCs that are often generated during the L2 larval stage in lin-31 mutant animals or normal VPC divisions in an early L3 animal . lin-31 ( n301 ) animals displayed similar results ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004442 SentenceID s67 SENTENCE : In addition , each mutant strain also exibited both Muv and Vul phenotypes ( data not shown ) , indicating that each allele is defective for appropriate adoption of both induced and uninduced cell fates .
PaperID WBPaper00004444 SentenceID s109 SENTENCE : Amounts of fem-1 and fem-3 RNA were equivalent by ethidium bromide staining ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004444 SentenceID s12 SENTENCE : intracellular Also , like the previous mutants , spe-29 spermatids treated with triethanolamine , which increases intracellular pH , activated normally and formed motile pseudopods ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004444 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : By contrast , spe-29 hermaphrodites lay infrequent self-fertilized eggs and many unfertilized oocytes for up to 5 days after the onset of ovulation , suggesting that a few spe- 29 spermatids activate sporadically well after ovulation begins ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004444 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : In addition , RNA-mediated interference with spe-29 double-stranded RNA fails to produce any phenotype ( as is true with nearly all spe genes assayed ; data not shown ; E . B . Davis , unpublished observations ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004444 SentenceID s68 SENTENCE : spe-29 males were as fertile as wild-type males ; in comparison , fertility of spe-12 males was significantly impaired ( Figure 3 ) even though both spe-12 and spe-29 males produce seemingly normal numbers of sperm ( data not shown ) and spe-12 males copulate normally ( Nance et al . 1999 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004444 SentenceID s85 SENTENCE : One cosmid , F25H8 , significantly increased the self-fertility of mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004444 SentenceID s97 SENTENCE : When we probed a differential Northern blot with genomic DNA from this interval , we detected a single small transcript ( 400 bp ) in RNA from fem-3 ( gf ) mutants ( which make sperm but not oocytes ) but not in RNA from fem-1 ( 1f ) mutants ( which make oocytes but no sperm ) , indicating that a previously unidentified gene , which is expressed specifically in the sperm-producing germ line , resided in this small region ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004446 SentenceID s124 SENTENCE : centrosome, centrosomes, membrane, microtubules, plasma membrane Also note that in all three mutant strains is roughly circular in cross-section , microtubules in the mutant embryo ( B ) , before centrosome rather than long and narrow like wild-type P replication ( right cell , P1 ) and after centrosome replication ( left cell , AB ) , appear to extend properly from the centrosomes to the plasma membrane . lived event , beginning at about the completion of cytokinesis and lasting only 12 min ( K . G . Miller , data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004446 SentenceID s129 SENTENCE : The shape of the AB centro- ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004446 SentenceID s134 SENTENCE : P-granule, centrosomes In addition , since in both AB and P1 cells does not appear different from P-granule localization requires an intact actin cytoskelethe corresponding wild-type centrosomes ( Figure 1 , C , ton ( Strome and Wood 1983 ) , these data provide fur- D , and H ; K . G . Miller , data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004446 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : The presence of movement in the muscle it issue of these embryos confirmed that at least some of these cells were alive and functional at late stages in embryogenesis ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004446 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : body, membrane, pronuclei In observations of multiple embryos from each mutant ( at least eight embryos each from goa-1 ( pk62 ) , ric-8 ( md303 ) , and embryos derived from goa-1 / ; ric-8 / ric-8 parents ) polar body extrusion , anterior membrane contractions , pseudocleavage , and the migration , fusion , and rotation of the two pronuclei , were not obviously different from wild-type embryos with respect to appearance , timing , or location of the events ( data not shown ; see Strome and Wood 1983 ; and Albertson 1984 for a description of these events ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004446 SentenceID s39 SENTENCE : First , EGL-30 ( Gq ) appears not to play a role in the embryonic pathway ( this study ; K . G . Miller , data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004446 SentenceID s42 SENTENCE : centrosomal The centrosomal rocking was present in goa-1 ( pk62 ) mutant embryos , but appeared less pronounced ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004446 SentenceID s78 SENTENCE : spindle, spindles In those cells with misaligned spindles , the spindle orientation , in general , appeared random and cell cycle times to be statistically significant ( t -test P values 0 . 004 ) ; however , given the nature of the gene frequently deviated from the wild-type orientation by 2590 ( Table 3 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004447 SentenceID s114 SENTENCE : Error bars indicate the 95 % confidence interval . for all CeRep-like sequences ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004448 SentenceID s143 SENTENCE : daf-2 mutations did not genetically interact with let-502 alleles ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004448 SentenceID s198 SENTENCE : This phenotype was not suppressed by fem-2 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004448 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : With similar crosses , even if such mutations had no phenotype on their own . melwe found that maternal homozygosity for null alleles of fem- 11 ( it26 ) unc-4 sqt-1 / mnC1 hermaphrodites were mutagenized 1 ( e1965 ) or fem-3 ( e1996 ) that are also phenotypically female with 25 mm ethyl methanesulfonate ( Brenner 1974 ) , F1 prog- ( Doniach and Hodgkin 1984 ; Hodgkin 1986 ) also had little eny were allowed to self at the permissive temperature of 15 effect on mel-11 viability ( data not shown ) . for 34 days and animals were then upshifted to the restrictive temperature of 20 ( where 1 % normally hatch ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004448 SentenceID s79 SENTENCE : Escapers were Ste and this could represent the zygotic null phenotype . similar to those seen with let-502 ( sb106 ) alone at both 20 and 25 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004485 SentenceID s145 SENTENCE : lateral, nuclei We also estimated lateral epidermal cell number at the end of the L4 stage by counting nuclei in a window of a given size ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004485 SentenceID s61 SENTENCE : Retarded heterochronic mutants : The dov-7 ( mf59 ) , dov-8 ( mf66 ) , and dov- ( mf69 ) mutants display similar division defects to dov-5 and dov-6 ( Table 3C ; data not shown ) , as well as large defects in vulval division timing .
PaperID WBPaper00004497 SentenceID s104 SENTENCE : nuclear Animals were co-immunostained with antibodies to the common domain of the nuclear LIN-14 proteins ( shown ) as well as the monoclonal antibody MH27 ( data not shown ) to outline hypodermal cells for developmental stage determination .
PaperID WBPaper00004497 SentenceID s12 SENTENCE : Exon 3 is rearranged such that it can not be amplified by PCR using exon-specific primers , but the first two exons appear to be unaffected ( see materials and methods , data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004497 SentenceID s123 SENTENCE : However , LIN-14 protein levels were reduced by early L2 in lin-4 ( e912 ) ; lin-14 ( n360 ) animals ( Figure 4B ) and almost undetectable in later larval stages ( data not shown ) , suggesting that a nonlin-4-mediated mechanism is responsible for the downregulation of LIN-14A in these animals .
PaperID WBPaper00004497 SentenceID s124 SENTENCE : cuticle Consistent with a lack of continuous LIN-14 expression in lin-4 ( e912 ) ; lin-14 ( n360 ) animals ( Figure 4B , data not shown ) , the extent of larval cuticle patches is reduced in the adult stage , when 97 % of lin-4 ( e912 ) ; lin-14 ( n360 ) adult animals display full-length adult alae ( Table 2 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004497 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : We are certain that this substitution occurred independently , because n840 was isolated as a revertant of n355 and the n355 3 UTR rearrangement can be detected in lin-14 ( n355n840 ) genomic DNA but not in lin-14 ( n727 ) DNA ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004497 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : lin-14 ( n355n534 ) animals have low levels of LIN-14A protein expression throughout development ( data not shown , Wightman et al . 1991 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004497 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : The rearrangement does not appear to be a simple deletion by Southern analysis ( see materials and methods ) , suggesting either an insertion or an inversion with a breakpoint far outside the coding region ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004497 SentenceID s56 SENTENCE : All three splice forms of lin-14 are present in C . briggsae as determined by reverse transcription of total RNA and PCR using exon-specific primers ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004497 SentenceID s71 SENTENCE : We frequently observed reduced levels of LIN-14A protein in lin-14 ( n355 n534 ) and lin-14 ( n355n840 ) hatchlings by Western analysis or immunostaining as compared to lin-14 ( n360 ) and lin-14 ( n727 ) ( data not shown , Wightman et al . 1991 ) , which have analogous loss-of-function lesions ( see above ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004498 SentenceID s130 SENTENCE : The regions upstream of each alternative start methionine interacted with other sequences to direct odr-2 : : GFP expression : a 10 . 8-kb SphI fragment translational fusion that included both ODR-2 16 and 18 isoforms ( Figure 2B ) was expressed in neurons not seen in either ODR-2 16 or 18 GFP expression patterns ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004498 SentenceID s149 SENTENCE : Nonhead region neuronal GFP expression was also observed ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004498 SentenceID s155 SENTENCE : 2b-specific odr-2 ( n1939 ) mutant ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004498 SentenceID s182 SENTENCE : axon In all cases , the GFP expression and axon trajectories of the neurons were normal ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004498 SentenceID s197 SENTENCE : STR-2 : GFP and TTX-3 : GFP ( AWC and AIY ) or in strains expressing both STR-2 : GFP and ODR-2 2b : GFP ( AWC and AIB / AIZ ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004498 SentenceID s225 SENTENCE : As in odr-2 , the hot-1a and hot-5a 5 exons are found far upstream of the Ly-6 domain coding region ( 6 . 5 kb and 2 . 6 kb upstream , respectively , data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004498 SentenceID s227 SENTENCE : hot-1 may be expressed in neurons , since a GFP fusion gene with hot-1 upstream sequence was expressed in a set of neurons that partially overlapped with the expression pattern of odr-2 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004498 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : AWC- mediated chemotaxis is disrupted , but chemotaxis mediated by AWA ( odorants ) or ASE ( water-soluble attractants ) is spared , and responses to ASH repellents and the dauer pheromone are also normal ( Bargmann et al . 1993 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004498 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : Each of these cosmids was capable of rescuing the benzaldehyde chemotaxis defect of odr-2 ( n2145 ) mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004498 SentenceID s57 SENTENCE : Hemi-nested reverse-transcriptase ( RT ) -PCR of C . elegans mRNA using an SL1 primer and two odr-2 common region primers confirmed that isoform 18 is trans-spliced and demonstrated that isoform 2b can also be SL1 trans-spliced 5 nucleotides upstream of the 5 end of the original 2b cDNA isolate ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004520 SentenceID s103 SENTENCE : However , ablation of the C . briggsae distal tip cell ( DTC ) at the L2 stage results in an arrest in germline proliferation and the differentiation of germ cells into sperm ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004520 SentenceID s75 SENTENCE : To test this approach for glp-1 genes , we examined Ce-glp-1 ( RNAi ) progeny and found defects typical of glp-1 loss-of-function mutants ( data not shown , Figure 1C ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004541 SentenceID s3 SENTENCE : Through the combined use ( Lander and Botstein 1989 ; Lynch and Walsh 1998 ) . of recombinant-inbred ( and hence homozygous ) worms , Replicate survivals , even in varied environments , yield map expansion during inbreeding , and selective genoconsistent results by this method ( Ebert et al . 1993 ; S . typing of phenotypic extremes in a population , we have Ayyadevara , unpublished data ) , and further corrobogenerated data sets with improved power for the discovration is implied by our recurrent discovery of many ery and resolution of multiple QTL affecting life span . loci in more than one cross ( Figures 1 and 2 and addi- This gain in sensitivity and reliability entailed a sometional data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004541 SentenceID s44 SENTENCE : Conversely , after 3 generations of backcrossing into the other parental strain , RC301 , longevity was increased by 13 days relative to RC301 controls ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004541 SentenceID s62 SENTENCE : , T . M . Barnes , B . Lakowski , M . Lussier , H . Bussey et erac-BO background produced longevity increases of 13 days relative to BO ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004545 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : nuclei, nucleus Second , we observed gold beads in both germline and oocyte nuclei of bombarded animals ( data not shown ) , indicating that bombardment can introduce transgenic DNA directly into the nucleus , which may be essential for integrative transformation ( Fire 1986 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004545 SentenceID s58 SENTENCE : The pDP # MM016b transformed lines AZ200 and AZ205 contained two and three low-intensity DNA bands , respectively , indicating the presence of only a few copies of the plasmid ( Figure 2A , lanes 1 and 3 ) ; similar patterns containing two or three DNA bands were also found in AZ173 , AZ204 , and AZ206 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004545 SentenceID s59 SENTENCE : Analysis of the 10 lines created by bombardment with the pAZ81 sup-7-containing plasmid indicated that they also contain only a small number of copies of the transforming DNA ( Figure 2B , lanes 13 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004545 SentenceID s77 SENTENCE : Hybridizing these blots with either Low-Copy Integrants in C . elegans Bluescript- or unc-119 -specific probes also produced only a single band for each line ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004545 SentenceID s79 SENTENCE : Southern blot analysis of AZ188 , which contains an extrachromosomal array containing the unc-119 gene , and of DP132 , which contains an integrated array of an UNC-119 : : GFP protein fusion ( materials and methods ) , show that these lines both contain many copies of the transforming DNA ( Figure 2A , lane 4 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004545 SentenceID s89 SENTENCE : In expected patterns ( Figure 3A and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004545 SentenceID s95 SENTENCE : This hypothesis is supported by the requirement for funcchromosomal arrays and stable integrated lines containing the sma-1 promoter : : GFP fusion ( data not shown ) . tional mes-2 and mes-6 genes , which encode proteins related to the polycomb group of transcriptional repres- Although the integrated array lines we have examined exhibit a consistent GFP expression pattern , the level sors , to maintain germline silencing of extrachromosomal array transgene expression ( Kelly and Fire 1998 ; of GFP expression does not appear to accurately reflect the number of transgene copies present in the array .
PaperID WBPaper00004660 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : Yet in contrast to its effect on wild-type animals , levamisole treatment had little or no effect on the egglaying patterns of the levamisole receptor mutants ( Figure 3 ; unc-38 and lev-1 data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004660 SentenceID s42 SENTENCE : processes 8 . a ) that eliminated VA7 , VB8 , and VD7 but spared one or more VCs ( as indicated by egl-36 : : GFP-expressing cells that sent processes to the vulva ) did not prevent levamisole response ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004660 SentenceID s85 SENTENCE : Since unc-38 mutations also conferred serotonin hypersensitivity in an egl-1 mutant background ( data not shown ) , this effect was apparently independent of the HSN neurons .
PaperID WBPaper00004661 SentenceID s130 SENTENCE : The phalloidin-RITC staining also revealed that mutants for the newly isolated alleles of mua-1 , mua-5 , mua-6 , and mup-4 exhibited the Mua / Mup phenotype ( Figure 5B ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004661 SentenceID s133 SENTENCE : The extent and direction of the displacement were similar in both it issues , suggesting that the defects are associated ( Figure 5 , G J ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004661 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : The rh160 ventral cord was defective , similar to that in nc11 , nc12 , and nc13 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004661 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : In the ncIs3 genetic background , mua-2 ( rh119 ) , unc-23 ( e25 ) , and vab- 10 ( e698 ) , which have been shown to have the Mua defects ( Plenefisch et al . 2000 ) , also exhibited the Ven defect ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004685 SentenceID s107 SENTENCE : The single mutations cause the displacement , but not the loss , of the ALM cells as seen for uIs9 expression ( data not shown ) and mec-3 expression Figure 5 .
PaperID WBPaper00004685 SentenceID s73 SENTENCE : Embryos approaching the twofold stage had strong GFP fluorescence in ectodermal cells , including hypodermal cells and neuroblasts ( data not shown ) . vab- 15 was expressed strongly in the set of 12 P cells from before hatching and during the L1 stage ( Figure 5d ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004685 SentenceID s82 SENTENCE : These cells were the only ones expressing the fusion in L4 larvae and adults ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004685 SentenceID s94 SENTENCE : In contrast , all 37 unc-86-expressing cells in the head were seen ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004686 SentenceID s116 SENTENCE : Worms homozygous for the null allele dpy-23 ( e840 ) are severely uncoordinated and exhibited an intermediate level of resistance to Aldicarb [ 55 % ( 4663 % ) , data not shown ] .
PaperID WBPaper00004686 SentenceID s134 SENTENCE : postsynaptic Similar results were obtained unc-13 enhance reductions in the postsynaptic receptors that bind acetylcholine but not reductions in the mafor the lethal allele , ox51 , of unc-17 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004686 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : By contrast , homozygous unc-13 ( n2813 ) worms remained resistant at 12 hr ( Figure 2B ) and exhibited only a slight decrease in resistance at 16 hr ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004686 SentenceID s82 SENTENCE : 214 K . J . Yook , S . R . Proulx and E . M . Jorgensen Specifically , unc-13 ( e51 ) fully complements the null allele snb-1 ( js124 ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004687 SentenceID s145 SENTENCE : , growth on medium lacking histidine and adenine ; , no growth detectable within 10 days on medium lacking histidine and adenine . the phenotype of gpb-2 mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004687 SentenceID s164 SENTENCE : When we crossed gpb-2 into an eat-16 or egl-10 background , we found that the aldicarb sensitivity of gpb-2 ( pk751 ) eat-16 ( sy438 ) and gpb-2 ( pk751 ) ; egl-10 ( md176 ) double mutants was indistinguishable from the gpb-2 ( pk751 ) single mutant ( data not shown ) , confirming again that GPB-2 is needed for both EGL- 10 and EAT-16 function .
PaperID WBPaper00004687 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : The PCR product detecting the deletion in pk751 was sequenced and confirmed by Southern analysis ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004687 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : All strains obtained showed no defects in egg laying , locomotion , and pharyngeal pumping compared to wild type ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004687 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : body gpb-2 mutant animals were less active in egg laying and pharyngeal pumping and had a subtle gpb-2 is widely expressed in most neurons and in muscle cells that control several distinct behaviors . defect in backward movement ; gpb-2 mutants tended to move backward with exaggerated flexes in which the gpb-2 is not an essential gene : To examine GPB-2 function in vivo , we identified a loss-of-function gpb-2 mutip of the tail touches the head during each body bend ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004687 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : An EMS-derived deletion library ( Jansen et al . 1997 ) was screened for formation was observed ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004687 SentenceID s61 SENTENCE : However , we found that overexpression of gpb-2 under control of its endogenous ( pkIs559 [ gpb-2 ( ) ] ) or heat-shock promoter ( pkEx1324 , pkEx1325 , and pkEx1326 ; data not shown ) did not show any obvious phenotypes with respect to egg laying , locomotion , and pharyngeal pumping ( Table 1 and Figure 3 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004687 SentenceID s75 SENTENCE : We found that the progeny of gpb-2 goa-1 double mutant animals that lost the gpb-2 rescuing transgene pumped slowly ( 163 9 pumps / min , n 10 ) and showed pharyngeal defects ( data not shown ) ; the pharynx was com- GPB-2 Interacts With EAT-16 and EGL-10 pressed or shrunken in 80 % of the animals .
PaperID WBPaper00004688 SentenceID s78 SENTENCE : chromosomes By contrast , cells of the class IV deficiencies appeared not to arrest at M phase , as judged by DAPI staining of chromosomes ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004721 SentenceID s139 SENTENCE : Neither goa-1 ( n363 ) or goa-1 ( sy192 ) differed from wild type in their levamisole sensitivity or in VA effects on levamisole sensitivity ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004721 SentenceID s40 SENTENCE : No . of hermaphrodites scored is given in parentheses . n1134 being a functional null allele of goa-1 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004721 SentenceID s44 SENTENCE : One potential mechanism for G non-L-type ( unc-2 ) calcium channels without finding a strongly resistant strain ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004721 SentenceID s56 SENTENCE : Heat-shock of nontransformed goa-1 ( sy192 ) did not alter its halothane resistance ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004770 SentenceID s107 SENTENCE : In particular , a double mutant comprising unc-40 ( e1430 ) and unc-5 ( e152 ) was not significantly different from an unc-6 null ( P 0 . 39 ) or from unc-40 ( e1430 ) ; unc-5 ( e53 ) ( P 0 . 26 ) , either in the frequency of DTC migration errors ( Figure 6B ) or in the severity of uncoordination ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004771 SentenceID s108 SENTENCE : chromosome The first nucleotide position on the chromosome is located at the top . ing to the EST clones were not found , but TBLASTN searches using Tc8 amino acid sequences did reveal the presence of similar sequences in these organisms and in C . briggsae ( data not shown ) ; discernable ends of these putative elements could be identified .
PaperID WBPaper00004771 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : The DX ( G / A ) ( Y / F ) and YREK motifs found in other IS families ( Capy et al . 1996 ) are boxed . bp in length and are not as well conserved as are the Tc8 elements in C . elegans ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004771 SentenceID s51 SENTENCE : However , the level of divergence between the nested insertions is similar to the level of divergence between both TIRs ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004832 SentenceID s75 SENTENCE : These males produced oocytes but no sperm ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004883 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : Many different substances proved to be endocytosed efficiently by coelomocytes when injected into the pseudocoelom : india ink ( White 1988 ; J . Kimble , personal communication ) , rhodamine-dextran ( Mr 40 , 000 ; C . Winter and D . Hirsh , personal communication ) , fluorescein isothiocyanate ( FITC ) -BSA ( Mr 71 , 000 ) , FITC-lipopolysaccharide ( LPS ) from Salmonella typhimurium , FITC-dextran ( Mr 35 , 600 ) , Transferrin Red ( Mr 80 , 500 ) , FITC ( Mr 389 . 4 ) , and rhodamine ( Mr 536 . 1 ) ( Figure 1 , E and F ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004883 SentenceID s61 SENTENCE : vesicles Note the presence of fewer and smaller vesicles in the coelomocytes shown in E as compared to those shown in B . tried soaking worms in double-stranded RNA ( Tabara et al . 1998 ) , we saw little or no effect ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004883 SentenceID s62 SENTENCE : Feeding worms bacteria expressing double-stranded RNA ( Timmons and Fire 1998 ) had a similar effect to RNA injection , but was less efficient ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004884 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : In contrast , the mutant phenotype is fully expressed when the homozygous mutants are produced from a cross between heterozygous males and homozygous hermaphrodites , indicating that there is no paternal rescue ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004884 SentenceID s85 SENTENCE : The green fluorescent protein ( GFP ) expression was very mosaic but essentially every cell could be observed to express it in at least a subset of animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004885 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : 21 , is 2324 % identical to those vertebrate proteins and 23 % identical to a predicted p120 homolog found in the Drosophila genome ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004885 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : The protein produced from pDE250 is stable in yeast , as it can be detected on a Western blot and can interact with other proteins in a yeast two-hybrid assay ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004885 SentenceID s39 SENTENCE : The ga80 mutation ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00004885 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : Other Armadillo repeat-containing proteins , such as importin and smgGDS homologs , were also found in these searches , but with much lower BLAST scores ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005018 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : For example , we found that when wild-type worms are scored 5 min after they are transferred to 25 , they are already as fast as they are when scored 26 hr later ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005018 SentenceID s40 SENTENCE : None of the mutations can suppress other clk-1 phenotypes , such as slow growth or pharyngeal pumping ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005018 SentenceID s94 SENTENCE : This is also confirmed by observations of qm142 heterozygotes and homozygotes on the wild-type background ( data not shown ) , although the effects are much less dramatic .
PaperID WBPaper00005019 SentenceID s103 SENTENCE : Bar for gonads , 100 level and distribution of MES-3 appeared normal ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005019 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : chromosomes During interphase ( data not shown ) and prometaphase ( Figure 3C ) , when condensed chromosomes are clearly Figure 2 .
PaperID WBPaper00005019 SentenceID s44 SENTENCE : nuclear, nuclei The distribution of nuclear MES-3 is regulated by GLD-1 in the adult germline : In adults , MES-3 is most prominent in germline nuclei ( Figure 4 ) and is occasionally barely detectable in intestinal nuclei ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005019 SentenceID s78 SENTENCE : In contrast , when mes-3 ( bn21 ) P ( Figure 7 , upshift ) or later ( data not shown ) developed were placed at 25 as L3 or early L4 larvae , downshifting into fertile adults .
PaperID WBPaper00005020 SentenceID s122 SENTENCE : The staining patterns of all four MES proteins resembled the staining patterns in uninjected worms ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005020 SentenceID s125 SENTENCE : We found that SET-2L staining in embryos and germlines is not altered in any of the mes mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005020 SentenceID s49 SENTENCE : set-2l is trans-spliced to SL1 : Northern hybridization did not enhance mes-3 sterility ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005020 SentenceID s52 SENTENCE : Since set-2s appears not to be trans-spliced to either SL1 or SL2 ( data not shown ) , we did not verify its 5 sequence analysis ( see materials and methods ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005020 SentenceID s97 SENTENCE : nuclear This may serve nuclear and is strongest in the germline ( Figure 7 ) , although it is also detectable in other cell types , such as the last sheet to form the second sandwich and a functional RRM in SET-2L . as intestinal , pharyngeal , and neuronal cells ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005045 SentenceID s68 SENTENCE : We obtained similar results using FLAG-tagged FOG-1 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005045 SentenceID s69 SENTENCE : However , we never observed binding with extract from cells producing a mutant of FOG-1 in which the amino-terminal half of the protein had been deleted ( Figure 4B , FOG-1 lane ) , nor did we observe binding when the blot was probed with a fragment of the unc- 37 3 -UTR ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005045 SentenceID s72 SENTENCE : This conclusion is supported by the observation that , in UV-crosslinking assays , cold unc-37 RNA does not compete with radiolabeled fog-1 probe for binding FOG-1 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005096 SentenceID s110 SENTENCE : In the current studies , mothers injected with dsRNA corresponding to other APC / C genes exhibited similar sterility defects after producing an initial small clutch of one-cell arrested embryos ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005096 SentenceID s123 SENTENCE : chromosomes The stained chromosomes are from wild-type ( a , d , and g ) hermaphrodites or hermaphrodites that have been introduced with either rec-8 dsRNAs ( b , e , and h ) or a combination of rec-8 and apc-11 dsRNAs ( c , f , and i ) . apc- 11 ( RNAi ) controls ( data not shown ) are indistinguishable from the wild-type images seen in a and d .
PaperID WBPaper00005096 SentenceID s146 SENTENCE : chromatids Importantly , some rec-8 ( RNAi ) ; apc-11 ( RNAi ) embryos exhibited complete detachment of sister chromatids into 24 DAPI-staining chromatids and chromatid fragments during their prolonged metaphase arrest ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005096 SentenceID s149 SENTENCE : Similar qualitative and quantitative results were obtained in our analysis of mat-3 ( or180ts ) ; rec-8 ( RNAi ) embryos grown at the restrictive temperature ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005096 SentenceID s88 SENTENCE : We confirmed the gene predictions of the C . elegans Sequencing Consortium by sequencing the cDNAs yk268d10 ( apc-2 ) , yk566h7 ( apc-11 ) , and a reverse transcription-PCR clone of apc-11 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005134 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : In spite of the dramatic increase in oocyte precursor cell death described by Gartner et al . ( 2000 ) , we observed that , at the end of fertile life , the gonads of the P0 rad-51 RNAi hermaphrodites still contain a large number of developing oocytes , the spermathecae are devoid of sperms , and unfertilized oocytes are laid ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005135 SentenceID s21 SENTENCE : Genetic mapping and complementation tests : The following genetic mapping and complementation experiments support the conclusion that the identified mutations are alleles of lin- 45 . n1924 , n1925 , n2506 , n2520 , and n2523 displayed linkage to dpy-20 IV ( data not shown ) ; three factor-mapping experiments indicated that n1924 is to the left of unc-24 IV and n2506 is positioned between bli-6 IV and unc-24 IV ( data not shown ) , an 0 . 36 map unit interval that contains lin-45 ( Riddle et al . 1997 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005135 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : chromosome Each of these five alleles failed to complement the other four alleles for the suppression of the let-60 ( gf ) Muv phenotype ( data not shown ) , indicating that they represent a single complementation group . n2510 displayed linkage to dpy-20 IV and failed to complement the vulval defect caused by n2018 and lin-45 ( sy96 ) ( data not shown ) . oz166 and oz178 were mapped between bli-6 IV and unc-24 IV ( data not shown ) . oz166 failed to complement the lethality caused by n1924 , n1925 , n2520 , and n2506 ( Table 2 ) and the vulval defects caused by sy96 , n2018 , and dx19 ( data not shown ) . dx19 and dx89 displayed linkage to chromosome IV ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005135 SentenceID s58 SENTENCE : The mutations n2510 , oz166 , oz178 , oz201 , dx19 , dx84 , and dx89 caused similar defects ; each mutation caused a partially penetrant larval lethal phenotype and fully penetrant vulvaless and sterile phenotypes ( Table 1 , lines 712 , and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005272 SentenceID s109 SENTENCE : Neither lon-3 ( 0 ) mutant males nor males of the genotype him-8 ( e1498 ) ; svEx57 [ which harbor multiple copies of lon-3 ( ) ] showed defects in patterning of the sensory rays ( data not shown ) , suggesting that LON-3 has no effect on DBL-1 activity in ray patterning .
PaperID WBPaper00005272 SentenceID s134 SENTENCE : Expression of lacZ was first seen during the L1 stage ( data not shown ) and then persisted through the subsequent larval stages and into the adult stage .
PaperID WBPaper00005272 SentenceID s169 SENTENCE : Similarly , rol-6 ( 0 ) suppressed the phenotype caused by ctIs40 to wild type ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005272 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : Both the new lon-3 alleles reported here and the previously existing allele , e2175 , are recessive to wild type ( Table 2 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005272 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : Southern blot analysis indicated that this allele is associated with a DNA rearrangement at the lon-3 locus ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005272 SentenceID s69 SENTENCE : Consistent with this idea , lon-3 ( RNAi ) hermaphrodites were Lon ( Figure 4 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005272 SentenceID s93 SENTENCE : Disruption of the lon-3 open reading frame by insertion of lacZ sequences abolished the ability of the 5 . 5-kb fragment in pVB52JN to confer the Dpy phenotype on transformed progeny ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005272 SentenceID s96 SENTENCE : They remained shorter throughout the period of measurement and as older adults ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005272 SentenceID s98 SENTENCE : Many animals , however , were considerably shorter than this : Some were as much as 30 % shorter than wild-type hermaphrodites of the same age ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005273 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : All simulations were conducted by ing hermaphrodites , with rare males arising spontaneously at fixing the number of segregating sites to that observed in a frequency of 1 % ( Honda 1925 ; data not shown ) ; all C . the sample .
PaperID WBPaper00005273 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : The empirical distribution of the statistic was remanei cultures , however , consisted of males and females at generated by simulating the evolution of 10 , 000 independent approximately equal frequencies ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005273 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : Mating tests were conducted to confirm mial regressions to Marey plots ( results not shown ) on the the species identity of all strains used ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005274 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : Pheromone also produces both halothane ( Figure 2 ) and isoflurane resistance ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005274 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : A similar extract from media containing only bacteria but no C . elegans did not induce halothane resistance ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005275 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : One-fourth of the progeny of NL1999 sgs-1 ( pk1279 ) / dpy-17 ( e164 ) arrested in larval development , and we confirmed by PCR that these are homozygous for sgs-1 ( pk1279 ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005275 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : Single worm PCR confirmed homozygosity for the pk1279 allele ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005276 SentenceID s103 SENTENCE : While mutant males copulate normally , their crosses are rarely successful , and those that are successful result in very few cross-progeny ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005276 SentenceID s114 SENTENCE : Hermaphrodites show minimal signs of sperm degradation by light microscopy ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005340 SentenceID s32 SENTENCE : We found that the levels of mutations in unc-93 ( e1500 ) increase at least 30-fold in msh-6 mutants compared to wild type ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005340 SentenceID s63 SENTENCE : We placed animals at different developmental stages on RNAi food and measured the not different in wild-type and msh-6-deficient animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005342 SentenceID s170 SENTENCE : In wild-type and daf-16 animals older than 5 days of adulthood and in mu150 animals older than 15 days of adulthood , the pharynx and both the anterior and posterior portions of the intestine were frequently distended and packed with bacteria ( Figure 1E and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005342 SentenceID s56 SENTENCE : 1111 Second , the schedule of progeny production , which is delayed in calorically restricted animals ( D . Crawford and C . Kenyon , unpublished results ) , is normal in these animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005342 SentenceID s61 SENTENCE : Interestingly , when we examined the it issues of five long-lived animals shown at the top of Figure 10 at 15 days of adulthood , we found that they looked very old , just as old as age-matched controls ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005342 SentenceID s65 SENTENCE : The animals are uncoordinated and produce progeny late in life ( up to day 40 ; Gems et al . 1998 ; D . Garigan and C . Kenyon , data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005342 SentenceID s77 SENTENCE : All of the mutants displayed increased lipofuscin-like intestinal fluorescence at relatively old ages ( Figure 2 , and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005342 SentenceID s78 SENTENCE : We found that both the somatic it issues and the germlines of daf- 2 ( mu150 ) and daf-16 ( mu86 ) mutants exhibited agerelated damage that appeared identical to that seen in wild type ( Figure 3 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005548 SentenceID s37 SENTENCE : body The selected lines also diverged in body size at 120 hr ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005548 SentenceID s49 SENTENCE : Indeed , closer inspection of our data suggests that several MA lines did not obey the correlation : Of the lines in the top and bottom 10 % for each trait in each data set , only 3 lines were simultaneously high or low for both traits , 2 lines were high for one trait and low for the other , and 30 lines 764 R . B . R . Azevedo et al . were extreme for only one of the traits ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005680 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : No additional phenotypes such as embryonic lethality or male tail phenotypes were observed in lon-3 homozygotes or hemizygotes ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005680 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : ND , not done . a Similarly , intermediate length phenotypes were observed in all of the following double mutants : lon-3 ( e2175 ) and sma- 4 ( e729 ) , sma-6 ( wk7 ) , or dbl-1 ( ev580 ) ; lon-3 ( ct417 ) and dbl- 1 ( ev580 ) ; and lon-3 ( ct418 ) and dbl-1 ( ev580 ) ( data not shown ) . b lon-3 dsRNA ( see materials and methods ) was injected into N2 wild-type hermaphrodites .
PaperID WBPaper00005680 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : We did not detect a splice leader , SL1 or SL2 , using 5 -RACE ( see materials and methods ) or RT-PCR with SL-specific primers ( data not shown ) , suggesting that the lon-3 tran- TABLE 3 Three-factor mapping of lon-3 Genotype of heterozygote Phenotype of recombinants lon-3 vab-8 lin-25 Vab non-Lin lon-3 vab-8 lin-25 Lin non-Vab lon-3 vab-8 sqt-3 Vab non-Sqt lon-3 vab-8 sqt-3 Sqt non-Vab lon-3 sma-1 vab-8 Vab non-Sma lon-3 sma-1 vab-8 Sma non-Vab Alleles used for marker genes are listed in materials and methods . script is not transspliced .
PaperID WBPaper00005680 SentenceID s49 SENTENCE : body This upregulation of reporter expression in dbl-1 and sma-4 mutants is not likely to result from a higher concentration of the GFP signal simply due to the small body size of dbl-1 mutants , since mutations such as dpy- 2 ( e8 ) , dpy-7 ( e88 ) ( Table 4 ) , unc-46 ( e177 ) , and dpy-9 ( e12 ) ( data not shown ) , which also cause smaller body size , did not affect GFP expression from pYSL3G3 .
PaperID WBPaper00005680 SentenceID s53 SENTENCE : Furthermore , when WT and Sma progeny were compared quantitatively using Scion Image , no significant difference in brightness was detected ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005695 SentenceID s113 SENTENCE : We observed a similar phenomenon with glp-1 ( ar224 ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005695 SentenceID s94 SENTENCE : We used the glp-1 ( q175 ) null allele that encodes a severely truncated product ; similar results were obtained with a temperature-sensitive partial loss-of-function allele , glp-1 ( e2141 ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005727 SentenceID s39 SENTENCE : P3 . p fuses later , in the late L2 stage ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005728 SentenceID s111 SENTENCE : This observation was supported by additional analysis of 10 independent samples of each kind ( average values and standard deviations were calculated , data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005729 SentenceID s66 SENTENCE : The survival of liv-2 ( m882 ) was determined at a different time ( data not shown ) and was only slightly more thermotolerant than wild type .
PaperID WBPaper00005755 SentenceID s108 SENTENCE : That scenario is consistent with the mutator status of Bergerac-BO and with the observation that its median survival at 20 is 3 days shorter than that of CL2a or Bristol-N2 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005755 SentenceID s55 SENTENCE : chromosomes Significant life-span QTL peaks reasons limited to three generations of backcrossing , demonstrated very similar allelic effects with the CL2a were located by both NpIM and CTIM to peaks on chromosomes I ( between stP124 and hP4 ) , III ( near alleles , here extending median longevity by 23 days ( data not shown ) . stP127 ) , IV [ between stP13 and stP44 ( for replicates C1 and C3 ) or between stP44 and stP35 ( C2 ) ] , V ( multiple The introgressed regions in these initial congenic lines span 712 cM ( 1016 Mb ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005755 SentenceID s85 SENTENCE : Although these data suggest a genotype environment interaction at lsq5a for median longevity ( e . . , see Figure 2 , C and D ) , no interaction was significant for either QTL when analyzed in a Cox proportional hazards model ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005756 SentenceID s106 SENTENCE : To developmentally stage fects ( data not shown ) . the heat shocks , gravid hermaphrodites were collected and treated with alkaline hypochlorite to physically separate the embryos .
PaperID WBPaper00005756 SentenceID s113 SENTENCE : To confirm this notion , we odorant benzaldehyde ( Figure 6B and data not shown ) . introduced the pk1389 deletion into the context of the In contrast , adult animals in which mbk-1 expression translational mbk-1 : : gfp construct ( Figure 1 ) and found was induced 2 hr before the assay showed a significant that transgenic animals expressing this construct show decrease in odortaxis toward benzaldehyde .
PaperID WBPaper00005756 SentenceID s114 SENTENCE : Extra copno gfp expression ( data not shown ) . ies of mbk-2 , whose expression was also monitored with an attached gfp tag ( Figure 1 ) , produced no defects and show no obvious morphological abnormalities .
PaperID WBPaper00005756 SentenceID s117 SENTENCE : These results indicate that extra copies of mbk-1 interfere dard conditions ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005756 SentenceID s121 SENTENCE : cytoplasmic, nucleus MBK-1 , like its vertebrate ortholog mosomal arrays , we could not conclude that these defects are indeed due to loss of mbk-1 ( data not shown ; these DYRK1A , localizes to the nucleus while the closely related MBK-2 , like its vertebrate ortholog DYRK2 , is prerescue experiments may have failed because of an inability to supply precisely the right amount of mbk-1 ) . dominantly cytoplasmic and excluded from the nucleus .
PaperID WBPaper00005756 SentenceID s132 SENTENCE : Second , the phenotypes resulting from providing extra copies of mbk-1 While hpk-1 null mutant animals are viable and appear indistinguishable from wild type ( data not shown ) , mbkcan be specifically induced in adult animals and are thus acute rather than developmental defects .
PaperID WBPaper00005756 SentenceID s139 SENTENCE : This finding is relevant since it is the additional copy of the vertebrate mbk-1 ortholog DYRK1A that causes The survivors display vulval defects at low penetrance ( 11 % ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005756 SentenceID s59 SENTENCE : mbk-1 , here on referred to as mbk-1 ( gf ) animals , appeared normal in respect to overall morphology , life span , dauer formation , thermotaxis , mechanosensation , and chemotaxis toward water-soluble attractants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005756 SentenceID s60 SENTENCE : mbk-1 ( gf ) animals display no defects in locomotory rate or reversal behavior ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005756 SentenceID s62 SENTENCE : Comparable defects were observed with chromosomally integrated lines that contain extra copies of either wildtype mbk-1 or a mutated version of mbk-1 in which the kinase activity was potentially hyperactivated ( Y-to-E change in kinase domain ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005756 SentenceID s77 SENTENCE : Transgenic lines expressing wild-type mbk-1 in AWB / C / I1 showed impaired odortaxis toward benzaldehyde , sensed by AWC ( Figure 6A ) , but normal odortaxis toward diacetyl , sensed by AWA ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005757 SentenceID s131 SENTENCE : The fatty acid composition of the 24-hr-supplemented adults was similar to worms that were grown on supplements for their entire lives ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005757 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : We performed one trial to examine if fat-3 worms exhibited shorter or longer life spans than wild type and found that their life span was very similar to that of wild type , in contrast to the long-lived control age-1 ( hx546 ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005804 SentenceID s113 SENTENCE : The DD1 serum and an anti-GFP polyclonal serum both recognize a GFP- tagged short DIM-1 isoform on Western blots of protein extracts from a transgenic dim-1 ( ra102 ) strain carrying the raEx31 [ dim-1 ( S ) : : GFP ; rol-6 ( su1006 ) ] array ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005804 SentenceID s138 SENTENCE : UNC-112 : : GFP distribution in L2 and L3 dim-1 ( ra102 ) larvae is indistinguishable from wild type ( data not shown ) , and it is not until animals become late L4 larvae or adults that UNC- 112 : : GFP begins to appear disorganized .
PaperID WBPaper00005804 SentenceID s140 SENTENCE : This is also the case for PAT-3 integrin ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005804 SentenceID s44 SENTENCE : The bodywall muscle in these revertant animals is also indistinguishable from wild-type muscle when viewed under polarized light ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005804 SentenceID s56 SENTENCE : Examination using Normarski optics revealed that embryos and oocytes in mutant hermaphrodites were often mislocalized due to a breach in the myoepithelial sheath that surrounds the gonad , and in a few hermaphrodites , one or both arms of the gonad were short or twisted ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005860 SentenceID s116 SENTENCE : On the other hand , it might reflect a preference for integration into DNA addition , also in the mut-6 mutator background ( Mori et al . 1988 ) , Tc1 elements with new SNP combinations of a certain GC content or into certain DNA structures , e . . , the highly repetitive sequences on the autosomal ( 3 out of 25 elements sequenced ) were found at N2 loci ( data not shown ) . arms that may form centromere-like domains .
PaperID WBPaper00005860 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : Out of 22 Tc3 copies , 3 have internal deletions , and 4 do not encode a full-length detected ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005860 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : Activity of Tc6 ( Dreyfus and Emmons 1991 ) , Tc8 ( Le et al . 2001 ) , or mariner-like elements ( Sedensky et al . 1994 ) has not been demonstrated . a Tc2 , Tc4 , and Tc7 have , besides the indicated copies , more highly diverged members ( data not shown ; Rezsohazy et al . 1997 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005861 SentenceID s102 SENTENCE : Cell lineage analysis revealed that in lin-8 ; lin-54 animals , the functional vulva sometimes formed from P ( 46 ) . p rather than from P ( 57 ) . p ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005861 SentenceID s103 SENTENCE : nuclei, nucleus In these cases , the P5 . p nucleus did not lie directly beneath the anchor cell nucleus ; instead , the P5 . p and P6 . p nuclei were located to either side of and below the anchor cell nucleus ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005861 SentenceID s131 SENTENCE : lin-13 ( n770 ) has also been shown to behave as a class B synMuv mutation by these criteria ( Table 5 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005861 SentenceID s90 SENTENCE : Strains isolated in the screen in which lin-15 ( n744 ) was used as the parental mutation had a fairly high percentage of rupture , often 50 % of adults ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00005862 SentenceID s17 SENTENCE : Third , an unc-17 : : GFP reporter transgene is through the isthmus in a swallowing motion and into expressed in the MCs ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006103 SentenceID s154 SENTENCE : Expression of GFP was observed in adults in some neurons in the head , tail , and nerve ring , but was too faint to permit identification of specific cells ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006103 SentenceID s78 SENTENCE : We isolated two more alleles of hid-1 ( sa1056 , sa1058 ) , which had Hid , Unc , Con , and Dec-s phenotypes both qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those of sa691 ( Table 4 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006103 SentenceID s96 SENTENCE : Consistent with this , the Hid phenotype of hid-3 is not suppressed by mutations in daf-5 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006110 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : With the exception of a slightly longer generation time , animals bearing muIs32 or muIs35 did not 1357 New alleles mu320 , mu323 , mu332 , mu333 , mu341 , mu344 exhibit any obvious developmental defects and had normal neuronal cell migrations ( Figures 2 and 3 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006110 SentenceID s109 SENTENCE : axon Mutations that disrupt other components of the conserved Wnt pathway in C . elegans , such as egl-20 , mig-14 , or bar-1 , appeared wild type for PLM axon outgrowth ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006110 SentenceID s134 SENTENCE : axon, process This process did not affect axon morphology ; worms treated this way did not differ significantly in their axon morphology from control worms ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006110 SentenceID s30 SENTENCE : Also , the egl-20 mutant has a defect in the asymmetric V5 cell division , a phenotype that we did not detect in any of the new mutants in this screen , including qid-7 and qid-8 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006110 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : A Bli phenotype was not sufficient to confer a cell migration defect in QL or its descendants , as bli-5 animals exhibited normal placement of the QL descendants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006110 SentenceID s63 SENTENCE : chromosome It was unlikely to be a lesion in bli-5 ( Hodgkin 1997 ) , a known mutation located on the same chromosome with a blistering phenotype ( Bli ) , because qid-6 ( mu252 ) complemented bli-5 ( e518 ) and the QL descendants were not misplaced in bli-5 ( e518 ) animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006110 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : These insertions did not affect the migrations of the QL or QR lineages ( Figure 3 ; data not shown ) and were used as starting strains for screens for mutants with misplaced QL and QR descendants .
PaperID WBPaper00006130 SentenceID s103 SENTENCE : spe-39 ( ZC404 . 3a ) is predicted to encode a protein of 522 amino acids ( GenBank accession no . AAA97964 . 1 ) and , according to computational hydropathy analysis ( Kyte and Doolittle 1982 ) , the protein has no transmembrane spanning sequences ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006130 SentenceID s116 SENTENCE : SPE-39 is a novel protein with homologs in D . melanogaster , human ( Figure 4A ) , and mouse ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006130 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : PCR was used to amplify the spe-39 unstable expression ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006177 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : Subsequent PCR analyses using gem-4-specific primers revealed that the gem-4 locus is deleted by sD7 , but not by sDf8 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006177 SentenceID s63 SENTENCE : No obvious differences in expression pattern were observed in these different backgrounds ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006177 SentenceID s83 SENTENCE : Very similar periment , behavior , or dependence of gonadal cell divisions on the availability of food ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006177 SentenceID s86 SENTENCE : We also examined the defecation cycle of animals of genotype gon-2 ( q388 ) and gon-2 ( q388 ) ; gem-4 ( dx77 ) ( mean 265 , SD 29 , n 3 ) and gem-4 ( dx77 ) ( mean 240 , SD 25 , n 4 ) were similar , whereas that for gem-4 ( dx74 ) and found no apparent difference between these animals and wild-type controls ( data not shown ) . was somewhat lower ( mean 162 , SD 58 , n 4 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006178 SentenceID s103 SENTENCE : However , when the full ges-1 construct pJM15 was introduced into the elt-4 ( ca16 ) background and transgenic embryos were assayed for ges-1 activity , no unusually high level of staining in the pharynx was observed , compared to the pJM15-transformed wildtype controls ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006178 SentenceID s12 SENTENCE : We used RT-PCR with mixed stage cDNA as template to search for such a longer transcript but were unsuccessful ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006178 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : We used 5 -RACE to determine that the elt-4 transcript begins 117 bp upstream of the elt-4 ATG codon ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006178 SentenceID s181 SENTENCE : As additional controls , we showed that both GST-tagged ELT-2 and in vitro translated ELT-2 , produced under similar conditions , bind DNA tightly and specifically ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006178 SentenceID s182 SENTENCE : In separate experiments , we could find no evidence that GST-ELT-4 , bound to glutathione-agarose beads , was able to interact with purified ELT-2 protein ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006178 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : As an additional control , we verified that essentially all of the activity produced by pJM202 and pJM204 with the 5 GATA pair reporter was dependent on the addition of galactose ( data not shown ) . n , the number of independent cultures that were assayed ( pooled from 23 completely independent replicates of the overall experiments ) . tween the C . briggsae homologs of elt-2 and C39B10 . 1 ( or elsewhere in the currently available genomic sequence ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006178 SentenceID s56 SENTENCE : Double-stranded RNA corresponding to the elt-2 cDNA was injected into a strain ( JM117 ) carrying an integrated transgenic array containing the construct pJM401 ( see Figure 2A ) ; the majority ( 75 % ) of reporter gene expression was abolished ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006178 SentenceID s76 SENTENCE : Hatching efficiency is 99 % ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006178 SentenceID s81 SENTENCE : Both wild-type and elt-4 deletion worms , when injected with double-stranded elt-2 RNA , produce embryos that stain for GES-1 activity ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006179 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : Pilot experiments suggested that , although offspring produced in the first day after such a cross is set up tend to have hermaphrodite-biased sex ratios , offspring produced on the second and third days show sex ratios that do not differ significantly from 50 : 50 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006298 SentenceID s102 SENTENCE : nuclei An average found that , during the late L3 through early L4 stages , the number of uterine cells that fluoresced as a result close to 6 . 5 GFP mid-L4 ( Table 2 ) and late L4 stages , with the uv1 nuclei of either the kuIs29 or the tyIs4 transgenic array was essentially the same in an egl-13 mutant or wild-type often showing brighter fluorescence than the utse nuclei as previously reported ( Hanna-Rose and Han 1999 ) . background ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006298 SentenceID s82 SENTENCE : Seven primer pairs were used to PCR amplify the entire egl-13 genomic region from 130 bp upstream of the predicted start site alterations in the axis of cell division in the n483 , ty3 , or ty8 mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006312 SentenceID s136 SENTENCE : synaptic Although we can not completely rule out this possibility , we found that transgenic animals expressing either full-length ODR-7 or ODR-7 NTD1 retained normal responses to AWC-sensed odorants such as isoamyl alcohol ( Figure 4B and data not shown ) , suggesting that overall AWC cell fate , synaptic connectivity , and morphology are not grossly altered upon overexpression of these transgenes .
PaperID WBPaper00006312 SentenceID s54 SENTENCE : nuclear In tants specifically fail to respond to diacetyl while retaining additional wild-type ODR-7 functions , including all cases , nuclear expression of the mutant ODR-7 proteins was detected in the AWA neurons of early larvae maintenance of odr-7 expression ( Sengupta et al . 1994 ; Sagasti et al . 1999 ; P . Sengupta , unpublished observa- ( Figure 2 and data not shown ) , and multiple transgenic lines exhibited similar phenotypes , suggesting that the tions ) , suggesting that distinct residues of ODR-7 may be required for the regulation of different target genes . autoregulatory defects may not arise simply as a consequence of lack of stability or mislocalization of the mu- In addition to the G340 residue that is mutated in odr-7 ( ky55 ) , we identified a second residue that appears to be tant ODR-7 proteins .
PaperID WBPaper00006312 SentenceID s61 SENTENCE : In the absence of expression of these genes , from those of wild-type ODR-7 ( Figure 2 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006312 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : Moreover , odr-7 ( ky55 ) / odr-7 ( ky4 ) trans-heterozygous animals also retained the ability to respond to pyrazine while failing to respond to diacetyl ( data not shown ) , indicating that the ky55 mutation specifically affects a subset of ODR-7-mediated functions .
PaperID WBPaper00006312 SentenceID s88 SENTENCE : Expression of an odr-7 cDNA under the odr-1 promoter resulted in strong repression of str-2 expression in the AWC neurons ( 2 AWCOFF ; Figure 2 ) However , AWA-specific genes such as odr-10 and odr-7 were not ectopically expressed ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006314 SentenceID s106 SENTENCE : However , E277K did not completely suppress the original D201E change in egl- 30 ( md186 ) with respect to pharyngeal pumping ( data not shown ) and egg laying ( Table 3 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006314 SentenceID s124 SENTENCE : However , a candidate null allele in egl-8 ( Lackner et al . 1999 ) is not as severely impaired as egl-30 reductionof-function mutants with respect to egg laying and locomotion ( Table 3 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006314 SentenceID s144 SENTENCE : body Some level of mutual suppression appeared to be generally true with respect to movement since egl-30 ( gf ) ; egl-8 double mutants still moved with exaggerated body bends , but activity levels appeared slightly reduced ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006314 SentenceID s223 SENTENCE : In contrast to animals that lack the motor neurons that innervate the vulval muscle , egg laying was not restored in egl-30 ( md186 ) mutants or in the stronger reductionof-function mutant , egl-30 ( ad805 ) ( data not shown ) Figure 5 .
PaperID WBPaper00006314 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : A few worms that we examined exhibited slow pharyngeal pumping , which might have mimicked what would be expected from high levels of overexpression since egl-30 ( tg26 ) and syIs36 exhibit irregular pumping ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006314 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : Western analysis supports this hypothesis since the band that migrates at the position where EGL-30 migrates on an SDS / PAGE gel is present at almost equivalent intensities in protein extracts prepared from egl-30 ( ad805 ) mutants compared to wild-type extracts ( data not shown ) , but the levels of this band increase significantly after heat-shock induction of an 1809 Figure 1 .
PaperID WBPaper00006314 SentenceID s69 SENTENCE : body A transgenic strain that overexpresses wildtype egl-30 under its own regulatory regions , syIs36 , exhibited hyperactive movement , moved with exaggerated body bends , and laid eggs at an early stage of development ( data not shown and Table 3 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006314 SentenceID s79 SENTENCE : Gain-of-function mutants of egl-30 : Mutations that do not affect expression levels of egl-30 , on the basis of Western blot analysis ( data not shown ) , similarly demonstrate the effects of altered activity levels of EGL-30 .
PaperID WBPaper00006314 SentenceID s80 SENTENCE : Two intragenic revertants of a reduction-of-function allele , egl-30 ( md186 ) , were obtained in screens for mutations for suppression of the allele ' s egg-laying-defective and lethargic phenotypes ( Tables 3 and 4 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006438 SentenceID s108 SENTENCE : First , we fed wild-type hermaphrodites with bacteria expressing dsRNA for each of the two genes , but observed no obvious phenotypes ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006438 SentenceID s123 SENTENCE : We therefore performed a three-hybrid assay using these three proteins with SEL-7 fused to the GAL4-DB domain , SEL-8 to GAL4-AD domain , and 159 K08E3 . 8 in pRST , but did not observe any interaction ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006438 SentenceID s17 SENTENCE : Although it would be premature to infer a role for SEL-7 or K08E3 . 8 on this basis , we note that , although our own analyses did not identify clear rela- 160 J . Chen , X . Li and I . Greenwald tives of K08E3 . 8 ( data not shown ) , Wormbase Release WS109 ( http : / / www . wormbase . org ) lists related human and yeast proteins that have functions in transcriptional regulation .
PaperID WBPaper00006438 SentenceID s21 SENTENCE : In addition to canonical lin-12 phenotypes , we also observed that the double mutant sel-7 ( n1253 ) unc-3 ( e151 ) formed dauers at 80 % penetrance ( 25 / 30 ) at 25 , whereas neither single mutant did ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006438 SentenceID s55 SENTENCE : We were unable to achieve good expression or rescue with a genomic fragment corresponding to the sel-7 region in simple arrays ( data not shown ) , a problem also encountered in the analysis of sel-5 ( Fares and Greenwald 1999 ) and other genes ( J . Hsieh , S . Kostas and A . Fire , personal communication ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006438 SentenceID s74 SENTENCE : nuclear It is nuclear in the developing gonad ( Figure 2 ) and elsewhere ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006438 SentenceID s76 SENTENCE : nuclear SEL-7 : : GFP fusion protein , tagged at the amino-terminus , expressed from sel-7 genomic sequences , is also nuclear ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006439 SentenceID s37 SENTENCE : processes, synapse On the basis of electron microscope reconstruction of the C . elegans pharynx , this is the location of the most-posterior MC processes and of the MC synapse ( Albertson and Thomson 1976 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006440 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : We also attempted to use POP-1 monoclonal antibodies ( Lin et al . 1998 ) , but staining in the gonad was weak and inconsistent , perhaps due to permeabilization problems ( data not shown , see materials and methods ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006440 SentenceID s134 SENTENCE : For gon-14 , most animals often missing some or all sensory rays ( data not shown ) , homozygous for the strong loss-of-function allele gon-14 ( q12 ) arrested at midlarval development ( L2 or L3 ) , a phenotype seen in lin-17 mutants , in pop-1 ( RNAi ) ania % animals with x ACs : lin-12 ( 0 ) a 3c n 0 1 2 3d n 0 45 0 6 91 3 35 0 63 0 6 74 21 34 26 27 0 0 0 100 27 16 44 0 0 0 100 24 0 59 0 4 61 35 23 0 62 ND ND ND ND 4 47 47 33 17 3 30 0 49 4 74 19 4 27 0 56 0 70 26 4 27 5AC ( 4 % ) ; gon-14 3AC ( 2 % ) , We next asked if sys-3 , gon-14 , gon-15 , or gon-16 acts Finally , gon-15 and gon-16 males raised at 25 were sys and POP-1 Control of Gonadogenesis TABLE 7 Comparison of sys , pop , and gon hermaphrodite and male defects with both DTCs missing Genotype Temperature % no DTC Wild type 20 0 Wild type 25 0 sys-1 ( q544 ) c 20 100 pop-1 ( q645 ) d 20 100 sys-3 ( q632 ) 20 12 gon-14 ( q686 ) 25 59 gon-15 ( q574 ) 25 26 gon-16 ( q568 ) 25 20 a Assayed with lag-2 : : GFP ( qIs56 for pop-1 , gon-15 , and gon-16 and qIs57 for sys-3 and gon-14 ) . b Scored for lack of germ-line proliferation by DIC optics . c Data for sys-1 hermaphrodite DTCs are from Miskowski et al . ( 2001 ) . d All pop-1 data are from Siegfried and Kimble ( 2002 ) . mals , and occasionally in sys-1 mutants ( Sternberg and Horvitz 1988 ; Siegfried and Kimble 2002 ; this work ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006440 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : nuclear Additionally , lin-17 ( n671 ) animals displayed equivalent levels of nuclear POP-1 in 31 % of Z1 and Z4 daughters ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006497 SentenceID s155 SENTENCE : Sex muscles were visualized with a ceh-24 : : gfp reporter transgene ( Harfe and Fire 1998 ) , nuIs63 , which also labels enteric muscle in the tail of the worm ( arrows ) . or touch sensation ( regulated by the six touch neurons ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006497 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : When we genetically removed the enteric muscle target of AVL in hlh-8 mutant animals ( Corsi et al . 2000 ) , we observed no AVL outgrowth defects ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006497 SentenceID s17 SENTENCE : axon Neurotransmission may also contribute in a negative feedback loop to the termination of axon outgrowth ( Brown et al . 1981 ; Zhao and Nonet 2000 ) , yet we have found that genetic removal of AVL ' s neurotransmitter , GABA , does not cause AVL overgrowth defects ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006497 SentenceID s180 SENTENCE : axonal, chromosomal Lowering the dosage of lin-23 ( ot1 ) by placing this allele over a chromosomal deficiency that eliminates lin-23 , mnDf30 , also causes no proliferation defects , but recapitulates the axonal outgrowth defects ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006497 SentenceID s224 SENTENCE : We first examined those neurons whose morphology is not affected by LIN-23 ( D-type motor neurons , DVB , and amphid sensory neurons ) but found no defects in sel-10 ( ar41 ) null animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006497 SentenceID s229 SENTENCE : axon We expanded the comparison of mutant phenotypes of rpm-1 and lin-23 and found that , unlike lin-23 mutants , rpm-1 mutants show no AVL overgrowth defects , but display DVB axon sprouting ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006497 SentenceID s230 SENTENCE : presynaptic Furthermore , we found that lin-23 mutants do not show the presynaptic VAMP : : GFP clustering defects in GABAergic ventral cord motor neurons that are observed in rpm-1 mutants ( Schaefer et al . 2000 ; Zhen et al . 2000 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006497 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : All eno mutants are recessive , again with the exception of ot2 , which is semidominant ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006497 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : synapse, synaptic Hence , eno mutants could affect steps relating to target recognition , synapse formation , or synaptic or retrograde signaling . eno mutants do not show defects normally associated with broadly acting synaptic transmission mutants , such as aldicarb resistance or uncoordinated locomotion ( data not shown ) , and at least some of them show only a very restricted set of neuroanatomical defects .
PaperID WBPaper00006497 SentenceID s52 SENTENCE : axon We observed defects in the morphology of D-type motor neurons in eno-2 ( ot2 ) and eno-8 ( ot8 ) , which display axon sprouting defects in the commissural axon tracts ( Figure 4 ; Table 1 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006497 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : axon In contrast , genes such as unc-34 , unc-44 / ankyrin , unc-61 , unc-71 , and unc-76 affect axon anatomy of AVL and DVB ( data not shown ) as well as of many other if not all neurons of the nervous system ( Hedgecock et al . 1987 ; McIntire et al . 1992 ; Antebi et al . 1997 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006497 SentenceID s68 SENTENCE : axon Further extending our analysis of eno-2 ( ot2 ) , we found that all other examined neuron classes ( ASE chemosensory , mechanosensory , and SAB motor neurons ) also displayed axon sprouting defects ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006497 SentenceID s83 SENTENCE : To distinguish among these possibilities , we genetically eliminated the D-type motor neurons using an unc-30 ( e191 ) mutant background ( Jin et al . 1994 ; Eastman et al . 1999 ) and found that the appearance and penetrance of eno ( ot1 ) outgrowth defects remains the same in eno ( ot1 ) and eno ( ot1 ) ; unc-30 ( e191 ) animals ( Figure 5B , data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006497 SentenceID s88 SENTENCE : axon Consistent with the notion of defective termination of axon outgrowth , we furthermore note that the outgrowth of the AVL axon continues through larval stages , resulting in a more penetrant mutant phenotype 1259 in adult animals compared to young larvae ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006497 SentenceID s91 SENTENCE : axon We found no defects in the axon anatomy of ASE chemosensory neurons or PVQ ventral cord interneurons ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00006498 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : Four N2 control lines with five replicates each ( i . . , 20 individuals ) were included in the second assay and shown to perform at ordinary levels for each trait ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00012773 SentenceID s109 SENTENCE : A similar effect on silencing was observed at the hmr A : : ADE2 locus , where gcn5 resulted in formation of pink colonies , yet the isogenic wild-type strain remained white ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00012773 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : However , Western blot analysis showed that Rad6 protein levels are essentially unchanged in isogenic wild-type , rpd3 , and gcn5 strains ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00012773 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : Furthermore , transformation of pink rpd3 mutants with plasmid-borne RPD3 rescued the white colony phenotype , an effect that would not occur if the ADE2-CAN1 were deleted ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00012773 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : The rpd3 rad6 and rpd3 gcn5 double mutants display synthetic slow-growth phenotypes ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00012773 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : chromosomal ( C ) The wild-type strain ( YMH171 ) carries the ADE2 gene at its normal chromosomal locus ; the rpd3 ( YMH270 ) , sin3 ( YMH265 ) , and sap30 ( YMH277 ) strains are isogenic derivatives of YMH171 . pink phenotype of the rpd3 single mutant , and this phenotype can be rescued by plasmid-borne RPD3 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00012773 SentenceID s40 SENTENCE : Impaired growth on Ura medium indicates enhanced silencing of URA3 ; enhanced growth indicates loss of silencing . colony phenotypes ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00012773 SentenceID s68 SENTENCE : Consistent with this result , strains containing RPD3 or rpd3-H188A formed white and pink colonies , respectively , on YPD medium ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00012773 SentenceID s69 SENTENCE : Similar results were obtained for the strains carrying an ADE2 reporter inserted in the HMR locus ( Figure 3B , cf . rows 3 and 4 ; and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00012773 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : The sap30 mutant , similar to the rpd3 and sin3 mutants , also formed pink colonies on YPD medium , compared to white colonies for the wild-type strain ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00012773 SentenceID s71 SENTENCE : Similar results were observed for sin3 RPD3 for both the RDN1 : : ADE2 and hmr : : ADE2 strains and sap30 rad6 mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00012773 SentenceID s73 SENTENCE : However , Sin3-Rpd3 complex is Rad6 dependent . overexpression of RPD3 , SIN3 , or SAP30 in wild-type backgrounds did not weaken silencing at either rDNA is mediated by a novel mechanism that depends on only or HMR ( data not shown ) . a single SIR gene , SIR2 ( Bryk et al . 1997 ; Fritze et al . We also examined the requirement for Rpd3 activity 1997 ; Smith and Boeke 1997 ) , and deletion of SIR4 in regulating telomeric silencing .
PaperID WBPaper00012773 SentenceID s81 SENTENCE : To investirpd3 strain was pink ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00012773 SentenceID s83 SENTENCE : Due CAF-I complex are required for silencing at the HM to the synthetic slow growth defect associated with rpd3 and telomeric loci ( Enomoto et al . 1997 ; Kaufman et rad6 double mutants ( data not shown ) , we assayed al . 1997 ; Monson et al . 1997 ; Enomoto and Berman telomeric silencing at URA3-TEL-V-R by measuring via- 1998 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00013472 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : osr-1 ( rm1 ) animals are also resistant to osmotic stress caused by sorbitol , glucose , sucrose , and KCl , demonstrating that osr-1 ( rm1 ) animals have a general resistance to hyperosmotic stress ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00013472 SentenceID s17 SENTENCE : Moreover , osr- 1 ( rm1 ) animals did not exhibit other phenotypes associated with general stress resistance as seen in other ILS pathway mutants , such as extended life span or constitutive dauer formation ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00013472 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : Also , osm-9 ( ky10 ) , ocr-2 ( ak47 ) , and osm- 10 ( n1052 ) mutant animals are not resistant to either acute or chronic osmotic stress ; moreover , none of these mutations suppress the osmotic stress resistance of osr-1 deficient animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00013472 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : osr-1 ( rm1 ) animals exhibited an osmotic avoidance abnormality phenotype as they fail to avoid regions of 4 m NaCl or 8 m fructose ( Figure 2F and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00013472 SentenceID s39 SENTENCE : In addition , osr-1 ( rm1 ) animals have normal responses to nose touch and the repellent , 1-octanol ( data not shown ) , which are also mediated by the polymodal ASH neurons via distinct signaling pathways ( Kaplan and Horvitz 1993 ; Hart et al . 1999 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00013472 SentenceID s42 SENTENCE : Also , none of these mutations affect osmotic stress tolerance in OSR-1 deficient animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00013472 SentenceID s83 SENTENCE : Mutations in genes that mediate heavy metal resistance , including JNK-1 , JKK-1 ( Villanueva et al . 2001 ) , and MEK-1 ( Koga et al . 2000 ) , also do not suppress the OSR-1 phenotypes ( Figure 5A and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00013472 SentenceID s96 SENTENCE : In addition , these animals retain the OSM-like phenotype , as 57 % of these animals cross the 4 m NaCl ring ( data not shown ) , similar to the phenotypes seen in osm-9 ( ky10 ) and osr-1 ( rm1 ) animals ( P 0 . 05 ; see Figure 2F ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024250 SentenceID s155 SENTENCE : We have found that neither unc- 68 ( e540 ) nor unc-68 ( e540 ) ; gar-3 ( lg1201 ) mutants can grow in the presence of 5 mm arecoline ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024250 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : eat-16 mutants are unable to grow in the presence of arecoline , and , when exposed , exhibit the same phenotype of extended pharyngeal muscle contraction as gpb-2 mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024251 SentenceID s106 SENTENCE : fractions PGL-2 was not detected in any of the embryo extract fractions ( data not shown ) , as expected from the immunostaining results described above ( see Figure 8 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024251 SentenceID s118 SENTENCE : Regardless of the order of assembly , we have found no evidence from in vitro binding tests for a direct interaction between PGL-1 and GLH-1 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024251 SentenceID s212 SENTENCE : Staining with a DNA dye and the spermatogenesisspecific antibody SP56 revealed that their germlines are well proliferated and contain all of the meiotic stages and mature sperm ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024251 SentenceID s234 SENTENCE : In contrast , many pgl-1 ; pgl-3 doublemutant embryos were stained with DAPI , swelled , took on an abnormal appearance , and arrested ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024251 SentenceID s40 SENTENCE : pgl-1 signal disappears from P4 before it divides to Z2 and Z3 around the 90-cell stage ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024251 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : Interestingly , the 3 -untranslated region sequences of pgl-1 and pgl-3 mRNAs are very similar ( data not shown ) , suggesting that the localization and / or stability of these two mRNAs may be controlled by a similar post-transcriptional mechanism ( s ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024251 SentenceID s83 SENTENCE : PGL-2 is first detected in L1 larvae , and like its transcript , it is not significantly enriched in the germline in newly hatched L1 ' s ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024251 SentenceID s84 SENTENCE : P granules, granules Concomitant with mitotic proliferation of germ cells , PGL-2 appears to accumulate in P granules , with weak signal still remaining in somatic it issues ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024251 SentenceID s85 SENTENCE : P granules, granules It remains associated with P granules in adult gonads in both sexes until it disappears during spermatogenesis and during the final stages of oogenesis ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024252 SentenceID s104 SENTENCE : Suppression appears specific to the mat-3 ( ku233 ) allele ence of lin-35 / Rb , dpl-1 / DP , efl-1 / E2F , and other Syn- Muv B gene products . since lin-15 ( n309 ) does not suppress the vulval or sterile defects of mat-3 ( cs53 ) or mat-3 ( cs54 ) mutants ( Table 4 ) ; lin- 15 ( n309 ) , lin-35 ( n765 ) , or lin-35 ( RNAi ) do not suppress the embryonic lethality of mat-3 ( ax68 ) temperature-sensitive mutants ( data not shown ) ; and lin-35 ( RNAi ) does not SynMuv B genes ( efl-1 / E2F , dpl-1 / DP , and lin-15B ) negasuppress the embryonic lethality of mat-3 ( or180 ) temperature-sensitive mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024252 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : JD2 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024252 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : PCR fragments ( 100 ng / l ) or pJD10 ( 10 ng / l ) were injected into mat-3 ( ku233 ) animals along with 100 ng / l of the rol-6D transformation marker pRF4 ( Mello et al . 1991 ) . pRF4 alone had no effect on the mat-3 ( ku233 ) phenotype ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024252 SentenceID s32 SENTENCE : nuclei Males lack rays and spicules ( data not shown ) , and hermaphrodites show severely reduced numbers of vulval nuclei ( Figure 4F ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024252 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : chromosome However , some animals have mislocalized sperm within the uterine cavity or distal gonad ( data not shown ) and / or accumulate oocytes with abnormal chromosome morphologies ( Figure 3H ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024252 SentenceID s52 SENTENCE : mek-2 levels were comparable across different samples with similar RNA inputs , indicating that the genotypes tested do not significantly alter mek-2 expression ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024253 SentenceID s133 SENTENCE : nuclei All of the engulfment gene single-mutant strains had wild-type numbers of Pn . p nuclei ( data not shown ; n 25 for all ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024253 SentenceID s136 SENTENCE : It is likely that these undead cells do not divide correctly and contribute to vulval formation , since the Egl and Pvl phenotypes caused by pvl-5 ( ga87 ) are still present in the triple-mutant strain ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024253 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : The defect in the number of Pn . p cells in pvl-5 ( ga87 ) appears to be fully recessive at 15 , 20 , and 25 ( Table 1 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024253 SentenceID s162 SENTENCE : We stained the gonads of adult pvl-5 hermaphrodites with the vital dye SYTO-12 64 , 76 , and 88 hr posthatching , but found no significant difference in the numbers of germ cell corpses in the pvl-5 ( ga87 ) background compared to wild type ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024253 SentenceID s164 SENTENCE : Similarly , we did not notice any extra ventral cord neuronal deaths in pvl-5 mutants , and these animals have the same number of neurons as wild-type animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024253 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : nuclei In addition , pvl-5 ( ga87 ) / pvl-5 ( ga87 ) / animals have wild-type numbers of Pn . p nuclei at 15 , 20 , and 25 ( using the free duplication arDp2 ; Table 1 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024253 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : The multicellular embryos appear misshapen and circular as opposed to the oval appearance of wild-type embryos ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024253 SentenceID s48 SENTENCE : Less frequently ( 6 % ) , animals displayed complete absence of a gonad arm ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024253 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : The missing gonad arm observed in pvl-5 ( ga87 ) is not likely due to the absence of DTCs , since two lag-2 : : GFP- expressing cells were always observed in the gonads of pvl-5 ( ga87 ) animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024253 SentenceID s61 SENTENCE : We also observed 12 ajm-1 : : GFP-expressing cells in pvl- 5 ( ga87 ) mutants at this time , suggesting that the Pn . p cells are born correctly in these animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024253 SentenceID s62 SENTENCE : Consistent with this result , there is no increase in the number of neurons in the ventral cord as would be predicted if there were a Pn . p to a Pn . a cell fate transformation like that seen in lin-26 mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024253 SentenceID s75 SENTENCE : nucleus Occasionally the cell escaped dying and recovered ; however , the resultant nucleus was smaller in size and showed abnormal morphology ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024253 SentenceID s95 SENTENCE : Mutations in ced-3 resulted in the suppression of the vulval phenotypes seen in pvl- 5 ( ga87 ) animals , suggesting that the Pn . p cells in pvl- 5 ( ga87 ) ; ced-3 mutants were capable of adopting induced cell fates like wild-type Pn . p cells ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024256 SentenceID s116 SENTENCE : axon We found that wsp-1 RNAi treatment of this unc-34 / ena mutant resulted in a significant enhancement of the neuronal cell migration but not of the axon outgrowth defects ( P 0 . 0001 , twotailed z-test ; Figure 5 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024320 SentenceID s105 SENTENCE : Double mutants containing either of these class A synMuv mutations exhibited no synthetic Muv phenotype ( data not shown ) , indicating that psa-1 is not a class B synMuv gene .
PaperID WBPaper00024320 SentenceID s12 SENTENCE : All these phenotypes associated with psa-1 ( ku355 ) were temperature sensitive ( Table 1 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024366 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : However , we could detect co-injected GFP marker genes expressed in dying F1 embryos ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024366 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : For example , while sup-39 resides in the sixth intron of C15F1 . 5 in C . elegans , the C . briggsae homolog of C15F1 . 5 does not contain a U1 snRNA gene in its intron ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024366 SentenceID s44 SENTENCE : However , this C . briggsae homolog is a U1 snRNA pseudogene because it contains a deletion of nucleo- 1692 A . M . Zahler , J . D . Tuttle and A . D . Chisholm tides 78110 of the U1 snRNA and thus could not be functional . We could find evidence for 10 full-length C . briggsae U1snRNA genes ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024367 SentenceID s113 SENTENCE : The DNA displayed similar mobility with no added protein and GST Mutations That Affect LIN-1 DNA Binding alone , indicating that GST does not bind the DNA ( Figure 2C , lane 1 , and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024367 SentenceID s44 SENTENCE : The GST : LIN- 1 ( 1278 M114K ) , GST : LIN-1 ( 1278 L70F ) , and GST : LIN-1 ( 1 278 E92K ) proteins did not express efficiently in bacteria ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024367 SentenceID s89 SENTENCE : The Muv phenotype caused by the seven missense mutations n753 , n1047 , n1848 , n1816 , n2704 , n2714 , and n2750 displayed a similar penetrance at these three temperatures ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024407 SentenceID s149 SENTENCE : Two potential sites in the gld-3L 3 -UTR were tested by threehybrid assay , but they did not bind FBF-1 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024407 SentenceID s154 SENTENCE : Another putative site ( FBE-c , Figure 6A ) did not bind FBF , although it expressed well in yeast ( Figure 6 , B and C ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024407 SentenceID s200 SENTENCE : Consistent with this interpretation , the gld-3 ( q741 ) nos-3 ( q650 ) double-mutant germ cells enter meiosis ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024407 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : HIM-3 was absent from gld-1 gld-2 ; gld-3 ( RNAi ) germlines ( data not shown ) . n 16 ) and gld-1 gld-2 ; gld-3 ( RNAi ) tumors ( 25 % , n 18 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024407 SentenceID s30 SENTENCE : We have also found that gld-3 nos-3 is epistatic to glp-1 ( RNAi ) , consistent with a position of gld-3 downstream of GLP-1 signaling ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024407 SentenceID s32 SENTENCE : Some animals were also stained with the mitotic marker antiphosphohistone ( Hendzel et al . 1997 ) and the meiotic marker anti-HIM-3 ( Zetka et al . 1999 ) to confirm the DAPI staining results ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024407 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : Surprisingly , most gld-2 ; gld-3 ( RNAi ) germ cells arrested in pachytene , a synthetic phenotype suggesting redundancy for progression into diplotene ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024407 SentenceID s66 SENTENCE : N-terminal fragments did not bind FBF ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024407 SentenceID s69 SENTENCE : In addition , an N-terminal fragment of GLD-3 ( amino acids 1102 ) binds GLD-2 in vitro ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024551 SentenceID s158 SENTENCE : However , it was difficult to determine the extent of suppression by atx-2 ( RNAi ) because gld-2 ; nos-3 germlines have substantial meiotic entry on their own ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024551 SentenceID s171 SENTENCE : We found that glp-1 ( oz112 / oz112 / ) atx-2 ( RNAi ) and glp-1 ( oz112 / oz112 / ) animals have a similar phenotype , indicating that atx-2 ( RNAi ) does not suppress glp-1 ( gf ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024551 SentenceID s175 SENTENCE : We found that glp-1 ( oz112 ) animals responded properly to ncc-1 ( RNAi ) , indicating that they are sensitive to RNAi ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024551 SentenceID s198 SENTENCE : soma We did not observe any sign of 825 masculinization of the XX soma ; therefore we conclude that ATX-2 functions specifically in germline sex determination ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024551 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : ( Table 1 ; Figure 2D ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024551 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : We did not detect a sequence change within the atx-2 transcribed region or within 1 kb up- or downstream of the gene ( see materials and methods ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024551 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : atx-2 mRNA levels were equivalent in the two RNA populations ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024551 SentenceID s79 SENTENCE : We likewise note substantial embryonic lethality associated with atx-2 ( RNAi ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024551 SentenceID s85 SENTENCE : Moreover , when a mitotic zone is present , it typically is smaller than wild type ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024552 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : unc-43 ( e755 ) but not unc-43 ( gf ) alleles suppressed the phenotypes of unc-64 ( rf ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024552 SentenceID s51 SENTENCE : Testing of egl-30 ( tg26 ) , a behaviorally similar egl-30 allele 837 thought to produce a gain of function ( Doi and Iwasaki 2002 ) , showed that this allele also suppressed unc- 64 ( e246 ) , increasing its mean velocity nearly fourfold ( data not shown ) , and was VA resistant ( Figure 2D ) . egl- 30 ( n686 ) , a weak reduction-of-function allele , was halothane hypersensitive ( EC50 0 . 178 0 . 047 vol % ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024553 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : The tpk-1 ( qm162 ) mutation ( Cys67 Tyr ) is shown in boldface type and indicated by an asterisk . dicted gene ZK637 . 9 was sufficient to rescue the developmental and behavioral phenotypes of the mutant strain ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024637 SentenceID s131 SENTENCE : Clone F23H12 rescued the Rol phenotype of rol-4 worms when carried on an extrachromosomal array ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024640 SentenceID s181 SENTENCE : The self-progeny brood sizes of pax-6 mutants are not significantly different from the wild type ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024640 SentenceID s199 SENTENCE : We confirmed these observations by direct lineage analysis of the class I mutant e2429 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024640 SentenceID s218 SENTENCE : We also observed polarity reversals in the F and U lineages in pax-6 class I males ( data not shown ) ; these may be secondary to the defects 1317 in B and Y as such reversals have been seen in other situations where B and Y are absent or abnormal ( Chisholm and Hodgkin 1989 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024640 SentenceID s25 SENTENCE : For most mutations the penetrance was determined at 15 , 20 , and 25 ; none of the alleles tested showed significant temperature sensitivity ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024640 SentenceID s65 SENTENCE : We found that the nonsense-mediated decay mutant smg-1 ( r861 ) did not suppress e1178 phenotypes ( data not shown ) , suggesting that the C-terminal PST-rich domain is essential for PAX-6 function in C . elegans .
PaperID WBPaper00024662 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : The egg-laying defect of hsf-1 ( sy441 ) was suppressed in progeny of parents that were deprived of food ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024662 SentenceID s117 SENTENCE : Multi-copy transgenic expression of cyl-1 did not cause any phenotype in appearance or behavior ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024662 SentenceID s120 SENTENCE : The residues mutated in sy432 and sy433 are also conserved in T- , K- , and C-type cyclins ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024662 SentenceID s17 SENTENCE : When viewed with Nomarski optics , these larvae did not have alae or compressed pharynges like true dauers ( Cassada and Russell 1975 ; Vowels and Thomas 1992 ; data not shown ) , but their presence prompted us to ask if the mutant was dauer constitutive at higher temperatures .
PaperID WBPaper00024662 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : Class I suppressors , on the other hand , had uniform levels of GOA-1 expression ( data not shown ) , consistent with their molecular identities as members of the G o / G q signaling pathway ( Hajdu-Cronin et al . 1999 ; Lackner et al . 1999 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024662 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : Strains carrying both syIs9 and cyl-1 ( sy433 ) looked as lethargic as syIs9 by itself ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024662 SentenceID s56 SENTENCE : Double mutants with hsf-1 ( sy441 ) , cyl-1 ( sy434 ) , sup-45 ( sy439 ) , and sup-45 ( sy509 ) also exhibited six-cell induction ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024985 SentenceID s127 SENTENCE : We observed similar results upon heat-shock induction of the gsa-1 gain-of-function transgene in larval ric-8 ( md303 ) animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024985 SentenceID s153 SENTENCE : In addition , activating the G s pathway restored , to all appearances , perfectly coordinated locowith the ACh receptor agonist nicotine ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024985 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : Supporting the gainof-function nature of the acy-1 mutations , we found that introducing the ce2 mutation into wild-type worms on a transgene caused hyperactive locomotion ( shown later in Figure 10A ) , whereas a wild-type version of acy-1 did not obviously affect locomotion rate , even at significantly higher transgene doseages ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024985 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : Similar results were obtained using the population growth method of measuring aldicarb sensitivity ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024985 SentenceID s202 SENTENCE : Similar results were obtained using 1200 m nicotine ( solution assay ) and 800 m levamisole ( solid media assay ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024986 SentenceID s202 SENTENCE : ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024986 SentenceID s21 SENTENCE : presynaptic, process Our analysis of egl-30 ( tg26 ) ; unc-13 ( s69 ) double mutants suggests that all efcarb resistance ( Miller et al . 1996 ; K . G . Miller ; data not shown ) , which indicates decreased steady-state fectors of the presynaptic G q pathway ( including DAG ) must ultimately channel their effects through UNC-13 neurotransmitter release , whereas knocking out the neuronal G s pathway does not significantly affect aldior a through an UNC-13-dependent process .
PaperID WBPaper00024986 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : synaptic, synaptic vesicle, vesicle In a second set of epistasis pathway nulls that we describe here ( Koushika et al . 2001 ; K . G . Miller , data not shown ) . experiments , we discovered that the G s pathway is involved in the locomotion response of the activated G q The G s pathway is not required for the core synaptic vesicle priming function : Our study shows that knocking pathway and , importantly , our phorbol ester studies suggest that the G s pathway is involved in the locomotion out the neuronal G s pathway via the acy-1 null mutation s pathway o pathway , is also closely o pathway appears to q priming pathway o s pathways do not q pathway . o q and G s q and cannot be the s pathway , at least in C . s Convergent G Pathways does not significantly affect overall steady-state levels of neurotransmitter release , as measured by aldicarb sensitivity .
PaperID WBPaper00024986 SentenceID s63 SENTENCE : The muscle-rescued acy-1 nulls that did reach adult- However , acy-1 null strains that selectively expressed the hood seemed to exhibit near-normal growth rate and acy-1 ( ) cDNA transgene in muscle had significantly size ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00024986 SentenceID s64 SENTENCE : In contrast , acy-1 nulls that exslower locomotion rates than acy-1 null single mutants pressed the acy-1 ( ) cDNA only in their nervous systems ( 1 % of wild type in three independent strains ) , even were slower growing and smaller than their musclewhen the acy-1 ( ) cDNA transgene was expressed at rescued counterparts ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025044 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : From sb51 unc-59 / Hawaiian heterozygotes , sterile Unc-59 adults were scored for SNP markers , placing sb51 between F08A8 : 3890 and unc-59 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025044 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : microtubules, spindle However , the tba-2 ( sb51 ) mitotic spindle defects do not depend on MEI-1 / MEI-2 activity since there is no ectopic MEI-1 / MEI-2 present in mitosis in tba-2 ( sb51 ) embryos ( data not shown ) and sb51 dominant lethality is not affected by tbb-2 ( sb26 ) , which results in microtubules less sensitive to MEI-1 / MEI-2 activity ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025044 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : process In addition , tba-2 ( sb51 ) homozygotes are sterile due to insufficient germline mitotic proliferation ( data not shown ) , a process also independent of MEI-1 and MEI-2 .
PaperID WBPaper00025044 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : nuclei Adult tba-2 ( sb51 ) homozygotes are sterile , and their germlines have no mature oocytes and very few pachytene-stage nuclei ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025044 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : tba-2 ( sb51 ) genetically interacts with all genes in this pathway ( Table 1 and data not shown ) . sb51 dominantly enhanced both mei-1 ( ct46 gf ) and mel- 26 ( ct61 ) ( Table 1 , lines 15 ) . sb51 also strongly enhanced a mei-2 hypomorphic mutant , ct98 , which in contrast to the mutants just mentioned , has meiotic rather than mitotic defects ( Table 1 , lines 67 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025044 SentenceID s42 SENTENCE : microtubules However , this is not likely since neither tba-2 ( sb25 ) nor tba-2 ( sb27 ) genetically interacted with zyg-9 ( ts ) ( Table 3 ) or zyg-9 ( RNAi ) ( data not shown ) , which encodes a MAP that stabilizes microtubules ( Matthews et al . 1998 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025044 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : Both semidominantly suppressed the embryonic lethality caused by ectopic MEI-1 / MEI-2 expression of mei-1 ( ct46gf ) ( Table 3 , lines 17 ) and mel-26 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025044 SentenceID s51 SENTENCE : This is likely due to the mei-1 ( ct46 gf ) mutation , which in addition to resulting in mitotic persistence of the mutant product , reduces MEI-1 activity during meiosis to some extent ( but not to lethal levels ; C . elegans Tubulin Mutations data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025044 SentenceID s52 SENTENCE : Hence , strong suppression of the ectopic mitotic activity of mei-1 ( ct46 gf ) by sb27 would be masked by the corresponding increased lethality resulting from its enhancement of the mei-1 ( ct46 gf ) meiotic defects ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025044 SentenceID s54 SENTENCE : A three-factor map was generated similarly In this work , we report two types of mutations in the for sb27 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025085 SentenceID s44 SENTENCE : We found that the expected correlations due to sampling fell between 0 . 262 and 0 . 257 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025085 SentenceID s59 SENTENCE : This correction had no effect on estimates of mutational correlations and minor effects on other parameter estimates ( data not shown ) , so we present the estimates without this correction to facilitate statistical analysis .
PaperID WBPaper00025145 SentenceID s73 SENTENCE : We found that loss-of-function mutations in C . elegans homologs of inositol trisphosphate receptor itr-3 ( Iwasaki et al . 1995 ) , protein kincase C tpa-1 ( Tabuse et al . 1995 ) , and diacylglycerol kinase dgk-1 ( Nurrish et al . 1999 ) have relatively mild and variable effects on egg-laying response to the drugs ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025146 SentenceID s133 SENTENCE : We analyzed these mutants and found that they are essentially normal in all aspects of thermotactic responses tested , although tph-1 ( mg280 ) mutants cultivated at 25 were too sick to test any aspects of thermotactic responses ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025146 SentenceID s152 SENTENCE : Finally , ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025146 SentenceID s183 SENTENCE : aho-2 ( nj32 ) was normal in chemotaxis to Na ion , avoidance of Cu2 ion , and olfaction ( diacetyl , isoamyl alcohol , benzaldehyde , and trimithylthiazole ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025146 SentenceID s186 SENTENCE : aho-1 ( nj5 ) was normal in olfactory adaptation ( diacetyl , pyrazine , isoamyl alcohol , and benzaldehyde ) , pharyngeal pumping , and defecation , and aho-1 ( nj5 ) had a slight defect of chemotaxis to NaCl ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025146 SentenceID s189 SENTENCE : aho-3 ( nj15 ) was normal in chemotaxis to NaCl , avoidance of Cu2 ion , and olfaction ( diacetyl , pyrazine , isoamyl alcohol , and benzaldehyde ) , and aho-3 ( nj15 ) was defective in male mating behavior ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025146 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : Most well-fed animals grown at 17 , 20 , and 25 migrated to their cultivation temperature in an individual assay with a radial temperature gradient ( Table 1 and Figure 10A ) as observed in a population assay with a linear temperature gradient ( Hedgecock and Russell 1975 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025146 SentenceID s191 SENTENCE : The nj26 exhibited Aho at 17 . nj26 was normal in olfaction ( diacetyl and benzaldehyde ) and slightly abnormal in chemotaxis to Na ion ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025146 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : We found that the cat- 1 ( e1111 ) mutant exhibited normal reversal of thermotaxis at 17 and no severe defects other than the delay in thermotactic recovery at 25 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025146 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : The 8-m glycerol ring did not affect thermotaxis behav- C . elegans variety Hawaiian strain ( CB4856 ) , CB61 dpy-5 ( e61 ) I , ior ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025146 SentenceID s85 SENTENCE : fraction In this latter shift experiment , a fraction of animals migrating to 17 increased even faster after recultivation with food when animals were cultivated at 17 under food-deprived conditions for 4 instead of 3 hr ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025148 SentenceID s126 SENTENCE : chromosome Although multiple insertions were present in Mos1-mutagenized levamisole-resistant mutants ( data not shown ) , a single relevant insertion was easily identified after rough mapping to a chromosome or serial outcrossing .
PaperID WBPaper00025148 SentenceID s142 SENTENCE : Among 20 mutants isolated ( data not shown ) , 3 did not have a Mos1 insertion linked to the mutant phenotype , corresponding to an apparent 15 % rate of hit-and-run mutations .
PaperID WBPaper00025208 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : It was detected at a very low level in L3 larvae , a substantially higher level in L4 larvae , and most prominently in adults ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025208 SentenceID s175 SENTENCE : perinuclear We saw similar changes in the size and distribution of GLH-1 foci in wild-type vs . ego-1 ( om84 ) germlines ; e . . , size and distribution of perinuclear GLH-1 foci was fairly uniform in wild-type germlines and irregular in ego-1 ( om84 ) germlines ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025208 SentenceID s191 SENTENCE : P granules, P-granule, granules, puncta The GLD-1 puncta consistently colocalized with PGL-1 in all germlines ( data not shown ) , indicating that either elevated levels of GLD-1 associate with P granules in ego-1 mutants or P-granule structure is altered so as to allow greater accessibility of the anti-GLD-1 antibody .
PaperID WBPaper00025208 SentenceID s194 SENTENCE : No changes in the gross morphology or distribution of PGL-1 in dcr-1 mutants were seen under our conditions ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025208 SentenceID s199 SENTENCE : P-granule P-granule morphology appeared normal in rrf-3 ( 0 ) adults raised at restrictive temperature ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025208 SentenceID s21 SENTENCE : Using affinity-purified antiserum , we detected an 179-kDa amino acid product in wild-type protein extracts that was absent in extracts from ego-1 putative null alleles , om84 and om97 ( Figure 1A ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025208 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : nuclear EGO-1 abundance was extremely low compared with controls such as myosin and nuclear lamin ( Figure 1 , B and D ; data not shown ) ; therefore , we hypothesize that the very few germ cells in L1L2 larvae may preclude detection of ego-1 gene product at these stages .
PaperID WBPaper00025208 SentenceID s59 SENTENCE : In addition , costaining with antibodies against GLD-1 and a phosphorylated form of histone H3 that is present in cells immediately prior to and during mitosis ( Hendzel et al . 1997 ) confirmed that GLD-1 levels in the proliferating region of the ego-1 germ line are normal ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025208 SentenceID s75 SENTENCE : YP170 : : GFP was taken up into the ego-1 oocytes , suggesting the RME-2 was functioning normally ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025247 SentenceID s144 SENTENCE : The adult data set ( data not shown ) exhibits a trend similar to that of the L4 data set .
PaperID WBPaper00025247 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : Similar analysis of insertion ed Is6 demonstrated that this line also carried a high-copy-number tandem array ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00025247 SentenceID s82 SENTENCE : In many cases , multistep crosses were required to arrive at the cross shown in each box . u , unc-13 ( e1091 ) ; d , dpy-5 ( e61 ) ; du , dpy-5 ( e61 ) unc-13 ( e1091 ) . of ccEx3815 in line PD3815 was 2 . 2 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026594 SentenceID s17 SENTENCE : chromosomes To the extent that the number of genes was sufficient to analyze , similar patterns were also seen on other chromosomes ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026594 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : We also analyzed 15 probable gene fragments in the srh gene family , whose positions were also similar to the more complete genes ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026594 SentenceID s3 SENTENCE : Only loci that could encode at least half of an SR protein were included in these counts ; 50 more gene fragments are in each family ( data not shown ; H . Robertson , personal communication ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026594 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : In all cases , there was no significant difference ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026594 SentenceID s51 SENTENCE : We made a partial reannotation of the str family ( see materials and methods ) , and it is likely that the general findings are similar to those for srh ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026594 SentenceID s84 SENTENCE : The possibility that an alternative splice or an unidentified nearby exon could produce a functional protein was ruled out by tblastn searches ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026642 SentenceID s108 SENTENCE : In acceptable agreement with this estimate , the direct PCR assay found that 41 . 5 % ( 39 / 94 ) of arrested JM136 embryos are indeed med- 2 ( ) ; med-1 ( ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026642 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : Alternatively , if the nDf16 results are valid , then the sDf127 results could possibly be explained by increased embryo fragility , a slightly earlier stage of embryo arrest and / or nonspecific loss of endoderm marker expression , all of which could be exacerbated by the fact that sDf127 homozygotes are also homozygous unc-32 ; null mutations in unc-32 are known to cause embryonic arrest with vacuolated intestines ( Pujol et al . 2001 ) and we found that unc-32 RNAi greatly decreases gut-granule intensity in the arrested embryos , such that 20 % would be classified as negative by our scoring criteria ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026642 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : However , when we performed this protocol on N2 control worms ( collecting embryos 1114 hr at 20 after a heat shock of 35 for 4 hr ) , heat-shocked L4 worms ( as in the protocol ) were completely sterile ; heatshocked adults produced an average of 0 . 6 embryo per hermaphrodite , roughly half of which were gut-granule negative because they arrested early in embryogenesis ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026642 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : 98 % of 548 B . Goszczynski and J . D . McGhee the arrested RB930 embryos still produce endoderm ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026642 SentenceID s30 SENTENCE : Identities of the amplified fragments were verified by restriction enzyme digestions ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026642 SentenceID s55 SENTENCE : Locations of PCR primers within the med-1 and med-2 genes are shown in B . Reevaluating the med Genes and the C . elegans Endoderm 549 both genotypes continue to exclude the vital dye Trypan Blue after 4 days incubation at 20 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026642 SentenceID s88 SENTENCE : If this set of data is excluded from the analysis , the behaviors of JM133 med-1 ( 1 ) and JM134 med-1 ( ) are essentially indistinguishable ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026642 SentenceID s9 SENTENCE : Sequence traces obtained with the fragment amplified from wild-type DNA clearly showed the multiple sequence ambiguities expected for a mixture of med-1 and med-2 DNA ( Maduro et al . 2001 ) ; in contrast , sequence traces obtained with the fragment amplified from RB930 DNA showed only a single sequence , corresponding to med-2 ( 1 ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026688 SentenceID s12 SENTENCE : Furthermore , RNA-mediated interference ( RNAi ) of B0454 . 1 in lin- 15B ( n744 ) animals resulted in a synMuv phenotype , and expression of the B0454 . 1 ORF under the control of the two C . elegans heat-shock promoters ( Stringham et al . 1992 ) shortly after L1 lethargus efficiently rescued the synMuv A and B Proteins LIN-8 and LIN-35 Rb Interact 1019 synMuv phenotype of lin-8 ( n2731 ) ; lin-15B ( n744 ) animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026688 SentenceID s37 SENTENCE : The nine lin-8 alleles are not easily distinguishable in combination with the strong canonical synMuv B allele lin-15B ( n744 ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026688 SentenceID s76 SENTENCE : nuclei No anti-LIN-8 staining was observed in any of these somatic or germ cell nuclei in lin-8 ( n2731 ) animals at any stage ( Figure 3 , B and C ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026688 SentenceID s78 SENTENCE : LIN-8 interacts with LIN-35 Rb in vitro : We performed a yeast two-hybrid analysis of a C . elegans cDNA library using full-length lin-35 Rb as bait and identified LIN-8 as a potential LIN-35 Rb interactor ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026688 SentenceID s83 SENTENCE : Neither LIN-35 nor LIN-8 interacted in the yeast two-hybrid system with any of 29 other vulval proteins tested ( Walhout et al . 2000a ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026688 SentenceID s84 SENTENCE : Western blot analyses ( data not shown ) indicate that LIN-35 is expressed at wild-type levels in lin-8 ( n2731 ) worms and that LIN-8 is expressed at wild-type levels in lin-35 ( n745 ) worms , which lack LIN-35 protein ( Lu and Horvitz 1998 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026688 SentenceID s94 SENTENCE : Progressive deletions of N- and C-terminal LIN-8 residues revealed that amino acids 170359 of LIN-8 were necessary for interaction with LIN-35 Rb ( data not shown ; Figure 4C ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026767 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : We found that all these double mutants were much more resistant to fluoxetine than the respective single mutants ( Figure 1 , B and C ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026767 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : We found that intestinalspecific expression of nrf-6 ( 1 ) rescued both the Nrf and the Peg defect of nrf-6 mutants , whereas hypodermalspecific expression did not rescue either of the defects ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026767 SentenceID s66 SENTENCE : We observed GFP fluorescence throughout the entire intestine of transgenic animals expressing this nrf-5Tgfp fusion ( Figure 5 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026767 SentenceID s68 SENTENCE : Furthermore , the nrf-5Tgfp fusion rescued the Nrf and Peg phenotypes of nrf-5 mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026799 SentenceID s17 SENTENCE : Revertants that remained after this triage step were first tested for linkage to lin-12 and unlinked suppressors were subjected to sequence-tagged site mapping ( Williams et al . 1992 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026799 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : The new allele sel ( ar555 ) appears likely to be an allele of sel-4 , with the caveat that sel ( ar555 ) acts semidominantly ; sel ( ar555 ) maps to the sel-4 region ( data not shown ) , but as the molecular identity of sel-4 is not known , allelism could not be confirmed by sequencing .
PaperID WBPaper00026799 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : Additional mapping of new sel genes : sel ( ar578 ) V homozygotes segregating from Bristol / DP13 heterozygotes were used to map sel ( ar578 ) to the left of stP18 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026799 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : chromosome Furthermore , there were no changes in the coding region of lag-2 or in the coding region of skp-1 , the C . elegans homolog of the Notch interactor Skip ( Zhou et al . 2000 ) , which both map on chromosome V . sel ( ar570 ) IV homozygotes segregating from Bristol / GS3063 heterozygotes were used to map sel ( ar570 ) to the right of SNP pkP4046 on clone Y105C5 on the right arm of chromosome IV ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026799 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : Bristol N2 ( Brenner 1974 ) , except for mapping experiments using the Bergerac strains DP13 ( Williams et al . 1992 ) and GS3063 , in which lin-12 ( n302 ) had been placed into the Hawaiian strain CB4856 background by repeated backcrossing ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026799 SentenceID s65 SENTENCE : We saw no effect on total brood size or maternal-effect lethality ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026799 SentenceID s82 SENTENCE : These observations prompted us to test whether loss of bre gene activity suppresses the 0 AC-Egl phenotype associated with lin-12 ( n302 ) ( data not shown ) or lin- 12 ( n302 ) / 1 ( Figure 3 ) and the Muv phenotype associated with lin-12 ( DE ) ( Table 4 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026842 SentenceID s160 SENTENCE : Constitutively active mig-2 ( rh17 ) , which affected the ability of AQR and PQR to migrate along their normal routes ( Figure 3B ) , did not affect AQR or PQR direction of migration ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026842 SentenceID s190 SENTENCE : ced-10 ( n1993 ) ; mig-2 ( lq13 ) double mutants arrested as embryos and larvae with defects in gastrulation , similar to ced-10 null animals and ced-10 ( n1993 ) ; mig-2 ( mu28 ) animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026842 SentenceID s191 SENTENCE : ced-10 ( n1993lq20 ) mutants displayed variable lethality characteristic of other ced-10- related lethality ( defects in gastrulation ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026842 SentenceID s197 SENTENCE : In contrast to mig-2 and ced-10 null mutants , mig- 2 ( lq13 ) animals were slightly uncoordinated and ced- 10 ( n1993lq20 ) were severely uncoordinated ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026842 SentenceID s212 SENTENCE : axon ced-10 ( n3246 ) animals also displayed slight uncoordination ( data not shown ) as well as defects in PDE and VD / DD axon pathfinding ( Figures 3A and 7A ) not observed in ced-10 null mutants .
PaperID WBPaper00026842 SentenceID s214 SENTENCE : While execution of AQR and PQR migration was affected , these mutations had no effect on direction of AQR or PQR migration ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026842 SentenceID s216 SENTENCE : axon However , each of these mutations was recessive to wild-type for Unc and for PDE axon defects and AQR / PQR migration ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026842 SentenceID s219 SENTENCE : axon Consistent with previous results ( Struckhoff and Lundquist 2003 ) , we found that transgenic expression of wild-type MIG-2 or CED-10 in the PDE caused few defects in axon pathfinding or PDE morphogenesis ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026842 SentenceID s223 SENTENCE : cytoskeletal unc-34 ( lq17 ) affects splicing of the unc-34 transcript : The ced-10 synthetic lethal mutation lq17 was found to be a hypomorphic allele of unc-34 , which encodes the C . elegans homolog of the cytoskeletal signaling protein Enabled ( Figure 8A ) ( Withee et al . 2004 ) . ced- 10 ( n1993 ) ; unc-34 ( lq17 ) animals that lost the ced-10 ( 1 ) array were embryonic lethal with a Gex phenotype similar to ced-10 null mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026842 SentenceID s226 SENTENCE : We found that lq17 failed to complement the Unc phenotype of three unc-34 alleles , e315 , gm104 , and , e951 , suggesting that lq17 was an allele of unc-34 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026842 SentenceID s239 SENTENCE : Alone , lq17 animals were slightly Unc but less severely so than extant null unc-34 alleles ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026842 SentenceID s261 SENTENCE : Double homozygotes from this balanced strain were viable , but in each case maternal-effect embryonic lethal with the Gex phenotype ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026842 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : This transgene rescued the cell corpse phagocytosis defects and distal tip cell migration defects of ced-10 ( n1993 ) , ced-10 ( n3417 ) , and ced-10 ( tm597 ) ( data not shown ) , indicating that it produced a functional GFPTCED-10 molecule .
PaperID WBPaper00026842 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : X chromosome, chromosome The following mutations and transgenic constructs were used in this work : LGI : dpy-5 ( e61 ) , unc-40 ( e271 ) LGII : juIs73 [ unc-25Tgfp ] , dpy-10 ( e128 ) LGIII : dpy-17 ( e124 ) , mab-5 ( e1239 ) , dpy-19 ( e1259 ) LGIV : ced-10 ( n1993 , n3246 , n3417 , lq20 , and tm597 ) , nT1 IV : V , dpy-13 ( e184 ) , lqIs3 [ osm-6Tgfp ] LGV : unc-34 ( e951 , gm104 , and lq17 ) , dpy-11 ( e224 ) LGX : szT1 X : I , lqIs2 [ osm-6Tgfp ] , mig-2 ( mu28 and lq13 ) , unc- 115 ( mn481 and ky275 ) , mig-15 ( rh148 and rh80 ) The lq17 mutation was assigned to a linkage group by analysis of segregation against a dpy mutation on each linkage group using the synthetic lethal phenotype of lq17 with ced- 10 ( n1993 ) . lq17 was found to segregate away from dpy-11 on LGV , and showed independent assortment with dpy-5 I , dpy-10 II , dpy-17 III , dpy-13 IV , and the X chromosome ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026842 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : ced-10 ( tm597 ) animals displayed a phenotype similar to ced-10 ( n3417 ) animals : tm597 animals were maternal-effect embryonic lethal with severe defects in morphogenesis , including early defects in gastrulation [ a Gex phenotype ( Soto et al . 2002 ) ] and embryonic elongation ( data not shown ) . tm597 homozygotes with wild-type ced-10 contribution were viable and had defects in gonad morphogenesis due to distal tip cell migration errors and defects in phagocytosis of cells undergoing programmed cell death ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026855 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : chromosome The suppression of the let-60 Muv phenotype caused by n2528 displayed linkage to lon-2 on chromosome X , and threefactor mapping experiments positioned n2528 between the visible markers unc-78 and lon-2 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026855 SentenceID s72 SENTENCE : NJ and MP produced an identical branching pattern ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026941 SentenceID s12 SENTENCE : These defects are caused solely by lack of functional UNC-31 ( CAPS ) in the nervous system , because a transgene carrying the unc-31 ( 1 ) cDNA under control of the pan-neural rab-3 promoter restores a wild-type locomotion rate and confers posture , coordination , and egg-laying characteristics that are indistinguishable from wild type ( Figure 3B ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026941 SentenceID s130 SENTENCE : Mutants in which the Gaq or Gas pathways are hyperactivated have normal or even reduced muscle responses to levamisole and yet are hypersensitive to aldicarb ( Lackner et al . 1999 ; Doi and Iwasaki 2002 ; Schade et al . 2005 ) ( data not shown ) , which indicates increased levels of steady-state acetylcholine release .
PaperID WBPaper00026941 SentenceID s218 SENTENCE : synapses However , within the nerve ring , which contains a large number of interneuronal synapses in the animal ' s head , UNC-31 is clearly concentrated in regions containing large numbers of noncholinergic synapses ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026941 SentenceID s59 SENTENCE : In contrast , a similarly paralyzed egl-30 ( Gaq ) reduction-of-function mutant appears to have strongly decreased steady-state acetylcholine release , because it exhibits robust growth on aldicarb concentrations up to 400 mm ( Figure 3D ) and continues to grow and reproduce on concentrations up to 1600 mm ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026941 SentenceID s82 SENTENCE : , data not shown ) and yet , unlike unc-31 null mutants , both egl-3 and egl-21 single and double mutants exhibit a significant aldicarb resistance phenotype ( Jacob and Kaplan 2003 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026963 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : Putative C . briggsae and C . remanei gon-14 orthologs contain sequences corresponding to the last exon of gon-14a , but do not have a recognizable gon-14b ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026963 SentenceID s117 SENTENCE : 920 M . A . Chesney , A . R . Kidd III and J . Kimble cases , gon-14 ( 0 ) adults produced one or more fertilized embryos ( 18 % , n 33 ) that appeared to arrest early in embryogenesis ( , 100 cells , data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026963 SentenceID s129 SENTENCE : The delay in vulval development may have been related to the delay in gonadogenesis , as the extent of VPC divisions generally correlated with the size of the gonad in arrested larvae ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026963 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : Using RTPCR , we found that SL1 is trans-spliced to the gon-14 transcript at an AUG 48 nucleotides upstream of the previously predicted start AUG ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026963 SentenceID s132 SENTENCE : Ectopic vulvae were found in four different gon-14 mutants ( q10 , q12 , q552 , and q631 ) , but not when gon-14 levels were reduced by RNAi in wild-type animals and only rarely when reduced by RNAi in rrf-3 , an RNAi-hypersensitive mutant ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026963 SentenceID s155 SENTENCE : The double mutants could undergo some postembryonic cell divisions in gonad , intestine , M , and P lineages , and in rare cases one or more VPCs divided ; however , the arrested larvae never exhibited a mature vulva or adult alae ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026963 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : Specifically , amino acids 251723 of GON-14 align with amino acids 70553 of LIN-15B ( 24 % identity , 44 % similarity ) ; we refer to this region as the LIN-15B homology domain ( Figure 1A , data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026963 SentenceID s162 SENTENCE : Additionally , no larval arrest was observed when gon-14 was disrupted in class A synMuv mutant backgrounds ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026963 SentenceID s180 SENTENCE : Furthermore , among animals that failed to reach adulthood , those treated with mes-2 or mes-4 RNAi typically exhibited more cell proliferation in the gonad and vulva than control RNAi treated animals ( data not shown ) , suggesting partial suppression in these cases .
PaperID WBPaper00026963 SentenceID s182 SENTENCE : The reason for this disparity is unclear : in parallel experiments , both treatments caused highly penetrant sterility in gon-14 / 1 ; synMuv B animals ( data not shown ) , indicating that the respective mes gene was knocked down in each case .
PaperID WBPaper00026963 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : All of these homologs aligned to the LIN-15B homology domain ( data not shown ; also see Walker et al . 2004 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026963 SentenceID s214 SENTENCE : In wild-type larvae raised at 25 , lag-2TGFP was expressed in the gonadal primordium , ventral nerve cord , distal tip cells , vulva , and proximal gonad , but not in the intestine ( Figure 6 , C and E , and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026963 SentenceID s59 SENTENCE : Walker et al . ( 2004 ) noted a C-terminal prolinerich domain , which is also present in the C . briggsae and C . remanei orthologs ( Figure 1A , data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026963 SentenceID s61 SENTENCE : GON-14TVENUS was broadly expressed in somatic cells , beginning in 50 cell embryos ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026963 SentenceID s73 SENTENCE : gon-14 Functions With Class B and Class C synMuv Genes 919 BE ) , but became fainter in adults ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026963 SentenceID s74 SENTENCE : Of particular note , GON-14TVENUS was present in the somatic gonadal precursors , Z1 and Z4 , and the developing somatic gonad ( Figure 2 , BE ; supplemental Figure 2 at http : / / www . genetics . org / supplemental / ; data not shown ) ; the VPCs and developing vulva ( Figure 2 , CE ; supplemental Figure 2 ) ; and in the intestine ( Figure 2 , BE ; supplemental Figure 2 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026963 SentenceID s77 SENTENCE : 30 ( Figure 2 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026963 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : RTPCR analysis indicates that both isoforms are major transcripts ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026963 SentenceID s81 SENTENCE : By contrast , gon-14 ( q686 ) contains a C to T nucleotide change that results in a missense mutation , P289S , and gon-14 ( q631 ) has a single nucleotide change ( G to A ) in the splice acceptor site of the third intron , which impairs splicing of this intron ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026963 SentenceID s84 SENTENCE : Furthermore , the q12 phenotype was not enhanced when placed in trans to nDf32 , a deficiency that removes the entire gon- 14 locus , but both q631 and q686 became more severe when placed in trans to nDf32 ( Siegfried et al . 2004 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026963 SentenceID s91 SENTENCE : By contrast , gon-14 ( 0 ) mutants grown at 20 developed into sterile adults that typically had short or abnormally shaped gonad arms and sometimes lacked one or both arms ( Figure 3B , data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00026963 SentenceID s93 SENTENCE : The incidence of loss of gonadal arms correlated with loss of expression of the lag-2TGFP distal tip cell marker , suggesting that in such cases either the distal tip cell was not made or its cell fate was not properly specified ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027039 SentenceID s108 SENTENCE : 2274 J . H . Thomas Nspb cluster B from C . elegans and cluster B from C . remanei also had synteny to one side of the cluster , suggesting that they are orthologous ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027039 SentenceID s115 SENTENCE : Maximum-likelihood analysis of codon alignments found no direct evidence for positive selection within or between gene clusters in any of the three species ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027039 SentenceID s43 SENTENCE : Gene arrangements in C . briggsae and C . remanei are broadly similar ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027039 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : Most such gene clusters appear to arise by local gene duplication followed by divergence , without any obvious indication of concerted evolution among duplicate copies ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027039 SentenceID s77 SENTENCE : Pairwise and multiple DNA alignments confirmed the same patterns ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027039 SentenceID s90 SENTENCE : The elegans remanei synteny is extensive on one side of the nspb cluster but ends after one gene on the other side ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027040 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : However , temperature-shift experiments ( from 17 to 25 or from 25 to 17 ) showed that gcy single mutants are able to learn a new temperature with a time course similar to that of wild-type animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027067 SentenceID s121 SENTENCE : However , GFP-expressing F1 transformants invariably died during embryogenesis at any temperature ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027067 SentenceID s173 SENTENCE : Identical results were obtained by staining other dpy-31 ; sqt-3 ( sup ) double mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027067 SentenceID s176 SENTENCE : intracellular Likewise , intracellular retention at 15 and secretion at 25 was detected in the other two strongest cs-lethal alleles , e2908 ( Figure 7C ) and e2810 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027067 SentenceID s218 SENTENCE : annular, cuticle 2262 J . Novelli , A . P . Page and J . Hodgkin animals secrete low levels of SQT-3 molecules , which apparently assemble normally into the cuticle , resulting in a faint and fragmented pattern of annular staining ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027067 SentenceID s219 SENTENCE : Likewise , limited secretion of SQT-3 was detected in dpy-17 ( e164 ) animals raised at 15 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027067 SentenceID s224 SENTENCE : extracellular Similar to what is seen in dpy-31 ; sqt- 3 ( sup ) worms , SQT-3 extracellular assembly is restored to wild type in both dpy-17 ( e2899 ) dpy-31 ( e2770 ) ( Figure 8B ) and dpy-17 ( e2910 ) dpy-31 ( e2770 ) double mutants raised at 25 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027067 SentenceID s225 SENTENCE : We also confirmed that SQT-3 assembly occurs normally in dpy-17 ( e2898 ) animals at all temperatures ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027067 SentenceID s37 SENTENCE : The present data do not permit discrimination between these two possibilities , because the R584 antiserum was found to be unsuitable for Western blot analysis ( data not shown ) and therefore can not be employed to examine cleavage of SQT-3 by DPY-31 .
PaperID WBPaper00027171 SentenceID s30 SENTENCE : The EGL-4 antibody detects a doublet protein band at 89 kDa , which is absent in egl-4 null mutants ( Hirose et al . 2003 ) ( and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027171 SentenceID s55 SENTENCE : Animals that are doubly mutant for ad450sd and for eat-2 , a gene required for the normal fast rate of pharyngeal pumping , are significantly smaller than either single mutant despite no significant change in the feeding rate of the double mutants compared to the eat-2 single mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027171 SentenceID s67 SENTENCE : Finally , ad450sd males appear as active as wild-type males and have normal mating efficiencies ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027171 SentenceID s71 SENTENCE : cilia, sensory cilia In contrast to these chemosensory mutants , sensory cilia stain normally in ad450sd mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027171 SentenceID s72 SENTENCE : Furthermore , chemotaxis to the volatile odorant diacetyl is normal in ad450sd ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027172 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : dog-1 ; wrn-1 animals had normal viability and did not have elevated levels of embryonic lethality or males ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027174 SentenceID s254 SENTENCE : We observed no significant adult expression for C . briggsae gcy-1 / 2 / 3 promTgfp , C . briggsae gcy-5promTgfp , and C . briggsae gcy-7promTgfp in several transgenic C . briggsae lines , which is possibly due to the limited size of the reporter gene constructs ( due to the size of the intergenic regions , none of the reporter constructs extended to the previous gene ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027204 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : Surprisingly , C . elegans males were far more resistant to killing by C . neoformans JEC21 than hermaphrodites ( P , 0 . 0001 ) , with a median survival time of 9 days ( Figure 1 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027204 SentenceID s48 SENTENCE : Although hermaphrodite / female resistance varies considerably within the genus , there is little if any variation within the C . elegans species , since hermaphrodites of several , geographically widespread C . elegans isolates ( including the polymorphic Hawaiian strain CB4856 ) show identical susceptibility to C . neoformans ( Figure 4A and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027204 SentenceID s69 SENTENCE : ( CB5161 ) on C . neoformans JEC21 ( data not shown ) showed no significant difference in median survival between the sexes ( P .
PaperID WBPaper00027204 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : Behavior , longevity under normal laboratory conditions , and survival on C . neoformans JEC21 have been extensively analyzed and do not differ from that of C . elegans N2 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027335 SentenceID s106 SENTENCE : axonal The gross axonal morphology of non-ray neurons , by contrast , appeared to be normal . Many commissures requiring the unc-6 / unc-40 pathway we examined by scoring unc-119 ing the 19 D-type GABAergic motor neurons , had no defects ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027335 SentenceID s114 SENTENCE : The B-type neurons of rays 1 , 3 , and 9 expressed serotonin normally and the A-type neurons of rays 5 , 7 , and 9 expressed dopamine correctly ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027335 SentenceID s155 SENTENCE : rax-6 ( bx140 ) animals also have fusions involving ray 1 , 2 , 3 , and 4 ( 70 % , N 124 sides ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027335 SentenceID s170 SENTENCE : axon, axons, processes We found that sax-1 ( ky211 ) causes ectopic processes of ray axons similar to those in sax-2 mutants ( data not shown ) , suggesting that sax-1 and sax-2 function together to regulate ray axon morphology as they do for other sensory neurons .
PaperID WBPaper00027335 SentenceID s192 SENTENCE : Three other mutant alleles ( e155 , su142 , and su195 ) were crossed to bxIs14 and found to exhibit a similar axon-wandering defect ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027335 SentenceID s202 SENTENCE : axons 1252 L . Jia and S . W . Emmons and glr-1TGFP also exhibit wandering axons ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027335 SentenceID s211 SENTENCE : By using reporters mab-23Tgfp ( Figure 7C ) ( Lints and Emmons 2002 ) and ser-2Tgfp ( Tsalik et al . 2003 ) , as well as polarized light microscopy ( data not shown ) , we found that both body-wall muscles and male-specific diagonal muscles are malformed in unc-27 mutants .
PaperID WBPaper00027335 SentenceID s218 SENTENCE : axon We found that mup-2 ( e2346ts ) and pat-10 ( st568 ) , which encode the other two subunits , TnT and TnC , of the troponin complex , respectively , cause muscle mispositioning and axon wandering ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027335 SentenceID s56 SENTENCE : axons Some RnA axons exhibit similar defects ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027336 SentenceID s135 SENTENCE : Because the similarity between LIN-65 and these proteins is primarily limited to acidic residues and not to specific protein domains ( data not shown ) , it is difficult to predict whether these proteins are functional orthologs of LIN-65 .
PaperID WBPaper00027336 SentenceID s21 SENTENCE : For efl-1 , let-418 , and certain lin-9 and lin- 53 mutations , we found that our new mutations did not complement the sterile phenotypes caused by previously isolated allelic synMuv mutations ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027336 SentenceID s98 SENTENCE : 9 caused a Muv phenotype in a lin-15A ( n767 ) but not in a wild-type or lin-15B ( n744 ) background ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027337 SentenceID s126 SENTENCE : One possibility is that haplo-insufficiency may contribute to ce268 ' s semidominant pattern of inheritance ; however , in testing the locomotion rate of a strain carrying a heterozygous deficiency that includes pde-4 and other genes , we found no evidence of this using quantitative locomotion assays ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027337 SentenceID s210 SENTENCE : At the whole-animal level , we observed concentrated staining throughout the nervous system , primarily localized to the ganglia and nerve cords , including the nerve ring , ventral , dorsal , and sublateral nerve cords ( data not shown for nerve ring and dorsal nerve cord ; ventral and sublateral cord images are described and shown below ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027337 SentenceID s213 SENTENCE : The second antibody gave an identical staining pattern at both the whole-animal level ( data not shown ) and in high-resolution images of individual nerve cords .
PaperID WBPaper00027633 SentenceID s100 SENTENCE : 50 Gy resulted in almost complete embryonic lethality for wild type , no embryonic lethality was observed when late-stage embryos composed of noncycling cells were irradiated ( Late Egg Rad assay ) with IR doses of up to 140 Gy , even when NHEJ or HR were deficient ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027633 SentenceID s112 SENTENCE : Late-stage embryos of C . elegans strains that were heterozygous or multiply heterozygous for cku- 80 or lig-4 failed to display somatic NHEJ defects ( Table 3 ; data not shown ) , indicating that NHEJ in C . elegans is not haplo-insufficient .
PaperID WBPaper00027633 SentenceID s124 SENTENCE : To confirm the above results , RNA interference was performed for cku-70 , cku-80 , and lig-4 by both feeding and injection , but consistent radiationinduced phenotypes were not observed ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027633 SentenceID s133 SENTENCE : In contrast to NHEJ mutants , worms deficient for the rad-50 , rad-51 , or rad-54 HR genes exhibited no somatic Late Egg Rad phenotypes ( Figure 4 , D and E ; Table 4 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027633 SentenceID s135 SENTENCE : Further , deficiency for rad-50 , rad-51 , rad-54 , or mre-11 failed to enhance or suppress somatic Late Egg Rad phenotypes of either cku-80 or lig-4 ( Figure 4E ; data not shown ) , indicating that HR has no impact on phenotypes that result from radiation-induced DSBs in nondividing somatic cells , even in the absence of NHEJ .
PaperID WBPaper00027633 SentenceID s136 SENTENCE : Although DNA damage checkpoint genes have been reported to confer modest alterations in NHEJ-mediated DSB repair in S . cerevisiae ( de la Torre-Ruiz and Lowndes 2000 ) , Late Egg Rad phenotypes were not observed when late-stage mrt-2 or hus-1 DNA damage checkpoint mutant embryos were irradiated ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027633 SentenceID s144 SENTENCE : NHEJ and Development in C . elegans 1309 and Egl phenotypes ( Figure 6 ) but not the Unc or Gro phenotypes observed for irradiated late-stage NHEJ mutant embryos ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027633 SentenceID s145 SENTENCE : Thus , the developmental defects that cause the Unc and Gro phenotypes may occur prior to the L3 larval stage , which is consistent with irradiated late-stage NHEJ mutant embryos displaying a weak Slow Growth phenotype at the L1 and L2 larval stages and the Unc phenotype at the L1 stage ( Figure 4B ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027633 SentenceID s151 SENTENCE : The slightly lower dose at sterility of NHEJ-defective dauers probably reflects IR-induced defects in development of the somatic gonad ( Table 2 ) rather than germline defects , because most or all embryos laid by adults derived from irradiated control or NHEJ mutant dauers hatched at doses immediately below sterility , whereas embryos of adults derived from irradiated mrt-2 or hus-1 checkpoint-defective dauers displayed high levels of DNA-damage-induced lethality ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027633 SentenceID s159 SENTENCE : nuclei Although nuclei of late-stage embryos were too crowded to obtain accurate measurements of DNA content , an antibody to phospho-histone H3 , a marker of mitosis , failed to label arrested germ cells in late-stage embryos , whereas it did label nuclei in early stage embryos experiencing high levels of cell proliferation ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027633 SentenceID s186 SENTENCE : However , unlike partial dauers ( Vowels and Thomas 1992 ) , these thin animals did not have alae or a constricted pharynx ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027633 SentenceID s188 SENTENCE : However , the frequency of thin larvae from irradiated NHEJ mutant embryos was the same at both 20 and 25 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027633 SentenceID s204 SENTENCE : nuclear, nuclei Further , aberrant nuclei were never observed prior to nuclear division of the posterior intestinal cells ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027633 SentenceID s205 SENTENCE : nuclear Thus , IR treatment of late-stage NHEJ mutant embryos interfered with the postembryonic nuclear divisions of posterior intestinal cells , which occur immediately prior to the L1 / L2 molt , and persisted in L4 larvae and adults ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027633 SentenceID s207 SENTENCE : Kinetochore, chromatin, chromosome, nuclei Kinetochore defects synergize with somatic phenotypes of irradiated NHEJ mutants : Analysis of many DAPI-stained larvae and adults derived from irradiated late-stage NHEJ embryos failed to reveal mis-segregating chromosome fragments , with the exception of the chromatin bridges observed between dividing polyploid intestinal nuclei in adults ( Figure 8 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027633 SentenceID s213 SENTENCE : Similar results were obtained for him- 10 ; cku-70 double mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027633 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : Further , the progeny of rrf-3 animals fed Escherichia coli strains expressing doublestrand RNA for several different HR genes typically displayed low levels of embryonic lethality and XO males ( data not shown ) , phenotypes indicative of aneuploidy that might be expected if HR gene products were partially depleted and meiotic crossover formation was reduced .
PaperID WBPaper00027633 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : Late-stage embryos deficient for HR genes displayed severe radiation-induced germline proliferation defects at or above 50 Gy and were uniformly sterile when they developed into adults ( Table 2 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027633 SentenceID s49 SENTENCE : 50 Gy , for which wild type was unaffected , the him-10 mutant exhibited Late Egg Rad phenotypes other than Gro , although their penetrance was low in comparison with either NHEJ mutants or him-10 ; NHEJ double mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027633 SentenceID s59 SENTENCE : NHEJ and Development in C . elegans 1305 irradiated with 50 Gy developed into completely sterile adults ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027633 SentenceID s69 SENTENCE : nuclear, nuclei Comparison of nuclear morphology of adults derived from irradiated late-stage NHEJ mutant embryos with adults derived from irradiated late-stage rad-51 ( RNAi ) or mrt-2 mutant embryos revealed severe aneuploidy and abnormal pachytene nuclei in rad- 51 ( RNAi ) and mrt-2 germlines , whereas nuclei of NHEJ mutant and N2 wild-type adults displayed a normal , unirradiated nuclear morphology ( Figure 3 , EG ; Table 2 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027633 SentenceID s74 SENTENCE : 1306 I . Clejan , J . Boerckel and S . Ahmed When late-stage rad-51 ( RNAi ) embryos were irradiated with moderate doses of 10 or 20 Gy , progeny of adults derived from these embryos displayed intermediate levels of embryonic lethality , and an additional defect in lig-4 failed to significantly enhance this phenotype ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027633 SentenceID s79 SENTENCE : For early stage embryos whose somatic cells proliferate rapidly ( Figure 2 ) , low doses of irradiation resulted in intermediate levels of lethality for wild-type or NHEJ mutant embryos , whereas depletion of the HR genes rad-50 , rad-51 , rad-54 , and mre-11 resulted in increased levels of embryonic lethality ( Figure 4A ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027694 SentenceID s2 SENTENCE : Isolation of repair knockouts and mutation accumulation : The predicted coding sequence R10E4 . 5 in the C . elegans genome was identified as the ortholog of the human NTH1 gene ( encodes a DNA glycosylase involved in BER ) through phylogenetic analysis in a previous study ( Denver et al . 2003 ) ; the K07G5 . 2 predicted coding sequence was previously characterized ( Park et al . 2002 ) as the C . elegans ortholog of human XPA ( involved in NER damage recognition ) , which we confirmed through conventional BLASTP and TBLASTN searches and phylogenetic analyses ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027723 SentenceID s107 SENTENCE : We also confirmed by Northern blotting the degradation of endogenous ubl-5 mRNA in the ubl-5 ( RNAi ) animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027723 SentenceID s168 SENTENCE : fraction, mitochondrial The biotinylated species were enriched in the mitochondrial fraction ( Figure 5A ) and were distinct in size from the major E . coli biotinylated proteins detected by the same assay ( data not shown ) ( as worms are fed E . coli , it was important to deal with the potentially confounding effects of contaminating bacterial biotinylated proteins on this assay ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027723 SentenceID s171 SENTENCE : In unstressed animals , ubl-5 ( RNAi ) did not markedly affect the distribution of biotinylated proteins in the gradient ( although a trend toward a lighter peak was noted ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027723 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : We did not observe a general defect in pre-mRNA splicing in ubl-5 ( RNAi ) animals and RNAi of CLK homologs in C . elegans did not phenocopy ubl-5 ( RNAi ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027723 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : nuclear The increase in the nuclear UBL-5TGFP signal reflects in part an increase in protein levels , which correlates to transcriptional activation in stressed animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027724 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : However , while the levels of PAR-2 are decreased in par-2 ( it5ts ) embryos , we could not observe a detectable increase in PAR-2 levels in either rpn-10 mutants or rpn-10 ; par-2 ( it5ts ) double mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027724 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : Except for par-3 and par-6 , none of the RNAi clones listed in Table 1 could significantly suppress par-2 ( it5ts ) lethality at a fully restrictive temperature in our assay ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027724 SentenceID s60 SENTENCE : Unlike nos-3 , we found that individual disruption of nos-1 or nos-2 by RNAi does not suppress par-2 ( it5ts ) lethality ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027724 SentenceID s61 SENTENCE : Furthermore , codisruption of nos-1 or nos-2 by RNAi in nos-3 ( q650 ) ; par-2 ( it5ts ) animals did not result in any increase in embryonic viability ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027724 SentenceID s65 SENTENCE : We found that RNAi disruption of none of these genes individually can suppress par- 2 ( it5ts ) lethality ( Table 3 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027757 SentenceID s44 SENTENCE : No mutants exhibited significant changes in behavioral response from the corresponding naives when they were conditioned on NaCl-free plates ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027757 SentenceID s80 SENTENCE : None of these strains displayed significant changes in behavior from the corresponding naives when they were conditioned on NaCl-free plates ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00027757 SentenceID s84 SENTENCE : Both well-fed and starved daf-2 ( e1370 ) mutant nematodes showed a significant response , in terms of locomotion , to food and to starvation ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028278 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : Northern blots of wild-type ( Oregon-R ) ovarian mRNA were hybridized with a probe corresponding to the spn-D transcript and revealed a single band of 1 . 5 kb ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028278 SentenceID s37 SENTENCE : processes Somatic requirements for spn-D and spn-B in doublestrand DNA breaks : To determine whether the spn-D gene is involved in somatic double-strand DNA repair processes , we subjected spn-D225 , spn-D150 , spn-D349 , and spn-D150 / spn-D349 larvae to X rays or to 0 . 08 % of MMS and compared the survival rates of wild-type and mutant individuals ( Figure 5 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028278 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : of extra copies of spn-B into spn-D mutant flies did not rescue the eggshell and the karyosome defects of spn-D mutations ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028287 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : chromosome, process This phenotype is exhibited only by loss-of-function mutants at the mei-9 and mus312 genes , both of which encode proteins thought to be involved in the process of resolving recombinational Mutagen-Sensitive Mutants in Drosophila TABLE 2 Newly identified mus mutants on the second chromosome 0 . 04 % MMS 0 . 003 % HN2 Line Homozygous Heterozygous Homozygous Heterozygous Homozygous Heterozygous MMS mus205ZII-1713 1 153 51 83 mus205ZII-2129 0 140 68 81 mus205ZII-4981 0 228 136 296 mus205ZII-5692 0 6 44 99 mus212ZII-1436 1 190 54 196 mus212ZII-4368 0 63 10 57 mus213ZII-1520 0 83 18 214 mus213ZII-6078 0 72 12 64 mus214ZII-2010 1 97 56 97 mus215ZII-2059 0 144 25 100 mus216ZII-5359 0 11 39 125 mus217ZII-5470 0 93 39 126 mus218ZII-5841 0 58 33 24 mus219ZII-5970 0 25 6 25 rad201ZII-0670 0 509 25 366 rad201ZII-2512 0 132 3 102 okraZII-5130 0 100 0 99 mus201ZII-1953 0 50 36 62 a While these ratios do not meet the sensitivity cutoff of 0 . 1 , other experiments ( data not shown ) and / or results from complementation tests did show sensitivity within the required range . intermediates into crossover products ( Yildiz et al . that it maps to a region of the second chromosome not well balanced by the CyO balancer .
PaperID WBPaper00028287 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : chromosomal Furthermore , the mutagensensitive phenotypes of two mutants , mus322 ZIII-4709 and mus322 ZIII-2589 , were demonstrated by linkage mapping ( data not shown ) to reside in the chromosomal interval between thread and curled ( 72D1-86D4 ) , consistent with the location of CG10018 ( 83B1 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028287 SentenceID s54 SENTENCE : chromosome The sequence of CG10018 in mus322 ZIII-2589 flies revealed a missense mutation resulting in substitution of an evolutionarily conserved cysteine residue ( Cys357 in the Drosophila sequence ) by tyrosine , while the sequence in mus322 ZIII-4709 flies revealed a missense mutation resulting in substitution of an evolutionarily conserved Mutagen-Sensitive Mutants in Drosophila TABLE 5 Newly identified mus mutants on the third chromosome MMS 0 . 04 % HN2 0 . 003 % Line Homozygous Heterozygous Homozygous Heterozygous Homozygous Heterozygous MMS mus302ZIII-1882 0 83 6 23 mus302ZIII-2530 0 80 24 124 mus302ZIII-5541 0 60 78 159 mus305ZIII-1131 0 220 48 103 mus305ZIII-1990 6 297 43 82 mus305ZIII-2122 1 238 36 71 mus305ZIII-2140 7 244 40 188 mus305ZIII-2150 0 289 62 154 mus305ZIII-2339 1 78 31 113 mus305ZIII-2739 2 240 40 144 mus305ZIII-3064 0 162 41 97 mus305ZIII-3068 2 115 41 76 mus305ZIII-3077 3 186 15 417 mus305ZIII-3135 0 258 25 240 mus305ZIII-3162 1 312 31 215 mus305ZIII-3355 0 199 27 163 mus305ZIII-3983 0 86 27 160 mus305ZIII-4861 0 160 92 452 mus305ZIII-4863 0 144 54 96 mus305ZIII-5443 1 105 14 39 mus305ZIII-5588 5 120 64 146 mus305ZIII-5675 2 270 27 69 mus305ZIII-5711 0 54 16 81 mus305ZIII-5751 0 388 22 186 mus305ZIII-5909 0 225 64 102 mus305ZIII-6104 0 273 29 164 mus305ZIII-6140 2 92 5 50 mus314ZIII-2504 3 140 96 220 mus315ZIII-2629 1 194 20 140 mus316ZIII-2640 0 206 10 208 mus317ZIII-4494 2 178 9 145 mus318ZIII-4681 0 141 22 170 mus319ZIII-5444 2 168 26 146 mus320ZIII-6025 0 348 3 39 mus308ZIII-0629 22 95 0 128 mus308ZIII-2003 72 128 0 186 mus308ZIII-3294 104 176 0 178 mus321ZIII-0708 33 107 0 81 mus322ZIII-4709 156 220 0 240 mus322ZIII-2589 48 105 1 88 mus323ZIII-2866 58 160 0 186 mus301ZIII-2205 0 405 0 309 mus301ZIII-2255 0 238 0 82 mus301ZIII-3198 0 231 3 176 mus301ZIII-3865 0 237 22 384 mus301ZIII-4875 0 222 0 234 mus301ZIII-5121 1 208 2 280 mus301ZIII-5813 0 117 0 105 mus301ZIII-6030 0 130 0 110 mus302ZIII-4933 0 97 2 260 mus302ZIII-6004 0 180 2 152 mus304ZIII-0610 0 159 6 240 mus304ZIII-2785 0 401 0 176 mus312ZIII-1973 0 25 1 20 mus312ZIII-3997 0 286 1 400 mus324ZIII-4325 0 393 3 46 mus324ZIII-5997 0 324 0 222 mus325ZIII-4708 2 132 0 153 mus326ZIII-4840 4 134 3 276 mus327ZIII-5906 1 124 0 133 a While these ratios do not meet the sensitivity cutoff of 0 . 1 , other experiments ( data not shown ) and / or results from complementation tests did show sensitivity within the required range .
PaperID WBPaper00028462 SentenceID s128 SENTENCE : In agreement with this possibility , him-7 germlines displayed normal sensitivity to ionizing radiation ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028462 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : The dpy-31 mutation isolated from the mrt-2 background resulted from a T-to-C point mutation ( Novelli et al . 2004 ) , and two additional mrt-2-induced spontaneous mutations at the unc- 93 locus arose as a consequence of a T-to-C transition and a T-to-G transversion ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028462 SentenceID s131 SENTENCE : 608 J . Harris et al . from mrt-2 , hus-1 , and clk-2 ( mn159 ) backgrounds , respectively , were deletions ( Figure 4 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028462 SentenceID s298 SENTENCE : PCR-based deletion products were not observed for any of these loci using either mrt-2 or dog-1 genomic DNA as a template ( n 30 for each genotype ) ( data not shown ) , despite extensive optimization of PCR conditions and robust wild-type-sized PCR products .
PaperID WBPaper00028495 SentenceID s43 SENTENCE : Furthermore , the P12 fate specification defect in let-23 ( sy97 ) animals is also not suppressed ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028495 SentenceID s53 SENTENCE : Since sy341 hermaphrodites have morphologically defective oocytes and the sterility defect in mutant animals can be partially rescued by mating with wild-type males ( data not shown ) , sli-3 is likely to play a role in gametogenesis .
PaperID WBPaper00028495 SentenceID s60 SENTENCE : We interpreted these data to suggest that sli-5 was either gap-1 or sli-1 since we had previously found that a transheterozygous combination of a single sli-1 and gap-1 mutation can suppress hypomorphs in the let-23 pathway ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028495 SentenceID s69 SENTENCE : In the case of sDf8 and sDf62 , mutant / Df animals gave rise to viable progeny that exhibited wild-type vulval induction ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028495 SentenceID s80 SENTENCE : We have previously observed suppression of other let-23 pathway mutations [ e . . , let-23 ( sy1 ) ] by a trans-heterozygous combination of sli-1 and gap-1 alleles ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028496 SentenceID s118 SENTENCE : Hypoxia treatment increased the levels of reporter gene expression ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028496 SentenceID s122 SENTENCE : This fusion gene was expressed at low levels , but it rescued all three of the rhy-1 mutant alleles , as assayed by nhr-57T GFP expression ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028496 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : A similar pattern and level of reporter gene expression was observed with the egl-9 ( n586 ) and egl-9 ( n571 ) loss-of-function alleles ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028496 SentenceID s40 SENTENCE : Strong loss-of-function mutations in vhl-1 or egl-9 resulted in similar levels of HIF-1TGFP expression ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028496 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : This phenotype was similar to that exhibited by egl-9 mutant worms ( data not shown ; described further below ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028496 SentenceID s69 SENTENCE : Animals that are homozygous for either ok1398 or ok1402 overexpress the nhr-57TGFP reporter , and this phenotype is suppressed by a strong loss-of-function mutation in hif-1 ( Figure 1 , M and O ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028496 SentenceID s81 SENTENCE : nrf-6 lossof-function mutants do not mis-express the nhr-57TGFP reporter ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028496 SentenceID s84 SENTENCE : We were not able to deplete W07A12 . 6 mRNA by RNAi without also targeting rhy-1 , due to the high level of sequence similarity between the two genes ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028497 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : SWAN-1 interacted with both wild-type RAC-2 ( Figure 1B ) and constitutively active , GTPase-dead RAC-2 ( G12V ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028497 SentenceID s104 SENTENCE : axon While swan-1 slightly suppressed the hypomorphic ced-10 ( n1993 ) allele , it did not suppress the maternal-effect lethality or gonad defects of the ced-10 ( n3417 ) null allele nor did it suppress the lethality or axon pathfinding defects associated with the ced- 10 ( n1993 ) ; mig-2 ( mu28 ) double mutant ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028497 SentenceID s133 SENTENCE : axon, axons Ectopic axons and axon branches were also observed ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028497 SentenceID s169 SENTENCE : The transcriptional reporter transgene displayed a temporal and spatial expression pattern identical to that of the full-length fusion transgene ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028497 SentenceID s178 SENTENCE : In C . elegans neurons , no repression of activated UNC-115 by SWAN-1 was detected ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028497 SentenceID s215 SENTENCE : cytoskeletal, cytoskeleton While most RAC-2-expressing cells had normal morphology , some with abnormal polarized growth and actin cytoskeleton disorganization were observed at a low frequency ( Figure 8F ) , which apparently did not significantly interfere with the growth dynamics of RAC-2-expressing yeast . SWAN-1-expressing cells showed no apparent morphology and cytoskeletal defects ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028497 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : The successful immunoprecipitation of MYCTSWAN-1 was confirmed by Western blot with an anti-Myc antibody ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028497 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : FLAGTSWAN-1 co-immunoprecipitated only in the presence of MYCTRAC-2 ; and MYCTRAC-2 co-immunoprecipitated only in the presence of FLAGTSWAN-1 . 1920 Y . Yang et al . The LIM domains of UNC-115 did not interact with any of the three Racs in the two-hybrid system , nor did any other region of UNC-115 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028497 SentenceID s39 SENTENCE : These experiments were repeated with similar results in HeLa cells and in HEK293 cells ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028497 SentenceID s44 SENTENCE : On Western blots , serum from the immunized rabbits but not preimmune serum recognized a bacterially expressed glutathione-S-transferase ( GST ) fusion with the same portion of UNC-115 ( data not shown ) ( residues 154527 , produced by inserting the unc-115 fragment into the pGEX4T vector ; Amersham Pharmacia Biotech ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028497 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : This affinity-purified polyclonal antibody recognized a single band of 70 kDa in Western blots of lysates of C . elegans ( the estimated size of full-length UNC-115 polypeptide is 72 kDa ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028497 SentenceID s49 SENTENCE : RNAi of swan-1 resulted in greatly reduced GFP expression from this transgene , suggesting that the transgene encodes a SWAN-1TGFP molecule ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028497 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : The presence of swan-1 twohybrid fusions with the UNC-115 LIM domain fusion specifically activated both HIS5 expression ( data not shown ) and lacZ expression ( Figure 1B ) in the twohybrid system ( see materials and methods ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028497 SentenceID s59 SENTENCE : The first exon in a swan-2 cDNA is 114 nucleotides downstream of the site of swan-1 polyadenylation ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028497 SentenceID s62 SENTENCE : Furthermore , neither RNAi of swan-2 nor a swan-2 deletion allele ok964 had an effect on activated CED-10 and RAC-2 in PDE development ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028497 SentenceID s67 SENTENCE : These primers amplified a fragment from wild type but not from swan-1 ( ok267 ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028497 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : SWAN-1 interacted specifically with the UNC-115 LIM domains , but not with the remainder of the UNC-115 molecule in the two-hybrid system ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028497 SentenceID s71 SENTENCE : Furthermore , no swan-1 transcript was detected by RTPCR in swan-1 ( ok267 ) mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028497 SentenceID s74 SENTENCE : No effects were observed in swan-1 ( ok267 ) double mutants with unc-73 or unc-115 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028498 SentenceID s158 SENTENCE : Further phenotype analysis of gpi-1 ( RNAi ) , pgk-1 ( RNAi ) , and enol-1 ( RNAi ) animals indicates that these animals do not have the anoxiainduced motility arrest phenotype that gpd-2 / 3 ( RNAi ) animals do have ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028498 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : Due to their large size , we evaluated gut cells in the few PD4792 animals that survived 3 days of anoxia and determined that these cells had abnormalities that included cavities within the cells or cellular loss ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028498 SentenceID s81 SENTENCE : The daf-2 ( e1370 ) ; mai-1 ( RNAi ) animal did not result in a reduced high-temperature anoxia survival phenotype , indicating that this gene , which is in the gpd-2 / 3 operon , was not involved with anoxia survival ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028499 SentenceID s108 SENTENCE : We also examined goa-1 ( sa734 ) and egl- 30 ( syIs36 ) single mutants , which are predicted to cause constitutive activation of the egl-8 pathway , but neither one exhibited Osr or high glycerol phenotypes ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028499 SentenceID s76 SENTENCE : Approximately 5 % of osm-7 mutant worms were able to survive freezing without any addition of glycerol , whereas wild-type worms never survived this treatment ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028568 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : While late-stage elt-7Tgfp ; emb- 4 ( qm31 ) embryos arrest as masses of poorly differentiated embryos ( C , right column ) , the number of GFP-expressing cells at all stages ( AC , right column ) is identical to wild-type animals expressing elt-7Tgfp ( AC , left column and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028568 SentenceID s103 SENTENCE : While we did occasionally observe this , we also observed embryos that retained PIE-1 but lacked H3K4me2 in Z2 / Z3 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028568 SentenceID s137 SENTENCE : No significant alterations in histone modification patterns were observed in these experiments ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028568 SentenceID s148 SENTENCE : Again , we did not observe any defects in the loss of H3K4me2 in Z2 / Z3 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028568 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : 2 locus in DNA isolated from the emb-4 ( hc60 ) , mal-2 ( qm35 ) , and mal-2 ( qm31 ) alleles and found nonsense mutations in all three alleles ( Katic and Greenwald 2006 , this issue ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028568 SentenceID s151 SENTENCE : While emb- 4 ( qm31 ) V ; ref-1Tgfp animals are extremely sick and produce very few embryos , GFP expression appears normal , suggesting that emb-4 does not directly affect expression of ref-1 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028568 SentenceID s159 SENTENCE : When fed ama- 1 dsRNA , the level of embryonic lethality in emb-4 ( qm35 ) embryos was elevated to 100 % ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028568 SentenceID s162 SENTENCE : The susceptibility of emb-4 mutants to RNAi was thus neither specific to ama-1 dsRNA nor limited to zygotically expressed mRNAs ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028568 SentenceID s21 SENTENCE : 2 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028568 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : chromatin However , it is clear that the signals required C . elegans emb-4 Gene 1897 for initiation of chromatin remodeling are not always precise nor invariantly timed , since a significant decrease in the amount of H3K4me2 staining was often observed in P4 , just prior to its division ( Figure 1B ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028568 SentenceID s44 SENTENCE : Similar to what is observed for embryonic lethality , a reduced number of embryos retain H3K4me2 in Z2 / Z3 at 20 as compared to experiments conducted at 25 ( i . . , 35 % at 20 vs . 60 % at 25 ; Table 1 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028568 SentenceID s56 SENTENCE : The emb-4 ( 0 ) alleles are 100 % embryonic lethal at 25 and exhibit high ( $ 5070 % ) lethality at the permissive ' ' temperatures ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028568 SentenceID s70 SENTENCE : The arrested F2 embryos from both emb-4 ( RNAi ) F1 adults as well as eri-1 ( mg366 ) ; emb-4 ( RNAi ) F1 adults exhibited H3K4me2 retention in Z2 / Z3 , similar to the chromatinremodeling defect in emb-4 mutants ( Table 1 ; Figure 4H ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028568 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : emb-4 ( hc60 ) fails to complement all three mal-2 alleles ( qm16 , qm31 , and qm35 ) for embryonic lethality , and emb-4 / mal-2 embryos are phenotypically identical to either homozygous mutation alone ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028569 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : In efl-1 and mex-5 mutant embryos , MED-1 : GFP was ectopically expressed in the descendants of the anterior blastomere ( n 24 for efl-1 and n 21 for mex-5 ) , consistent with these embryos generating ectopic mesodermal it issues from this blastomere ( Figure 1 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028569 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : All embryos examined from efl-1 ( se1 ) pos- 1 ( zu148 ) / efl-1 ( se1 ) pos-1 ( 1 ) mothers , incubated at the efl-1 ( se1 ) restrictive temperature , or from pos-1 ( zu148 ) / pos-1 ( 1 ) ; mex-5 ( RNAi ) mothers , expressed MED-1 : GFP in a wild-type pattern ( n 25 for efl-1 and n 24 for mex-5 ) ( Figure 1 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028578 SentenceID s131 SENTENCE : Embryonic lethality was also observed upon dsRNA injection ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028578 SentenceID s160 SENTENCE : In addition , the suppressor mutation emb-4 ( sa44 ) complements the maternal-effect lethality of the null alleles qm31 and hc60 ( data not shown ; materials and methods ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028578 SentenceID s177 SENTENCE : emb-4 ( sel ) and emb-4 ( 0 ) alleles are also able to suppress the Muv phenotype associated with arIs53 [ lin-12 ( DE ) Tgfp ] , a constitutively active form of LIN-12 ( Shaye and Greenwald 2005 ) ( materials and methods ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028578 SentenceID s211 SENTENCE : However , as RNAi for most of these components was highly lethal before the completion of the AC / VU decision ( data not shown ) , we could not determine whether or not the Cdc5p complex proteins positively regulate lin-12 activity in the AC / VU decision .
PaperID WBPaper00028578 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : E-mail : greenwald @ cancercenter . columbia . edu Genetics 174 : 19071915 ( December 2006 ) 00028578 backcrosses ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028738 SentenceID s100 SENTENCE : Modest suppression was observed upon double-strand RNA injection into hermaphrodites ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028738 SentenceID s118 SENTENCE : This result is distinct from the effects of mdf-1 RNAi or the mdf-1 deletion in a wild-type background , in which the majority of embryos develop into larvae at 24 ( Figure 4C ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028738 SentenceID s130 SENTENCE : The mdf-1 ( gk2 ) homozygous strain becomes inviable after a few generations , but mat- 3 ( or180 ) ; mdf-1 ( gk2 ) homozygotes are viable and can be maintained at 20 indefinitely ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028738 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : This phenotype was enhanced at 25 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028738 SentenceID s164 SENTENCE : Brood size and embryonic viability were indistinguishable from control animals and no defects were observed in F1 progeny ( Figure 5 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028738 SentenceID s168 SENTENCE : In addition , 10 % embryonic lethality was observed ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028738 SentenceID s48 SENTENCE : dpy-10 ( e128 ) was able to suppress mat-3 ( or180 ) and an additional allele of mat-3 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028738 SentenceID s53 SENTENCE : 112 K . K . Stein et al . and dpy-20 , also weakly suppressed mat-3 ( or180 ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028738 SentenceID s82 SENTENCE : We found that mdf-2 RNAi was effective in suppressing mat-3 ( or180 ) at 24 : 60 % of mat-3 ( or180 ) embryos survived to hatching ( data not shown ) , comparable to the embryonic viability observed with the mdf-2 alleles .
PaperID WBPaper00028738 SentenceID s85 SENTENCE : spindle In addition , som-1 ( av5 ) double mutants with other APC mutant subunits exhibit suppression of lethality ( data not shown ) in a pattern similar to our currently identified spindle checkpoint suppressor mutants ( Table 3 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028738 SentenceID s9 SENTENCE : The percentage of embryos hatching was also assessed at 25 and in all cases suppression was less robust at this temperature ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028739 SentenceID s124 SENTENCE : In adults , OCR-2 reporter expression was much stronger in uv1 than in utse ( Figure 4A , bottom right ) ; in larval animals , it was the reverse ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028739 SentenceID s213 SENTENCE : The resulting transgene expresses a functional GOA-1TGFP fusion protein that rescues the premature egg-laying defect of goa-1 mutants ( J . Tanis and M . R . Koelle , data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028739 SentenceID s64 SENTENCE : We examined the morphology of cells that express OCR-2 by differential interference and fluorescence microscopy after labeling all of these cells with GFP or after labeling a subset with the vital dye DiO ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028740 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : In N2 , sequenced amplification products all contained the Tc element expected plus the flanking region ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028876 SentenceID s60 SENTENCE : The two strains med-2 ( ) ; lin-2 and sma-3 ; med-1 ( ) produce 1 . 3 and 3 . 4 % arrested embryos , respectively ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028877 SentenceID s64 SENTENCE : However , this scenario is unlikely as egl-8 mutants fed E . coli OP50-GFP ( E . coli expressing GFP ) , are also Con but do not exhibit patches of fluorescence in the rectum like that exhibited with SYTO 13-stained worms infected with M . nematophilum ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028924 SentenceID s119 SENTENCE : VHA-5 was also detected at the lumen of the vulva and rectum ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028924 SentenceID s147 SENTENCE : Moreover , vha-5 ( mc38 ) adults rescued by the trafficking mutant transgenes vha- 5 ( L786S ) or vha-5 ( E830Q ) could normally take up DiO ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028924 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : We believe that rdy mutations do not affect the Ras pathway , as dying let-23 ( sy10 ) , mpk-1 ( ku1 ) , and sem-5 ( n2019 ) larvae could still take up DiO ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028924 SentenceID s159 SENTENCE : Control of Osmoregulation and Secretion 717 spots at intermolts to aligned spots forming parallel circumferential bands at molts ( Figure 8 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028924 SentenceID s200 SENTENCE : Using the vha-8Tyfp reporter , we could also confirm that rdy-3 mutants had no excretory canal and that the excretory canal of rdy-4 larvae was not grossly abnormal except for its width ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028961 SentenceID s155 SENTENCE : 1 protein sequence has 98 and 95 % identity to its C . remanei and C . elegans orthologs , respectively ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028961 SentenceID s198 SENTENCE : Weak positive selection sites were also detected in subfamily A ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028961 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : Genes marked by stars probably have an unpredicted ortholog in the related species on the basis of TBLASTN searches ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028961 SentenceID s44 SENTENCE : The predicted gene model was identical to the WormBase ( WS160 ) annotated one confirmed by expressed sequence tags ( ESTs ) , indicating the high accuracy of ABCE subfamily prediction by FGENESH ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028961 SentenceID s52 SENTENCE : Strong evidence for positive selection at multiple sites was detected in subfamily D ( Figure 4 ) and weaker evidence was found in subfamily A ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00028961 SentenceID s68 SENTENCE : The lethality is caused by mutations closely linked to T21E8 . 2 on the basis of the following observations : first , a T21E8 . 1 and -2 double mutant appears to be wild type ; second , cosmid T21E8 , which covers the full-length genomic DNA of T21E8 . 2 , did not rescue the lethality ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029005 SentenceID s109 SENTENCE : Perturbation of a second C . elegans E2F-like gene , efl-2 , caused no observed cell-death defects ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029005 SentenceID s111 SENTENCE : Enhancement of a weak cell-death defect was caused by lin-35 ( n745 ) ( Table 2A ) , as well as by RNAi of lin-35 and by other putative lin-35 null alleles ( supplemental Figure S2C and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029005 SentenceID s164 SENTENCE : We found that either dpl-1 ( n3380 ) or mcd-1 ( n3376 ) partially suppressed the synthetic lethality conferred by ced-9 ( n1653 ) ced-4 ( n2273 ) ( Table 4 ) . dpl- 1 ( n3380 ) or mcd-1 ( 4005 ) also partially suppressed the maternal-effect lethality conferred by the ced-9 partial TABLE 4 mcd-1 ( n3376 ) and dpl-1 ( n3380 ) suppress ced-4 ( n2273 ) ced-9 ( n1653 ) and ced-9 ( n1950 n2161 ) maternal-effect lethality Maternal genotype ced-4 ( n2273 ) ced-9 ( n1653 ) / qC1 ced-4 ( n2273 ) ced-9 ( n1653 ) mcd-1 ( n3376 ) ; ced-4 ( n2273 ) ced-9 ( n1653 ) / qC1 mcd-1 ( n3376 ) ; ced-4 ( n2273 ) ced-9 ( n1653 ) dpl-1 ( n3380 ) ; ced-4 ( n2273 ) ced-9 ( n1653 ) / qC1 dpl-1 ( n3380 ) ; ced-4 ( n2273 ) ced-9 ( n1653 ) Maternal genotype unc-69 ( e587 ) ced-9 ( n1950 n2161 ) / qC1 unc-69 ( e587 ) ced-9 ( n1950 n2161 ) dpl-1 ( 3380 ) ; unc-69 ( e587 ) ced-9 ( n1950 n2161 ) / qC1 dpl-1 ( 3380 ) ; unc-69 ( e587 ) ced-9 ( n1950 n2161 ) mcd-1 ( n4005 ) ; unc-69 ( e587 ) ced-9 ( n1950 n2161 ) / qC1 mcd-1 ( n4005 ) ; unc-69 ( e587 ) ced-9 ( n1950 n2161 ) All animals were homozygous for nIs106 . a ced-4 ( n2273 ) ced-9 ( n1653 ) / ced-4 ( n2273 ) ced-9 ( n1653 ) animals were recognized by the fact that they had extra VC-like cells in the ventral cord ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029005 SentenceID s58 SENTENCE : However , we observed that a putative null allele of the C . elegans P53-like gene cep-1 ( Derry et al . 2001 ; Schumacher et al . 2001 ) failed to cause enhancement of the cell-death defects in ced-3 ( n2427 ) animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029005 SentenceID s68 SENTENCE : 1722 P . W . Reddien et al . ced-3 ( n2427 ) ( Table 1 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029051 SentenceID s177 SENTENCE : Note 2035 ectopic expression of a lag2Tgfp reporter ( Fitzgerald and Greenwald 1995 ) in the him-17 ( me9 ) background ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029051 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : nuclei A few rare individuals ( , 5 % ) had a second zone of mitotic proliferation in the proximal gonad ( 1 / 30 gonads in HIM-3 immunofluorescence experiments ; also seen but not quantified in DAPI-only experiments ) or had largely tumorous germlines with very few , if any , meiotic nuclei ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029051 SentenceID s43 SENTENCE : In addition , him-17 25 males contained reduced numbers of sperm , and although they appeared to exhibit normal mating behavior , mating and sperm transfer assays ( Shakes and Ward 1989 ; Stanfield and Villeneuve 2006 ) revealed that they did not transfer either sperm or sperm-activating seminal fluid components to hermaphrodites ( data not shown .
PaperID WBPaper00029051 SentenceID s48 SENTENCE : Similarly , we did not observe additional defects at 25 for mre-11 , syp-1 , syp-2 , or him-8 mutants ( data not shown ; Hodgkin et al . 1979 ; Chin and Villeneuve 2001 ; MacQueen et al . 2002 ; Colaiacovo et al . 2003 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029051 SentenceID s73 SENTENCE : Whereas spo-11 ( Reddy and Villeneuve 2004 ) and mre-11 ( data not shown ) mutants exhibited normal H3K9me2 , chk-2 mutant hermaphrodite and male germlines displayed a reduction in H3K9me2 ( Figure 2 , A and B ) similar to that seen in him-17 ( ok424 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029051 SentenceID s83 SENTENCE : X chromosome, chromosome, nuclei Whereas germline nuclei in wild-type males carrying ccEx7271 contained two domains of H3K9me2 staining corresponding to the X chromosome and the silenced array , in him-17 ; ccEx7271 males we saw no bright domains of staining at either 20 or 25 ( Figure 2C and data not shown ) , indicating that depletion of H3K9me2 is not sufficient to cause desilencing .
PaperID WBPaper00029153 SentenceID s114 SENTENCE : 226 C . Darby et al . nal effect was also observed in crosses using wild-type male parents ( data not shown ) , indicating that it is not related to the presence of him-5 .
PaperID WBPaper00029153 SentenceID s115 SENTENCE : There were no anomalies in the sex ratios of progeny , and in hermaphrodites , bus-17 behaved as a conventional recessive mutation ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029153 SentenceID s57 SENTENCE : Three-factor mapping showed that bah-3 is to the right of ( or close to ) mom-5 and to the left of vab-10 ( data not shown ) , an interval of $ 5 MU .
PaperID WBPaper00029153 SentenceID s62 SENTENCE : bah-1 , bah-2 , bah-3 , bus-4 , and srf-2 mutants have normal locomotion on Yersinia ( Figure 1C and data not shown ) , indicating that the wild-type locomotion defect is related to the biofilm on the worm ' s head , rather than to some property of Yersinia that affects all genotypes .
PaperID WBPaper00029153 SentenceID s63 SENTENCE : Further evidence for this is the observation that wild-type worms do not skid on mutant Yersinia that are unable to make biofilms ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029154 SentenceID s106 SENTENCE : X chromosome, chromosome 706 J . Boerckel , D . Walker and S . Ahmed fusions was obtained by isolating an Xautosome chromosome fusion from ypEx4 , whose X-linked fusion breakpoint mapped to the right end of the X chromosome ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029154 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : hpr-17 mutants display DNA damage response defects : The C . elegans Rad17 homolog , hpr-17 , is predicted to encode a protein that is orthologous to Rad17 proteins ranging from yeast to mammals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029154 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : Strains homozygous for the hpr-17 ( tm1579 ) deletion were viable but displayed a decrease in brood size and a weak high incidence of males ( Him ) phenotype ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029154 SentenceID s79 SENTENCE : mrt-2 , hus-1 , and hpr-17 mutants failed to initiate an apoptotic response to gamma irradiation ( Figure 2A and data not shown ) ( Gartner et al . 2000 ; Hofmann et al . 2002 ) , as previously suggested by a weak apoptosis defect observed upon RNAi of C . elegans hpr-17 ( Boulton et al . 2002 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029154 SentenceID s87 SENTENCE : Propagation of hpr-17 mutants for multiple generations resulted in progressive sterility ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029154 SentenceID s88 SENTENCE : chromosomes In contrast to the normal complement of six bivalents observed in wild-type oocytes , chromosomes of late-generation hpr-17 oocytes had fused together , as observed in late-generation mrt-2 , hus-1 , or trt-1 mutants ( Figure 3A and data not shown ) ( Ahmed and Hodgkin 2000 ; Hofmann et al . 2002 ; Meier et al . 2006 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029154 SentenceID s92 SENTENCE : X chromosome, chromosome Two independent Xautosome fusions were isolated from hpr-17 mutants in this manner , both of which displayed breakpoints that mapped to the right end of the X chromosome ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029154 SentenceID s93 SENTENCE : chromosome In addition , the hpr-17 cosuppression lines ypEx3 and ypEx4 became progressively sterile and displayed chromosome fusions , as observed by DAPI staining ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029251 SentenceID s153 SENTENCE : nuclei lin-61 Is a Distinctive synMuv B Gene 263 Similarly to all synMuv proteins studied to date ( Melendez and Greenwald 2000 ; Ceol and Horvitz 2001 ; Couteau et al . 2002 ; Ceol and Horvitz 2004 ; Davison et al . 2005 ; Harrison et al . 2006 ) , LIN-61 was localized to all or almost all nuclei throughout development from the one-cell embryo to the adult ( Figure 4 , B and H , and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029251 SentenceID s158 SENTENCE : No anti-LIN-61 staining was seen in lin-61 ( n3809 ) mutant embryos , larvae , or adults ( Figure 4 , F and L , and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029251 SentenceID s160 SENTENCE : No change in LIN-61 localization was noted in any of these mutant backgrounds ( data not shown ) , suggesting that these genes do not regulate vulval development by modifying LIN-61 expression or subcellular localization .
PaperID WBPaper00029251 SentenceID s181 SENTENCE : Full-length LIN-61 was absent or levels were greatly reduced in animals with any of the three nonsense mutations or two splice-acceptor mutations ( Figure 5 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029251 SentenceID s184 SENTENCE : These data were verified by analyzing LIN-61 protein levels in animals with any of the five missense mutations using both Western blots and immunocytochemistry ( Figure 5 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029251 SentenceID s189 SENTENCE : We found in multiple experiments that lin-61 ( n3809 ) , mbtr-1 ( n4775 ) , and mbtr- 1 ( n4775 ) lin-61 ( n3809 ) sensitivity to either hmr-1 or cel-1 RNAi as compared to the wild type ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029251 SentenceID s74 SENTENCE : However , when these strains were raised at 23 or when the lin-61 alleles were combined with a mutation in the class A synMuv gene , lin-56 , lin-61 ( n3676 ) caused a synMuv phenotype with a penetrance similar to the penetrance of the synMuv phenotypes caused by lin- 61 ( n3624 ) and lin-61 ( n3807 ) ( Table 2 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029251 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : These alleles were all mapped to LGI and shown to be allelic with sy223 in complementation tests ( C . J . Ceol , H . T . Schwartz , D . M . Wendell and H . R . Horvitz , personal communication ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029292 SentenceID s70 SENTENCE : The single fat-5 and fat-6 mutants , as well as other D9 desaturases double mutants , fat-5 ; fat-7 and fat-6 ; fat-7 , displayed a similar ability to survive L1 arrest as wild type ( Figure 2B and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029303 SentenceID s89 SENTENCE : centrosome Such embryos showed a reproducible and significant reduction in centrosome staining ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029341 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : All lines used in this study carried independent single inserts of UAS-Acp as determined by genomic Southern blot analysis ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029341 SentenceID s137 SENTENCE : This inhibition is not seen with BSA and lysozyme controls ( data not shown ) , indicating that trypsin inhibition is not due to substrate competition and that Acp62F-H6 is a trypsin inhibitor .
PaperID WBPaper00029341 SentenceID s138 SENTENCE : However , in contrast to aprotinin , which can completely inhibit trypsin at a 1 : 1 molar ratio ( data not shown ) , a higher 10 : 1 molar ratio of Acp62F to trypsin is needed for 95 % inhibition ( see Figure 6A ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029341 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : Increased mortality was not observed when larvae or pupae were induced to express secretable Acp26Aa , Acp29AB , Acp32CD , Acp33A , Acp53Ea , Acp63F / 64A , Acp95EF ( Figure 1A ) , or GFP ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029341 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : The ectopic expression system drives 50-fold higher levels of Acp62F than those encountered in the hemolymph of a female after a single mating ( Lung and Wolfner 1999 ; data not shown ) and the ectopic expression of Acp62F from an induced mRNA can presumably be produced over a longer period of time than the normal limited delivery time ( 20 min ) of Acps during a mating .
PaperID WBPaper00029341 SentenceID s49 SENTENCE : All proteases , assay substrates , and size of the 6-His tag ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029341 SentenceID s67 SENTENCE : These hsp70-GAL4 ; UAS-Acp62F flies express Acp62F upon heat shock ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029341 SentenceID s69 SENTENCE : These CyO ; UAS-Acp62F flies do not express Acp62F upon heat shock ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029354 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : In no case did different strains of the same species differ ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029355 SentenceID s103 SENTENCE : However , analysis of N2 , daf-2 , and daf-16 strain mutants showed only slight differences in the amount of ROS produced in response to E . faecalis that were not statistically significant ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029355 SentenceID s135 SENTENCE : daf-2 RNAi reduced expression of daf-2 equally well in all strains ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029355 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : We are less in favor of this model because we do not observe more ROS production in the Amplex Red assay in ctl-2 , sod-3 , or daf-16 mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029355 SentenceID s21 SENTENCE : Note that the intestinal fluorescence observed in Figure 4 was not caused by lipofuscin autofluorescence ( Figure 3 ) because pictures taken of N2 worms exposed to the pathogen at the same exposure had little fluorescence ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029355 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : In other experiments , we found that C . elegans produces ROS in response to Staphylococcus aureus , suggesting that this response occurs in response to pathogens in general . We also found that antibiotic-inactivated E . faecalis is unable to illicit ROS production ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029355 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : The amount of hydrogen peroxide produced per minute was calculated by comparison to a standard curve ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029355 SentenceID s44 SENTENCE : 80 mm showing no additional loss ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029355 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : cuticle Unfortunately , RNAi of either gene likely targets both due to the high degree of similarity ( Edens et al . 2001 ) , and the worms have such a severe cuticle phenotype that they die before we can attempt pathogen exposure ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029355 SentenceID s49 SENTENCE : However , DPI also significantly decreased the life span of worms on E . coli ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029355 SentenceID s82 SENTENCE : We also observed Psod-3Tgfp expression in the intestine of worms exposed to S . aureus ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029355 SentenceID s98 SENTENCE : 1572 V . Chavez et al . in the presence of DPI as in its absence ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029396 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : The deletion nc7 was confirmed by Southern blot analysis ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00029396 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : RNAi of plx-2 did not lead to ray defects ( Table 1 ) or to embryonic lethality ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030764 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : Since SYP-1 and SYP-2 also colocalize in these foci and throughout meiotic prophase ( data not shown ) , by extension , the parallels made between SYP-1 and SYP-3 localization from this point onwards can be extrapolated to SYP-2 and SYP-3 as well .
PaperID WBPaper00030764 SentenceID s71 SENTENCE : These regions of residual SYP-3 staining coincided with the only regions stained by both a-SYP-1 and a-SYP-2 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030764 SentenceID s77 SENTENCE : chromatids, cohesin Although only worms with oocytes carrying 24 univalents ( indicative of separated sister chromatids as a result of depleting the meiotic specific cohesin ; Pasierbek et al . 2001 ) were examined for SYP-3 staining , REC-8 antibody staining of these worms confirmed that depletion was only partial ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030765 SentenceID s61 SENTENCE : This is similar to the 9097 % observed in rec-8 ( RNAi ) ( data not shown ) but clearly different from the only 1960 % observed in syp-3 ( me42 ) ; rec-8 ( RNAi ) throughout the same region .
PaperID WBPaper00030821 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : We found that GFP expression was fainter in lines containing only the hsp-16 . 2 promoterTGFP responder transgene ( data not shown ) , consistent with the reported poorer expression of hsp-16 . 2 in pharyngeal muscles .
PaperID WBPaper00030821 SentenceID s51 SENTENCE : Similar results were obtained when the hsp-16 . 2 promoterTGFP and hsp-16 . 41 promoterT GFP responder transgenes were cotransformed ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030821 SentenceID s61 SENTENCE : Indeed , such intestinal misexpression is common to several transcriptional reporter transgenes that we have generated in the laboratory ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030821 SentenceID s69 SENTENCE : Less efficient , but reproducible rescue was observed when animals were examined 1 hr after heat shock ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030822 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : However , there were some differences between the two reporters ; the 7 . 6-kb reporter was expressed in several head neurons that did not express the 5 . 2-kb reporter ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030822 SentenceID s90 SENTENCE : chtl-1 mutants do not exhibit obvious mutant phenotypes ; crawling and swimming behaviors were not significantly different from those of wild-type animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030823 SentenceID s126 SENTENCE : EGO-2 Promotes Notch Signaling in C . elegans 2271 but no anterior one ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030823 SentenceID s153 SENTENCE : 2272 Y . Liu and E . M . Maine LIN-12 signaling activity is too mild to produce an effect in this nonsensitized background ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030823 SentenceID s157 SENTENCE : Neither ego-2 ( om33 ) nor ego-2 ( RNAi ) suppressed the glp-1 ( oz112 ) tumor ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030823 SentenceID s169 SENTENCE : In both cases , the proportion of leptotenezygotene germ cells was approximately the same as in the gld-2 gld-1 control , and pachytene germ cells were not observed ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030823 SentenceID s173 SENTENCE : At this point , they retained sperm in the spermatheca ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030823 SentenceID s188 SENTENCE : Visual inspection indicated that ego-2 ( tm2272 / om33 ) males produced substantial numbers of sperm , and the mated fog-2 ( ts ) females contained sperm , indicating that sperm had been transferred ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030823 SentenceID s193 SENTENCE : However , ego-2 ( RNAi ) animals developed slowly , reaching adulthood $ 24 hr later than controls ; they were also uncoordinated ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030823 SentenceID s198 SENTENCE : ego-2 ( om33 ) / hDf17 hermaphrodites are Spe and resemble ego-2 ( om33 / tm2272 ) animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030823 SentenceID s217 SENTENCE : GFP expression was reduced to below visible levels in both alx-1 ( 1 ) and alx-1 ( 0 ) strains upon gfp RNAi ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030823 SentenceID s64 SENTENCE : Similarly , germline proliferation was maintained when we performed ego-2 RNAi in the rrf-3 ( 0 ) genetic background , where RNAi is enhanced ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030823 SentenceID s70 SENTENCE : In addition , 8 / 107 ego-2 ( om33 ) unc-75 animals were Glp-1 sterile , which is 30 % ( 8 / 27 ) of the expected number of glp-1 ( bn18 / bn18 ) animals . b Data are the average of four independent feeding experiments . c A similar degree of enhancement was observed in the absence of the unc-32 marker ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030823 SentenceID s86 SENTENCE : ego-2 mRNA was detected with similar intensity in both strains , indicating that expression is not germline specific or germline enriched ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030882 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : PS1010 , C . brenneri ( Sudhaus and Kiontke 2007 ) are able to grow at higher temperatures than C . elegans ( our data not shown ) , suggesting that this may be a recently acquired behavioral response in C . elegans .
PaperID WBPaper00030882 SentenceID s97 SENTENCE : Curiously , the Cb-daf-4 ( sa973 ) strain carrying the Cedaf-4 ( 1 ) transgene was not obviously rescued for the Daf-c phenotype at 27 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030883 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : Double mutants between sdf-9 ( m708 ) and the strong ts daf-2 alleles , e979 ( Table 1 ) and m637 ( data not shown ) , were nonconditional , forming only nonrecovering dauer larvae at 15 .
PaperID WBPaper00030883 SentenceID s56 SENTENCE : In fact , double mutants between sdf-9 ( m708 ) and the type I and type II TGF-b receptors , daf-1 ( m40 ) and daf-4 ( e1364 ) , respectively , constitutively formed dauer larvae that could not recover at 15 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030883 SentenceID s88 SENTENCE : Similarly , sdf-9 ( m708 ) had no effect on the life span of daf-2 ( data not shown ) , despite enhancing its Daf-c phenotype .
PaperID WBPaper00030912 SentenceID s140 SENTENCE : To explore further the link between the ribosome defects of yar1 mutants and their stress sensitivity , we tested whether overexpression of RPS3 on galactose could suppress the sensitivity of yar1 cells to oxidative stress ( Figure 8B ) or osmotic stress ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030912 SentenceID s154 SENTENCE : We did not observe any suppression ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030912 SentenceID s32 SENTENCE : Mutant cells also accumulated storage carbohydrates comparable to wild-type cells , and the sporulation efficiency was essentially the same as in wild-type controls ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030917 SentenceID s102 SENTENCE : We were able to isolate both G418-sensitive and G418-resistant haploid segregants covered by the pRPS3-GFP vector ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030917 SentenceID s142 SENTENCE : Both Dyrb2 and Dyrb2Dltv1 double mutants were able to grow on 5-FOA , indicating that the combination of knockout alleles is not lethal ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030917 SentenceID s25 SENTENCE : Yar1-GFP is also able to complement the slow-growth phenotype of Dyar1 cells ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030917 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : cytosolic Microscopic analysis of cells ( both LTV1 and Dltv1 ) expressing low levels of Ltv1-GFP revealed a primarily cytosolic distribution of GFP ( Figure 3 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030927 SentenceID s164 SENTENCE : The number and organization of the sheath and spermathecal cells appeared to be normal in the fli-1 mutants ( data not shown ) , suggesting that other defects , such as the interaction between the oocyte and the spermatheca , may cause the failure of ovulation in the fli-1 mutant animals .
PaperID WBPaper00030927 SentenceID s188 SENTENCE : The number of animals analyzed are the following : fli-1 , 8 and 83 ( for brood size and number of seam cells , respectively ) ; ipp-5 , 15 and 12 ; fli-1 ; ipp-5 , 7 and 18 ; lfe-2 , 18 and 17 ; and lfe-2 ; fli-1 , 12 and 12 . 854 H . Deng et al . by mutations in lfe-2 and ipp-5 ( Figure 7E and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030927 SentenceID s236 SENTENCE : 856 H . Deng et al . At post-embryonic stages , expression of fli-1Tgfp was detected in many it issues , including the pharyngeal muscle , rectum muscle , vulva muscle , proctodeum muscle in males , and somatic gonad it issues ( including spermatheca and distal tip cell ) ( Figure 9 , EI , and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030927 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : chromosome, spindle The defects in the spindle position ( data not shown ) and chromosome segregation observed in the fli-1 mutant embryos indicate that fli-1 may also play a role in regulating the spindle alignment and function , which is crucial for asymmetric segregation of the cell fate determinants .
PaperID WBPaper00030927 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : nuclei In 5 % of the fli-1 mutant branches , two nuclei were found in one DTC , indicating a defect of the cytokinesis ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030928 SentenceID s65 SENTENCE : osm-6 is expressed in all the chemosensory neurons ( Collet et al . 1998 ) ; 3-hr exposure to 100G did not produce a noticeable change in osm-6Tgfp expression ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030929 SentenceID s104 SENTENCE : chromosome Nevertheless , SNPs at I : 6 and I : 1 , which are near the smg-1 locus on chromosome I , still harbored DNA from the Bristol isolate ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030929 SentenceID s161 SENTENCE : We note that we did not observe ectopic expression of the ectodermal factor LIN-26 ( Labouesse et al . 1996 ) within presumptive pharyngeal cells in either pha-4 ( ts ) or smg-1 ; ruvb-1 pha-4 / 1 pha-4 embryos ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030929 SentenceID s73 SENTENCE : First stage larvae do not express PHA-4TGFP in their gonads ( data not shown ) , and L1 animals with pha-4 ( null ) mutations are born with a normal gonad primordium ( Mango et al . 1994 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030929 SentenceID s76 SENTENCE : A shift to nonpermissive temperature ( 15 ) at the pretzel stage of embryogenesis generated larvae that arrested at the L2 or L3 stage , with appropriately undeveloped gonads ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030929 SentenceID s89 SENTENCE : None of the three alleles had an obvious phenotype when the pha-4 and smg-1 mutations were removed ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030929 SentenceID s94 SENTENCE : None of the three genes had an obvious phenotype when the pha-4 and smg-1 mutations were removed ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030929 SentenceID s95 SENTENCE : chromosome LG IV : px12 was the only suppressor that mapped to the left end of chromosome IV . px12 exhibited a recessive segregation ratio , where homozygous but not heterozygous px12 animals gave rise to viable F3 progeny . px12 did not reveal an obvious phenotype when the pha-4 and smg-1 mutations were removed ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030929 SentenceID s99 SENTENCE : Intriguingly , homozygous px34 animals arrested as larvae even in the absence of smg-1 or pha-4 , suggesting the px34 mutation disrupts an essential gene ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030930 SentenceID s83 SENTENCE : We also scored these phenotypes in pop-1 ( q624 ) ; syIs50cdh-3TGFP and pop- 1 ( q624 ) ; e1489 ; syIs50cdh- 3TGFP animals and obtained similar results ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030931 SentenceID s101 SENTENCE : nuclear, nuclei, punctate Most nuclei had very little or no DPY-27 or SDC-3 ( data not shown ) protein , and the residual protein had either a diffuse nuclear or punctate appear- TABLE 3 ceh-39 mutations enhance XX-specific phenotypes caused by other XSE mutations Genotypea Survivor phenotype ceh-39 ( y414 ) Wild type ceh-39 ( gk296 ) Wild type ceh-39 ( RNAi ) Wild type ceh-21 ( RNAi ) Wild type fox-1 ( y303 ) Wild type sex-2 ( y324 ) Wild type to mild Dpy sex-1 ( y263 ) Dpy , Egl Tra sex-1 ( RNAi ) Very Dpy , Egl , Tra sex-1 ( y263 , RNAi ) Very Dpy , Egl , Tra sex-2 ( y324 ) sex-1 ( y263 ) d Very Dpy fox-1 ( y303 ) sex-1 ( y263 ) e Very Dpy , Egl , Tra fox-1 ( y303 ) sex-1 ( RNAi ) Very Dpy , Egl , Tra ceh-39 ( y414 ) sex-1 ( y263 ) f Very Dpy , Egl , Tra ceh-39 ( y414 ) sex-1 ( y263 ) e Very Dpy , Egl , Tra ceh-39 ( RNAi ) sex-1 ( y263 ) Very Dpy , Egl ceh-39 ( y414 ) sex-1 ( RNAi ) Dead ceh-39 ( gk296 ) sex-1 ( RNAi ) Dead ceh-21 ( RNAi ) sex-1 ( y263 ) Dpy , Egl ceh-39 ( y414 ) fox-1 ( RNAi ) Mild Dpy ceh-39 ( gk296 ) fox-1 ( RNAi ) Mild Dpy ceh-39 ( RNAi ) fox-1 ( y303 ) Mild Dpy ceh-39 ( RNAi ) sex-2 ( y324 ) Dpy , Egl fox-1 ( y303 ) sex-2 ( y324 ) Dpy , Egl ceh-39 ( RNAi ) fox-1 ( y303 ) sex-2 ( y324 ) Dpy , Egl a RNAi was applied as explained in Table 1 , footnote a . b Hermaphrodite viability was calculated by the following formula : ( no . of adult hermaphrodites ) / ( total no . of embryos ) 3 100 . c n is the total number of embryos from six independent sets of progeny counts . d Data are from C . Y . Loh and B . J . Meyer ( personal communication ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030931 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : XX and XO animals carrying either mutation have a wildtype phenotype ( Table 3 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030931 SentenceID s89 SENTENCE : This effect is XX specific : all ceh-39 sex-1 XO double mutants are viable ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030931 SentenceID s97 SENTENCE : X-localized Homeodomain Protein Signals C . elegans Sex 1627 and g ; I and i ) and SDC-3 ( data not shown ) exhibited a wild-type X-localized pattern .
PaperID WBPaper00030931 SentenceID s99 SENTENCE : nuclei, punctate In the latter two cases , DPY-27 and SDC-3 ( data not shown ) appeared punctate in many nuclei and diffuse or absent in others .
PaperID WBPaper00030973 SentenceID s135 SENTENCE : This finding is perhaps unexpected since feedback loops are often involved in stabilizing and maintaining cellular fates ( Edlund and Jessell 1999 ) and since the expression of bistable loop components , including cog-1 , persists in ASE throughout adulthood , as measured by various reporter gene constructs ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030973 SentenceID s176 SENTENCE : This manipulation abolished one of the two cells that expresses ASEL fate , which indicates that this cell is not derived from the ABara blastomere and which is consistent with this cell being ASER ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030973 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : Representative class I mutant animals display the phenotypic defects expected by the loss of ASER fate ; i . . , these mutants have defects in their ability to sense ASER-specific chemosensory cues ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030973 SentenceID s199 SENTENCE : This C-terminal region contains no recognizable sequence motif , but missense mutations alter residues that are conserved in three nematode species ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030973 SentenceID s257 SENTENCE : In contrast to the other lsy-6 alleles , the lsy-6 ( ot150 ) allele is only weakly penetrant ( Table 3 ) and , like the ot149 and ot182 alleles , was identified as a lsy-6 allele by noncomplementation with the lsy-6 reference allele ot71 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030973 SentenceID s281 SENTENCE : Such a phenotype is consistent with an early embryonic expression of ceh-36 at epidermal closure ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030973 SentenceID s282 SENTENCE : Moreover , RNAi of ceh-37 , a closely related paralog of ceh- 36 ( Lanjuin et al . 2003 ) , shows no effect on viability or ASE laterality in a wild-type background , but causes embryonic lethality if done in a viable ceh-36 ( ky646 ) mutant background ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030973 SentenceID s311 SENTENCE : Animals that carry the ot191 allele show a more penetrant phenotype in adult compared to larval stages ( data not shown ) , suggesting that fozi-1 may be continuously required to maintain ASER fate .
PaperID WBPaper00030973 SentenceID s355 SENTENCE : Some animals lose expression of the ASEL marker lim-6 in ASEL while a subset of these animals also lose expression of the bilateral ASEL / R marker ceh-36 in ASEL but not in ASER ( data not shown ) , indicating a partial loss of ASE cell fate .
PaperID WBPaper00030973 SentenceID s365 SENTENCE : Although we found that a reference loss-of-function allele of the cell death gene egl-1 also causes a class VI phenotype ( data not shown ) , we did not retrieve egl-1 alleles , possibly because the locus is very small ( Conradt and Horvitz 1998 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030973 SentenceID s376 SENTENCE : Neither the ASEL marker gcy-7 , nor the ASER marker gcy-5 , nor the bilateral ASEL / R marker ceh-36 display any expression defects in tax-2 / tax-4 mutants ( Table 6 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030973 SentenceID s380 SENTENCE : As is the case for tax-2 / tax-4 , the ectopic expression is observed only with the lim-6 fate marker and not with the alternative ASEL marker gcy-7promTgfp ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030983 SentenceID s141 SENTENCE : Our maximum-likelihood analysis revealed that Xenopus Smad8 is extremely similar to mammalian Smad7 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030983 SentenceID s151 SENTENCE : The only biologically meaningful distinction between Smad sequences that we detect in this region is the number of C-terminal serines ( the target of receptor phosphorylation ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030983 SentenceID s153 SENTENCE : In comparison with the Smad tree ( Figure 7 ) there are just two minor differences ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00030983 SentenceID s67 SENTENCE : A comparison of our Smad tree ( Figure 7 ) and the MH2 tree ( data not shown ) indicates that the relationships identified in the Smad tree are almost universally reflective of those in the MH2 tree .
PaperID WBPaper00031028 SentenceID s52 SENTENCE : unc-51 and bec-1 mutant animals also exhibited delay in development ( data not shown ) , but had wild-type cell numbers as revealed by scoring different cell types expressing reporters labeled with green fluorescent protein .
PaperID WBPaper00031054 SentenceID s107 SENTENCE : Although in repeated assays we have seen that Gyl1p can stimulate the GAP activity of Gyp5p on Ypt1p , the effects were variably dose dependent ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031054 SentenceID s123 SENTENCE : In every test , including assays in which rvs167 cells were defective , gyp5 cells , gyl1 cells , and the gyp5 gyl1 double mutant appeared similar to wild type ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031054 SentenceID s127 SENTENCE : Golgi, cytoskeleton The gyp5 and gyl1 single mutants and the double mutant showed no growth defect in combination with deletion 563 Rvs167p Interacts With Golgi Protein Gyp5p and Gyl1p of any of these actin cytoskeleton genes ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031054 SentenceID s136 SENTENCE : The doublemutant strain was able to grow as efficiently as either of the single mutants ( or as wild type ) on rich medium containing either glucose or galactose as carbon source ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031054 SentenceID s137 SENTENCE : A very subtle growth defect in the double mutant was detectable when the strains were assayed on synthetic growth medium ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031054 SentenceID s147 SENTENCE : 564 H . Friesen et al . strain and was not exacerbated by high temperature ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031054 SentenceID s148 SENTENCE : cytoskeleton In addition , the app1 gyl1 double mutant had no defects in polarizing its actin cytoskeleton ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031054 SentenceID s159 SENTENCE : Neither SEC22 nor RUD3 had a synthetic lethal interaction with GYP5 or GYL1 ( data not shown ) , indicating that Sec22p and Rud3p likely do not function in a redundant pathway with these Rvs167p-interacting proteins .
PaperID WBPaper00031054 SentenceID s183 SENTENCE : cytoskeleton Overexpression of GYL1 and GYP5 had no effect on polarization of the actin cytoskeleton or on endocytosis in any of the strains assayed ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031054 SentenceID s93 SENTENCE : fraction Consistent with previous reports ( Albert and Gallwitz 1999 ) , we found that both protein preparations contained a substantial fraction of truncated peptides ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031119 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : Both mrp-4 ( ok1095 ) and mrp-4 ( cd8 ) ( Schaheen et al . 2006 ) embryos contain differentiated intestinal cells that lacked birefringent material in bean and 1 . 5-fold-stage embryos ( Figure 1A , ch , and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031119 SentenceID s138 SENTENCE : organelles MRP-4-containing organelles of similar morphology were present in embryonic blastomeres from the 1-cell through the 100-cell stage of early embryogenesis ( Figure 3 , U and V , and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031119 SentenceID s161 SENTENCE : In addition , the appearance of RAB-5TGFP , RAB-7T GFP , and LMP-1TGFP was unaltered in pretzel-stage wht-2 ( RNAi ) embryos ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031119 SentenceID s162 SENTENCE : granule mrp-4 ( cd8 ) ; wht- 2 ( RNAi ) embryos did not display defects in gut granule biogenesis ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031119 SentenceID s49 SENTENCE : In all cases , these markers appeared normal in mrp-4 ( RNAi ) pretzel-stage embryos ( data not shown ) , indicating that MRP-4 does not play an essential role in forming these compartments .
PaperID WBPaper00031119 SentenceID s93 SENTENCE : granule, granules We compared the localization of anti-MRP-4 staining to the gut granule localized Rab GLO-1TGFP ( Hermann et al . 2005 ) in embryos and found that MRP-4 was associated with gut granules from early bean stage through hatching ( Figure 3 , AD , and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031119 SentenceID s95 SENTENCE : All of the glo ( ) mutants displayed greatly diminished staining of intestinal cells by anti-MRP-4 antisera ( Figure 3 , IL , and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031120 SentenceID s21 SENTENCE : The H34C03 operon consists of only two genes : a ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase and a novel gene , neither of which show any obvious phenotypes with RNAi ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031120 SentenceID s99 SENTENCE : 26 alone did not exhibit any RNAi phenotype ( data not shown ) , knocking down both Y57A10A .
PaperID WBPaper00031121 SentenceID s225 SENTENCE : The former possibility is unlikely because the DCC did not localize to the yIs58 locus in XX animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031318 SentenceID s108 SENTENCE : We found that blocking double-strand break formation failed to suppress the pachytene-arrest phenotype ( data not shown ) and that HIM-3 staining is normal in mpk-1 null germlines ( supplemental Figure 6H ) , suggesting TABLE 3 Phenotypes of let-60 ( ga89gf ) % hermaphrodite gonad arms with indicated phenotype Oocyte phenotypes Genotype Disorganized Small oocytes , multiple rows Emo Ectopic dpMPK-1 Mitotic zone sizec n 20a Wild type 0 0 0 0 21 6 1 . 8 20 let-60 ( ga89gf ) 10 0 0 100 21 6 1 . 6 30 25 shift-upb Wild type 0 0 0 0 21 6 1 . 6 20 let-60 ( ga89gf ) 40 60 17 100 20 6 1 . 5 30 let-60 ( ga89gf ) is described in Eisenmann and Kim ( 1997 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031318 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : -H . Lee et al . ( Table 2 ) and dpMPK-1 levels are very low in the gonad distal to the loop while variably patchy accumulation is observed in the proximal gonad ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031318 SentenceID s170 SENTENCE : nuclei Germline MPK-1 Function and Activation 2049 are small membrane-enclosed regions that lack nuclei , often on the interior side ( Table 2 ; supplemental Table 1 at http : / / www . genetics . org / supplemental / ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031318 SentenceID s186 SENTENCE : We found that , while dpMPK-1 staining was detected in pachytene , levels were uniformly low in diplotene and diakinesis , although occasionally some diakinesis oocytes showed strong staining ( supplemental Figure 11 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031318 SentenceID s21 SENTENCE : To verify that the dpMPK- 1 staining pattern was not altered through the dissection procedure , wild-type adult hermaphrodite whole-mount freeze-crack preparations were generated ( Jones et al . 1996 ) and found to show essentially the same staining pattern as dissected gonads ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031318 SentenceID s218 SENTENCE : The large oocyte size appears not to be the cause of the maturation / ovulation defect at 25 since we also observed a delay in mpk-1 ( ga111 ) hermaphrodites at 20 where oocytes are of normal size ( 63 min between successive maturations / ovulations ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031318 SentenceID s233 SENTENCE : cytoplasm, membranes, nuclei, surface mpk-1 null XO adult males display phenotypes very similar to null mutant hermaphrodites : nuclei are arrested in pachytene and the honeycomb pattern of germ cells on the surface of the cylindrical gonadal tube is disrupted , with regions of cytoplasm devoid of nuclei and cell membranes and little or no evidence of gametogenesis ( Figure 7C ; Church et al . 1995 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031318 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : The control rme-2 sense probe gave little or no signal ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031318 SentenceID s286 SENTENCE : soma Epistasis analysis with fem-3 ( q20gf ) is consistent with this interpretation ; fem-3 ( q20gf ) XX mutant hermaphrodites at 25 have a fully masculinized germline and a female soma ( Barton et al . 1987 ) while the mpk-1 ( ga117 ) ; fem-3 ( q20gf ) mutants at 25 have a feminized germline ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031318 SentenceID s303 SENTENCE : Surprisingly , we found that mpk-1 null did not enhance the premature meiotic entry phenotype of the fbf-1 fbf-2 null double mutant , although it did feminize the germline , and that fog-1 null did not enhance the premature meiotic entry defect of glp-1 ( bn18 ) ( supplemental Table 7 at http : / / www . genetics . org / supplemental / ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031318 SentenceID s43 SENTENCE : chromosome, nuclei, nucleolar Analysis of mpk-1 null hermaphrodite germlines for DNA morphology and nucleolar position , using anti-NOP-1 antibody staining ( MacQueen and Villeneuve 2001 ) , revealed that mpk-1 ( ga117 ) -arrested pachytene nuclei have a symmetric chromosome and nucleolar organization ( data not shown ) , demonstrating that they have progressed beyond the early pachytene polarized organization .
PaperID WBPaper00031318 SentenceID s93 SENTENCE : nuclei After a 4-hr shift of let-60 ( ga89gf ) adults to 25 , animals become sterile due to Normal diakinetic nuclei Disorganized oocytes Emo Normal sperm Mitotic zone size n 0 100 0 0 100 18 6 2 . 1 22 91 19 9 16 97 18 6 2 . 3 32 0 100 0 0 100 19 6 1 . 8 22 66 66 16 41 97 19 6 2 . 6 32 a b Normal oocytes Normal sperm Normal dpMPK-1 Mitotic zone sizec n 0 100 100 100 18 6 1 . 4 24 0 0 0 19 6 3 . 2 39 0 0 0 11 6 2 . 0 37 0 0 0 19 6 3 . 0 39 0 0 0 10 6 1 . 9 33 0 100 100 100 21 6 1 . 6 24 0 0 0 21 6 3 . 4 39 0 0 36f 14 6 2 . 8 50 defects in oocyte growth and differentiation ( Table 3 , see below ) . dpMPK-1 in the pachytene region is increased in level from 20 but does not extend farther distally and can show variability even within the same gonad ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031318 SentenceID s99 SENTENCE : $ 15 oocytes in the proximal gonad have a normal-size pachytene region and have low dpMPK-1 staining in both pachytene and proximal oocytes , which is restored following mating with wild-type males ( Figure 2D ; Miller et al . 2001 ; Page et al . 2001 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031319 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : Superoxide Detoxification and Aging 2071 sod ( RNAi ) is equally effective in reducing SOD expression to background levels in all strains ( data not shown ) , and we have not found a correlation between the level of sod ' s and the sensitivity of the growth rate or of the life span to sod ( RNAi ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031320 SentenceID s107 SENTENCE : chromosome We observed that depletion of either HCP-1 or HCP-2 alone did not result in significant developmental arrest in a wild-type background , while codepletion of both proteins resulted in highly penetrant embryonic lethality , chromosome segregation defects , inability to form metaphase plates , and precocious anaphase onset , as previously reported ( Moore et al . 1999 ; Encalada et al . 2005 ; Figure 2B and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031320 SentenceID s64 SENTENCE : In addition , none of the 12 genes that failed to enhance the mdf-1 ( gk2 ) lethality enhanced the lethality of either mdf-2 ( tm2910 ) or san- 1 ( ok1580 ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031437 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : kinetochore Other kinetochore proteins were also found localized with CENP-A / HCP-3 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031437 SentenceID s136 SENTENCE : kinetochore Similar to cin-4 ( mr127 ) embryos , CENP-C / HCP-4 was adjacent to CENP-A / HCP-3 , suggesting that kinetochore assembly was not compromised in top-2 ( RNAi ) embryos ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031437 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : cohesin Detection of other cohesin components using immunofluorescence showed similar localization patterns as SCC1 / COH-2 in the cin-4 ( mr127 ) and cin-4 ( mr127 ) ; smc-1 ( e879 ) embryos ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031437 SentenceID s42 SENTENCE : chromosomes, cohesin Wildtype embryos and cin-4 ( mr127 ) embryos raised at the permissive temperature had similar CENP-C / HCP-4 and SCC1 / COH-2 localization patterns ( data not shown ) ; CENP-C / HCP-4 formed parallel lines along the chromosomes and cohesin was absent from the mitotic chromosomes .
PaperID WBPaper00031437 SentenceID s58 SENTENCE : Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy : The cin-4 ( mr127 ) mutant exhibited a decrease in brood size with extended incubation at the nonpermissive temperature culminating in sterility ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031437 SentenceID s85 SENTENCE : 88 G . Stanvitch and L . L . Moore ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031437 SentenceID s91 SENTENCE : All three of these transgenic lines partially rescued the cin- 4 ( mr127 ) phenotypes ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031438 SentenceID s123 SENTENCE : The opposing effects of GOA-1 and EGL-30 on tph-1 expression were reproduced using five independent chromosomally integrated transgenes ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031438 SentenceID s150 SENTENCE : We also saw no decrease in tph-1 reporter expression in the HSNs when we chronically exposed animals to 7 . 5 mm serotonin ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031438 SentenceID s155 SENTENCE : This staining is specific to serotonin since it was absent in the tph-1 null mutant ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031438 SentenceID s158 SENTENCE : A 1 . 3-fold increase in antiserotonin staining was also observed in animals in which GOA-1 was inactivated by PTX expression in the HSNs ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031438 SentenceID s180 SENTENCE : Antiserotonin staining increased 1 . 3-fold in the goa-1 mutant and decreased 1 . 6-fold in the egl-30 mutant ( Figure 6F ) , and analogous changes in tph-1 reporter transgene expression were also seen in the ADFs ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031438 SentenceID s182 SENTENCE : Antiserotonin staining decreased 1 . 4- to 1 . 6- fold in the NSMs of both the goa-1 and the egl-30 mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031438 SentenceID s37 SENTENCE : The uterine muscle cells are very thin ELM cells that show weak CFP fluorescence and are also out of view in A and D . G Proteins Control Serotonin Synthesis 159 the result of detectable defects in HSN development or morphology ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031438 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : In separate experiments , when we generated transgenic strains carrying the same plasmids as in LX975 , co-injected and integrated as a single transgene , we observed a significant loss of specificity ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031438 SentenceID s96 SENTENCE : process, synaptic, synaptic varicosities Analysis of DsRed2 fluorescence showed no difference between wild-type and goa-1 mutant animals in any parameter of HSNL morphology examined , including average width of the HSN process in nonsynaptic regions , mean distance across the largest dimension of the synaptic varicosities , or occurrence of branches emanating from a subset of varicosities ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031439 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : Both fixed and live samples were examined and no differences in GFP : PIE-1 distribution were observed between the two ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031439 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : We found that MBP : CIT-1 . 1 and MBP : CIT-1 . 2 both bound to PIE-1 ( Figure 1A and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031440 SentenceID s101 SENTENCE : P-granule We stained meg-1 embryos with antibodies to three known P-granule proteins , PGL-1 , PGL- 3 , and GLH-1 ( Figure 4F and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031440 SentenceID s75 SENTENCE : The antibody recognized a single band of the expected size of 70 kDa in Western analysis of wild-type worm lysate ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031440 SentenceID s9 SENTENCE : Our initial RNAi results did not distinguish whether one or both of these proteins were required for fertility ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031482 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : When these 6 mutants ( ag12 , ag13 , ag14 , ag15 , ag17 , and ag19 ) were mated with each other in all combinations , the pathogen resistance phenotype was complemented in all cases ( data not shown ) , indicating that the 6 mutations fell into six different complementation groups .
PaperID WBPaper00031482 SentenceID s113 SENTENCE : The effects of DAF-16 appeared to be specific to the Epr phenotype , as elimination of DAF-16 function did not suppress the sterility of any of the mutants tested ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031482 SentenceID s136 SENTENCE : nuclear Enhanced Immunity in Sterile C . elegans 911 DAF-16 nuclear translocation in sterile adult animals ( Figure 7 , supplemental Figure S3 at http : / / www . genetics . org / supplemental / ) , and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031482 SentenceID s141 SENTENCE : Consistent with this reasoning , we found that KRI-1 was not required for the enhanced resistance of glp-1 ( Figure 6F ) or fer-15 ; fem-1 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031482 SentenceID s172 SENTENCE : When fer-15 ; fem-1 females ' ' were mated with wild-type males , viable progeny were produced ( data not shown ) , and the mated fer-15 ; fem-1 animals became as susceptible to P . aeruginosa as wildtype animals ( Figure 5E ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031482 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : Under our FUDR assay conditions , eggs are fertilized , go through multiple rounds of cell division , and are laid ; however , the cellular organization is disturbed inside the eggs , and they fail to hatch ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031482 SentenceID s25 SENTENCE : Enhanced Immunity in Sterile C . elegans 907 daf-16 RNAi completely suppressed the enhanced pathogen resistance phenotype of ag12 ( Figure 2A ) . ag12 also exhibited a dauer-constitutive phenotype at 25 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031482 SentenceID s30 SENTENCE : Furthermore , none of these latter five mutants became dauer at 25 ( data not shown ) , suggesting that they did not encode components of the daf-2 signaling pathway .
PaperID WBPaper00031482 SentenceID s32 SENTENCE : The insulin signaling pathway gene , age-1 , is located in this region ( Morris et al . 1996 ) and the age-1 ( hx546 ) mutation failed to complement ag12 for S . aureus susceptibility and longevity on OP50 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031482 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : chromosome As described in detail in materials and methods , SNP-based mapping showed strong linkage of ag17 to the central region of chromosome I within a 0 . 25-MU interval bounded by SNP markers F21C3 and H15M21 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031482 SentenceID s39 SENTENCE : chromosome This map position was confirmed by showing that ag17 is tightly linked to dpy-5 , which also maps to the central region of chromosome I [ in a cross between ag17 and the semidominant dpy-5 ( e61 ) mutant , 100 % of F2 Dpy animals had progeny with wild-type resistance , while 90 % of F2 non-Dpy had progeny with enhanced resistance to pathogens ; data not shown ] .
PaperID WBPaper00031482 SentenceID s56 SENTENCE : chromosome F1 cross progeny that inherited the hT2 balancer chromosome did not show the pathogen resistance phenotype of ag17 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031482 SentenceID s57 SENTENCE : In contrast , F1 progeny lacking the balancer and therefore heterozygous for ag17 and an inx-14 deletion were resistant to pathogens ( data not shown ) , indicating that inx-14 failed to complement ag17 and suggesting that the mutation in ag17 is an allele of inx-14 .
PaperID WBPaper00031482 SentenceID s58 SENTENCE : These transheterozygotes exhibited complete sterility and a stronger Epr phenotype relative to ag17 homozygotes ( data not shown ) , suggesting that the mutation in ag17 is most likely not null .
PaperID WBPaper00031482 SentenceID s60 SENTENCE : Extrachromosomal expression of inx-14 in transgenic animals carrying either the cosmid F07A5 or a PCR product corresponding to the full-length inx-14 gene resulted in partial complementation of the pathogen resistance phenotype of ag17 ( supplemental Figure S2 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031482 SentenceID s60 SENTENCE : However , inactivation of neither lys-7 nor dod-6 by RNAi had a significant effect on P . aeruginosa ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031482 SentenceID s66 SENTENCE : Among the 22 genes examined , inx-8 , inx-9 , and inx-14 RNAi clones caused resistance to P . aeruginosa ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031482 SentenceID s67 SENTENCE : We also observed that these three RNAi clones resulted in sterility ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031482 SentenceID s93 SENTENCE : This FUDR pretreatment was sufficient to maintain the sterility of wild-type animals throughout the course of the infection assay ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031483 SentenceID s103 SENTENCE : Overlap of expression was only seen in amphid and phasmid neurons ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031483 SentenceID s131 SENTENCE : cilia, ciliary, sensory cilia Since both cDNATGFP fusion transgenes were able to rescue the Dyf phenotype of their respective mutants when expressed using their own promoters ( data not shown ) , these results suggest that CHE-12 and DYF-11 proteins are normally targeted to neuronal sensory cilia , consistent with the ciliary defects observed in che-12 and dyf-11 mutants .
PaperID WBPaper00031483 SentenceID s145 SENTENCE : By comparison , movement of the IFT component CHE-13 was easily observed in 3 / 4 kymographs we examined ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031483 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : cilia We further noted that dyf-11 mutants could not enter the dauer state , and mutant males showed low mating efficiency ( data not shown ) , defects that are characteristic of impaired cilia function .
PaperID WBPaper00031483 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : We could , however , easily detect movements of CHE-13T GFP ( data not shown ) and DYF-11TGFP ( Figure 8B ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031483 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : cilia, sensory cilia Third , EM studies of all three che-12 alleles revealed that these animals lack part of the distal segment of at least some amphid sensory cilia ( Figure 2 JL ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031483 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : ciliary, transition zone Three of three dyf-11 ( mn392 ) animals examined by EM lacked all recognizable ciliary structures ( Figure 2 , H and I ) , except for the proximal transition zone ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031483 SentenceID s68 SENTENCE : Interestingly , we showed that while DYF-11 localization was not disrupted in osm-5 ( IFT-B ) , che-13 ( IFT-B ) , or che- 11 ( IFT-A ) mutants ( Figure 5 ) , localization of OSM-5 ( data not shown ) , CHE-13 , and CHE-11 was disrupted in dyf-11 animals ( Figure 7 , C and F ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031484 SentenceID s110 SENTENCE : 808 P . Sundaram et al . in muscle ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031484 SentenceID s122 SENTENCE : Bars represent the average of three experiments ; error bars denote SD . observed in RISC-defective animals or in animals defective for systemic RNAi due to loss of sid-1 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031484 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : The results obtained did not differ from our previous reports ( Sundaram et al . 2006 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031484 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : Again , this more comprehensive set of assays did not reveal additional ABCRNAi mutants ; RNAi activity was observed in all of the strains except those already designated as ABCRNAi ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031485 SentenceID s129 SENTENCE : Consistent with this , ed24ts was linked to an AF16 / HK104 polymorphism in the Cb-tra-3 gene ( CBG21580 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031485 SentenceID s153 SENTENCE : We suspected that this maternal rescue would be conserved in conventional Cb-tra-3 ( lf ) mutants , as Cb-tra-3 ( RNAi ) knockdown has no discernible phenotype ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031485 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : Young XX nm2 Tra males can sire cross-progeny when mated to hermaphrodites with genetically feminized germlines ( i . . , true females ) , but are far less fertile than wild-type XO males ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031485 SentenceID s40 SENTENCE : Preliminary RTPCR experiments and Northern hybridizations indicate that ed24ts does produce Cb-tra-3 transcripts at detectable levels ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031485 SentenceID s63 SENTENCE : This interpretation is supported by our unsuccessful attempts to enhance the nm2 phenotype with Cb-tra-1 RNAi ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031485 SentenceID s80 SENTENCE : Sequence analysis shows that the band marked by an asterisk in the Cb-tra-1 59 reactions is a nonspecific amplicon from another locus ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031485 SentenceID s90 SENTENCE : However , we noted during post-mutagenesis outcrossing that Cb-tra-1 ( nm10 ) / 1 males could mate but not sire progeny , whereas XX heterozygotes could pass the mutation to both selfand cross-progeny ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031486 SentenceID s104 SENTENCE : The pattern of DAF-16TGFP localization was the same in m41 as m577 and in m579 as e1370 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031486 SentenceID s121 SENTENCE : 0 . 5 ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031486 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : However , the transgene did not rescue the m65 Daf-c phenotype , probably reflecting non-native daf-2 expression from this transgene ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031486 SentenceID s152 SENTENCE : Possibly the e1369 mutation lies in a distant cis regulatory region ; however , using RTPCR we saw no change in daf-2 mRNA levels in this mutant ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031486 SentenceID s3 SENTENCE : In each case , homozygous daf-2 segregants from balanced daf-2 / 1 hermaphrodites form dauer larvae nonconditionally ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031486 SentenceID s32 SENTENCE : In addition , daf-16 ( mgDf50 ) ; daf-2 ( tm1236 ) animals developed normally at 25 , demonstrating that tm1236 is a weaker allele than m65 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031486 SentenceID s60 SENTENCE : By contrast , the life span of daf-2 / 1 hermaphrodites using the most severe daf-2 allele , m65 , was not increased relative to wild-type controls ( two trials at 22 . 5 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031487 SentenceID s110 SENTENCE : The animals that survive have normal development of other Rasdependent cell types such as the vulva ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031487 SentenceID s117 SENTENCE : 1438 C . E . Rocheleau et al . 25 ( cs77 ) or ubc-25 ( tm1531 ) deletion mutants are mostly viable and normal , but ubc-25 ; ksr-1 double mutants have strong rod-like lethal and excretory duct loss phenotypes ( Table 2 , Figure 4B , and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031487 SentenceID s119 SENTENCE : As was true for ccr-4 , ubc-25 does not enhance other postembryonic ksr-1 phenotypes ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031487 SentenceID s136 SENTENCE : No other ras-like defects were observed in these double mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031487 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : The small RNAs relevant to the C . elegans Ekl phenotype could be analogous to piRNAs , as CSR-1 is equally similar to the Piwi and Argonaute subfamilies ( Yigitet al . 2006 ) and we have been unable to detect an Ekl phenotype after dcr-1 depletion ( supplemental Table S1 and data not shown ) , suggesting that these RNAs also may be generated in a Dicer-independent manner .
PaperID WBPaper00031487 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : 1434 C . E . Rocheleau et al . excretory duct cell fate ( Figure 1 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031487 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : Similar results were obtained with the other ekl genes ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031487 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : Furthermore , when we tested our ekl RNAi clones against a panel of other Ras pathway mutants ( materials and methods ) , including hypomorphic alleles of lin-45 raf and mek-2 , we found that only 2 RNAi clones caused rod-like lethality in those backgrounds as would be expected if Ras signaling or the excretory duct fate were perturbed directly ( data not shown ) ; these corresponded to the known Ras pathway scaffold cnk-1 ( Rocheleau et al . 2005 ) and the GTPase rab-7 ( L . Chotard and C . E . Rocheleau , unpublished results ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031487 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : In contrast , other Ras pathway mutants do not show genetic interactions with ksr-2 ( Ohmachi et al . 2002 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031487 SentenceID s39 SENTENCE : Germline expression of ksr-2 ( 1 ) is sufficient to rescue the sterility , rod-like lethality , and Vulvaless phenotypes of ksr- 2 ( dx27 ) ; ksr-1 ( n2526 ) animals ( Figure 2D and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031487 SentenceID s42 SENTENCE : Both the embryonic lethality and the Ekl phenotype reflect ( at least in part ) a maternal requirement for these genes , as germline-specific RNAi ( in an rrf-1 ; ksr-1 background ) continued to elicit both phenotypes ( Figure 2C and data not shown ) , whereas zygotic-specific RNAi for ekl-1 , drh-3 , or ekl-4 ( in the RNAi-competent rde-1 / 1 ; ksr-1 progeny of RNAi-defective rde-1 ; ksr-1 mothers ) did not elicit these phenotypes ( data not shown ) ( see Herman 2001 for a discussion of zygotic RNAi ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031487 SentenceID s43 SENTENCE : Furthermore , for all ekl deletion mutants tested ( ego-1 , ccr-4 , ubc-25 , and ekl-5 ; see below ) , ekl ; ksr-1 animals obtained from ekl / 1 ; ksr-1 mothers were viable ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031487 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : After screening a total of 16 , 748 RNAi clones , we identified 18 clones that consistently caused strong rod-like larval lethality in multiple ksr-1 mutant backgrounds , but not in a wild-type background ( Figure 2 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031488 SentenceID s155 SENTENCE : A control reporter gene bearing the unc-54 39-UTR , which is not regulated by let-7 , was strongly expressed at all larval and adult stages in both wild-type and sop-2 mutant animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031858 SentenceID s153 SENTENCE : Additionally , as suggested by their isolation in F1 screens , loss-of-function alleles of lin-24 and lin-33 can each suppress the vulvaless phenotype caused by gain-of-function mutations in the other gene when the former are present only in one copy ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031858 SentenceID s65 SENTENCE : One isolate from each of these two screens was a good candidate to be an intragenic suppressor mutation , on the basis of its map position , which in each case was , 0 . 09 MU from the respective mutation lin-24 ( n432 n1503 ) and lin-33 ( n1043 n1502 ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031859 SentenceID s104 SENTENCE : These defects were also seen in eDf25 ( Figure 3L and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031859 SentenceID s114 SENTENCE : Similar fluctuations were seen in the eDf25 strain ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031859 SentenceID s87 SENTENCE : However , progeny testing of these animals indicated that none of these mutations bred true ( data not shown ) , suggesting that the phenotypes were likely due to somatic mutation or transient genome instability , rather than to germline changes that define the Mrt phenotype .
PaperID WBPaper00031894 SentenceID s182 SENTENCE : endosomes, lysosomes The expression of GFPTRAB-7 , a marker for later endosomes ( Chen et al . 2006 ) , or LMP-1TGFP , a marker for late endosomes and lysosomes ( Kostich et al . 2000 ) , was not different from that in wild type either in num- 1 ( bc365 ) ( data not shown ) or num-1A ( 11 ) worms ( Figure 5 , G and H ) , arguing against a role for num-1A in directing trafficking away from late endosomes or lysosomes .
PaperID WBPaper00031894 SentenceID s240 SENTENCE : However , no differences were seen compared to wild type ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031910 SentenceID s102 SENTENCE : Like the tbx- 2 HSN and PHB neuron-loss phenotype , the ham-1 neuron-loss phenotype can be rescued by mutations in the cell-death pathway ( Guenther and Garriga 1996 ; Frank et al . 2005 ) ( Figure 7 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031910 SentenceID s121 SENTENCE : We saw that the neuroblast stained positive only for GFP ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031910 SentenceID s123 SENTENCE : This costaining was lost around the time when the precursor divides and also was missing in the HSN neuron , which stained only for b-galactosidase ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031910 SentenceID s144 SENTENCE : In many cases we saw two extra PHB neurons , and in some cases , even three extra neurons per side ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031910 SentenceID s163 SENTENCE : We also ruled out coexpression of tbx-2Tgfp with antibodies to EGL-43 , which stain the HSN and PHB , or with antibodies to HAM-2 , which stain the HSN ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031910 SentenceID s173 SENTENCE : 894 A . Singhvi , C . A . Frank and G . Garriga suggesting that it should be expressed in cells involved in regulation of PHB fate ( data not shown ) ( Roy Chowdhuri et al . 2006 ; Smith and Mango 2007 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031910 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : Consistent with this idea , tbx-2 ( ok529 ) does not enhance HSN migration defects of the C . elegans Wnt , egl-20 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031910 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : Consistent with this interpretation , the PHA marker ynIs45 ( flp-15TGFP ) revealed that the tbx-2 mutants were not missing PHAs ( Li et al . 1999 ; Kim and Li 2004 ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031910 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : Sides missing PHBs , for example , can have normally positioned or misplaced HSNs ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031910 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : Adult hermaphrodites can be vulvaless and less frequently multivulval . They also display HSN migration and PHB defects ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031910 SentenceID s49 SENTENCE : Since gm111 heterozygous animals show no mutant phenotype ( data not shown ) , this mutation behaves like a severe recessive loss-of-function allele .
PaperID WBPaper00031910 SentenceID s52 SENTENCE : Unlike hlh-14 mutants , the arrested gm111 gm345 L1 animals produced normal numbers of PVQs ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031910 SentenceID s61 SENTENCE : Both the HSN and PHB defects are also much more severe in gm345 ; ham-1 double mutants than in either of the single mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031911 SentenceID s108 SENTENCE : We designed and verified two oligonucleotide primers that amplify the region containing each SNP and one oligonucleotide primer that sequences the polymorphic site for each SNP ( Figure 3 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031911 SentenceID s114 SENTENCE : CB4856 hermaphrodites displayed sensitivity to supplemental zinc that was similar to N2 hermaphrodites ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031911 SentenceID s17 SENTENCE : insoluble Zinc salts were relatively insoluble in standard grade agar and potassium phosphate solutions , whereas zinc salts were highly soluble in the other ingredients of NGM ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031911 SentenceID s176 SENTENCE : An obstacle to using this approach was our observation that some mutations that cause visible phenotypes also influence the phenotype of resistance to supplemental zinc , which made it difficult to score the zinc-resistance phenotype in recombinant animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031911 SentenceID s184 SENTENCE : chromosome, chromosomes Therefore , we analyzed additional markers on both chromosomes : am139 displayed highest linkage to markers on chromosome I and was not tightly linked to markers on chromosome X ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031911 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : Zinc sulfate was soluble to $ 8 mm in 1 . 7 % Noble agar ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031911 SentenceID s195 SENTENCE : chromosomal, chromosome Additional three-factor mapping experiments with am118 , am124 , am129 , am130 , am135 , and am140 have confirmed the chromosomal locations of these mutations , and the results are consistent with the position on the chromosome indicated by linkage to SNP markers ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031911 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : Worms cultured in these conditions displayed a developmental rate and morphology that are similar to worms cultured on NGM with live E . coli ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00031911 SentenceID s30 SENTENCE : Animals that displayed a developmental delay frequently had a prolonged L1 larval phase ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032017 SentenceID s111 SENTENCE : The lin-18 mutation on its own or in combination with other Frizzled mutants did not cause statistically significant defects in the migrations of any other neurons ( Table 1 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032112 SentenceID s97 SENTENCE : Both rnr-1 ( RNAi ) and rnr-2 ( RNAi ) hermaphrodites also exhibited a protruding vulva and sterility ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032128 SentenceID s64 SENTENCE : In addition Phsp-16 . 2-directed FLP-out was observed in late embryos but not in early embryos ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032128 SentenceID s68 SENTENCE : However , we did not detect a significant change in the amount of FLPed cassettes in the heat-shocked worms vs . non-heat-shocked worms ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032128 SentenceID s98 SENTENCE : Although the degree to which target integration would interfere with the utility of the technology has not been rigorously assessed , we tested one integrated target ( naIs35 ) and found that it responded appropriately to FLP recombinase and did not cause obvious lethality ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032145 SentenceID s108 SENTENCE : This represents an increase over the expected frequencies on the basis of both the published dpy-13 unc-5 map distance ( 1 . 8 cM ) and our own measurements of crossover frequency in this interval ( 2 . 6 % ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032145 SentenceID s110 SENTENCE : We verified that heat shock had no significant effect on the recombination frequency between these two loci ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032145 SentenceID s118 SENTENCE : Sixtythree revertant animals among 1114 F1 ' s ( reversion rate 5 . 6 3 102 ) were identified and none had copied the polymorphisms contained in the repair template ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032146 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : To confirm the long-term viability in the absence of oma-1 activity , we have maintained oma-1 null mutant cultures through numerous passages under our standard growth conditions at 23 and have seen no evident deleterious effects on the populations ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032146 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : ( B ) Intermediate silencing efficacy populations overcome the F the less stringent selection scheme of intermediate silencing efficacy and found that 7 / 10 F ling groups had at least some viable F This is in contrast to the F served when we used the highest silencing efficacy ' ' selection ( data in Figure 3 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032168 SentenceID s130 SENTENCE : Posterior intestinal cells are shown AP . 864 B . M . Rabbitts et al . with neuronal morphology and the intestinal valve cell ( data not shown ) , which represented the only nonintestinal expression of glo-3pTgfp .
PaperID WBPaper00032168 SentenceID s134 SENTENCE : granule, granules We compared the localization of GLO-3TGFP to the gut granule localized FUS-1 protein in fixed embryos and found that GLO-3TGFP was associated with gut granules from bean stage ( Figure 7 , AD ) through hatching ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032168 SentenceID s135 SENTENCE : granules, punctate The punctate distribution of GLO- 3TGFP was lacking in glo-1 ( ) embryos ( data not shown ) , which do not generate gut granules ( Hermann et al . 2005 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032168 SentenceID s136 SENTENCE : granules, puncta Furthermore , apt-7 ( ) and pgp-2 ( ) embryos , which contain reduced numbers of gut granules ( Schroeder et al . 2007 ) , lacked or displayed only a few GLO-3TGFP puncta , respectively ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032168 SentenceID s141 SENTENCE : cytoplasm, envelope, granule, membrane, nuclear, nuclear envelope The GLO-3short GFP fusions did not localize to the gut granule membrane and instead were localized to the nuclear envelope or cytoplasm ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032168 SentenceID s155 SENTENCE : Granule glo-3 and Gut Granule Biogenesis 865 and smg-1 ( r861 ) ; glo-3 ( kx29 ) embryos were acidified , showing that they are likely properly formed compartments ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032168 SentenceID s174 SENTENCE : Both double mutants lacked birefringent compartments in embryos ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032168 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : All of the glo-3 alleles identified to date are strict recessive , zygotic effect for the Glo phenotype ( Table 1 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032168 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : granule The glo-3short cDNA expressed under control of the glo-3 promoter did not rescue the Glo phenotypes of glo-3 ( kx90 ) ( data not shown ) indicating that expression of glo-3short is not sufficient to support gut granule biogenesis when glo-3 function is compromised .
PaperID WBPaper00032168 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : granule, membrane Moreover , amino and carboxy terminal-tagged forms of GLO-3short were not localized to the gut granule membrane ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032168 SentenceID s56 SENTENCE : However , these compartments were only weakly stained when compared to wild type ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032169 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : The brood size of the adbp-1 mutant was similar to those of wild-type animals ( data not shown ) , and no other obvious phenotypes were observed .
PaperID WBPaper00032169 SentenceID s137 SENTENCE : In the adbp-1 mutant , we found that a rde-1 mutation and RNAi of dcr-1 also restored the expression of lon-1pTgfp ( Figure 8 , AD ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032169 SentenceID s139 SENTENCE : We , however , found that the gene disruption of mes-4 , a chromatinremodeling gene , did not suppress the somatic transgene-silencing phenotype in the adbp-1 mutant , while the transgene silencing in the rrf-3 , eri-1 mutants was suppressed by mes-4 gene disruption ( Kim et al . 2005 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032169 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : body The mutant , however , did not show any obvious changes in its body length ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032169 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : The adbp-1 mutation induces silencing on various transgenes in the hypodermis and intestine : The silencing effect of adbp-1 ( qj1 ) was not limited to the integrated array of the lon-1pTgfp transgene , because we observed a similar reduction of GFP expression from an extrachromosomal array of lon-1pTgfp in the adbp-1 ( qj1 ) mutant ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032169 SentenceID s207 SENTENCE : cytoplasm, nucleus We found an apparent reduction of GFP fluorescence in the nucleus of the adbp-1 mutant ; ADR- 2TGFP was not accumulated in the nucleus , but distributed evenly in the nucleus and the cytoplasm ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032169 SentenceID s208 SENTENCE : nuclear This may not be simply due to the reduction of the GFP expression level because in another transgene-silencing mutant , eri-1 , we observed the nuclear accumulation of ADR-2TGFP ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032169 SentenceID s66 SENTENCE : Although feeding-mediated RNAi of the T17A3 . 9 gene did not cause a reduction in expression of transgenes ( data not shown ) , mutant analyses are required to elucidate its function .
PaperID WBPaper00032169 SentenceID s91 SENTENCE : Because the translational fusion construct , whose reporter gene was converted into mRFP from gfp , rescued the decreased lon-1pTgfp expression in adbp-1 ( qj1 ) mutant animals ( data not shown ) , endogenous adbp-1 is likely to be expressed in at least some of the it issues in which we observed GFP expression .
PaperID WBPaper00032169 SentenceID s97 SENTENCE : On the other hand , the adbp-1 constructs with the other promoters , whose expressions in the expected it issues were confirmed by fusing mRFP cDNA to the 39-end of the adbp-1 cDNA ( data not shown ) , did not restore the lon-1pTgfp expression level ( Figure 5 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032171 SentenceID s1 SENTENCE : chromosome DISCUSSION In this study , we have demonstrated that disruption of C . elegans Ku does not affect telomere length or cause spontaneous telomere uncapping and end-to-end chromosome fusion , phenotypes that have been observed in other systems , but are either controversial within a species or not conserved ( Figure 1 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032171 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : Telomere length for cku-70 , cku-80 , and lig-4 mutants was similar to that of wild type , with telomeres ranging from 2 to 7 kb ( Figure 1A and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032171 SentenceID s110 SENTENCE : Under these conditions of nonhomogeneous template genomic DNA , mapped fusion breakpoints were amplified successfully and robustly ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032171 SentenceID s12 SENTENCE : Further , telomere length varies among wildtype strains and fluctuates within a single wild-type strain , increasing or decreasing over successive generations ( data not shown ) ( Ahmed and Hodgkin 2000 ; Ahmed et al . 2001 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032171 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : Consistent with these observations , Southern analysis using a telomeric probe revealed that deficiency for cku- 80 or lig-4 did not affect the rate of telomere shortening in a trt-1 background ( Figure 1C and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032171 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : chromosome All isolated chromosome fusions were homozygous viable , indicating that chromosome fusion in the context of telomerase deficiency typically occurs prior to resection and disruption of essential genes near uncapped chromosome ends ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032171 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : Complementation tests confirmed the fusion breakpoint map positions , where nondisjunction was not observed for transheterozygotes carrying end-to-end fusions with the same X and autosome fusion breakpoints ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032171 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : Propagation of these strains for 30 generations did not result in sterility , as occurs for telomerase mutants , or in modest drops in brood size ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032171 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : chromosome Furthermore , the NHEJ mutants failed to exhibit even low levels of dominant Him or embryonic lethal phenotypes indicative of chromosome missegregation , which occurs during meiosis when chromosome fusions are heterozygous ( data not shown ) ( Herman et al . 1982 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032183 SentenceID s133 SENTENCE : These four candidate SAX-7 interactors behaved as expected with control vectors , suggesting that their interactions with SAX-7 are specific ( data not shown ; see materials and methods ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032183 SentenceID s138 SENTENCE : STN-1 is also a type I PDZ protein , but it does not interact with SAX-7 in yeast , suggesting that the interaction between STN-2 and SAX-7 is specific ( data not shown ; see materials and methods ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032183 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : For each sax-7L ( referred to as sax-7 henceforth ) construct assayed , we immunostained the respective transgenic animals to confirm that the expression and localization of the transgenic SAX-7 is similar to endogenous SAX-7 in wild-type animals ( data not shown ; see materials and methods ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032183 SentenceID s181 SENTENCE : boundaries, membrane, sarcomeres Like STN-2TGFP , SAX-7 is localized to sarcomeres ( Figure 7B , arrowheads ) and membrane boundaries ( Figure 7B , larger arrows ) ; both signals are absent in sax-7 ( eq1 ) animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032242 SentenceID s134 SENTENCE : The quiescence defect of kin-29 mutants was partly suppressed by mutations in mef-2 ( Figure 3A ) , although mef-2 mutations failed to suppress the quiescence defects of egl-4 ( lf ) animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032242 SentenceID s167 SENTENCE : cytoplasmically, nuclear Interestingly , however , HDA-4 was cytoplasmically localized in a subset of neurons in che-3 ; egl-4 mutants , although HDA-4 localization remained nuclear in non-neuronal cell types ( Figure 5F and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032242 SentenceID s76 SENTENCE : bodies egl-4 ( lf ) ; kin-2 mutant animals were unhealthy and exhibited pale bodies , uncoordinated locomotion , and slow growth at the indicated levelb Reduced Weak / none P-valuesc 0 0 0 100 , 0 . 001e 0 100 , 0 . 001e 92 8 , 0 . 001e 0 0 e 0 100 , 0 . 001e 3 97 , 0 . 001e 0 100 f 96 4 , 0 . 001f 0 100 f 0 100 g 0 0 , 0 . 001g ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032242 SentenceID s99 SENTENCE : Transgenic animals expressing this fusion gene phenocopied lim-4 mutants in their locomotory behavior ( Sagasti et al . 1999 ) ( data not shown ) , suggesting that expression of Kv1 . 2 results in decreased inter- and / or motorneuron function .
PaperID WBPaper00032266 SentenceID s131 SENTENCE : The behavior of wild-type adult hermaphrodites was also not affected by 12 hr 4-cholestene-3-one treatment ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032266 SentenceID s142 SENTENCE : We ablated the XXX cells in adult males and in L3 males and observed no effect on leaving behavior ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032266 SentenceID s56 SENTENCE : The effect was specific to males , since adult hermaphrodites raised on DA remained on food like untreated hermaphrodites ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032266 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : daf-12 ( m583 ) males were able to copulate and produce progeny ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032266 SentenceID s88 SENTENCE : axons In 37 % of daf-12 ( m20 ) and 21 % of daf-12 ( m583 ) mutants ray neuron axons showed guidance defects while following commissures to the pre-anal ganglion ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032266 SentenceID s93 SENTENCE : Homozygous males were fully retained by hermaphrodites for all daf-12 alleles tested , including an allele missing the C-terminal portion of the LBD , daf- 12 ( rh84 ) , an allele missing the entire LBD including the DIN-1 binding region , daf-12 ( m20 ) , and the presumptive null allele daf-12 ( m583 ) ( Figure 3A and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032345 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : The ser-4 ; mod-1 ; ser-7 ser-1 animals were viable , although they failed to respond to 5-HT in most locomotory , feeding , and behavioral assays ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032345 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : All ser- 4 , mod-1 or ser-4 ; mod-1 null animals laid eggs more rapidly on 5-HT than wild-type animals , and this increased 5-HT responsiveness was more much apparent earlier in the egg-laying assays ( Figure 1 ; data not shown ; Komuniecki et al . 2004 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032345 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : Using this approach , we identified a putative 5-HT receptor , F16D3 . 7 ( SER-5 ) , which was potentially involved in 5-HT-stimulated egg laying in ser-4 ; mod-1 ; ser-7 ser-1 animals ( data not shown ; Carre- Pierrat et al . 2006 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032345 SentenceID s66 SENTENCE : intracellular Although the phylogenetic tree was generated using truncated amino acid sequences with the more variable N and C termini and third intracellular loops deleted , similar results were obtained using the full-length receptors ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032345 SentenceID s88 SENTENCE : As predicted on the basis of this observation , the egg-retention phenotype in the Q5 animals could be rescued by the muscle expression of either ser-5 or ser-7 ( Figure 5A ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032345 SentenceID s92 SENTENCE : These differences in egg laying were not the result of defects in fecundity , as all of the animals used in this study produced similar numbers of eggs ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032356 SentenceID s131 SENTENCE : Hence , as expected , no change was seen in the viability of wild-type vs . ing-3 ( RNAi ) embryos laid 08 hr after IR exposure ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032356 SentenceID s133 SENTENCE : In contrast to IR , we did not find differences in the sensitivity of wild type and ing-3 ( RNAi ) to UV ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032356 SentenceID s156 SENTENCE : intracellular We observed no changes to the intracellular localization of ING-3 following IR ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032356 SentenceID s158 SENTENCE : No changes in the rate of germ-cell apoptosis after IR were noted ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032356 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : Western blotting showed that RNAi reduced ING-3 levels by 5080 % ( data not shown ) whereas in the knockouts ING-3 was completely depleted .
PaperID WBPaper00032356 SentenceID s69 SENTENCE : Our RTPCR analysis indicates that ing-3 transcripts are spliced to both SL1and SL2 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032356 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : Unlike g-radiation , ing-3 ( RNAi ) did not elevate the embryonic death rate following non-ionizing DNA- damaging treatments , including UV radiation , paraquat treatment , and heat shock ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032356 SentenceID s71 SENTENCE : Expression of the operon promoterTgfp- LacZ was first detected during embryogenesis at gastrulation and persisted through adulthood ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032391 SentenceID s134 SENTENCE : Only 1 of the 10 , programmed cell death 11 ( PDCD11 ) , conferred hypoxia resistance ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032391 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : The daf-2 RNAi construct in the Ahringer library does not provide good knockdown or hypoxia resistance when we tested it directly ( data not shown ) ; thus , it is not surprising that it was not found in our screen .
PaperID WBPaper00032391 SentenceID s48 SENTENCE : Indeed , examination of potential network interactions among the human orthologs of the hyp genes revealed relatively small networks that did not include genes from all functional categories ( data not shown ; Ingenuity Systems , Redwood City , CA ) ( Calvano et al . 2005 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032391 SentenceID s92 SENTENCE : Indeed , in a mutagenesis screen for hypoxia resistance , we isolated several sterile mutants , and we found that at least one preexisting sterile mutant , glp- 1 ( bn18 ) , is hypoxia resistant ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032417 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : 798 S . Schott et al . hpl-2 animals was no different from that of wild type ( supplemental Figure 2 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032417 SentenceID s84 SENTENCE : As previously shown for let-418 / Mi-2 , lin-3 RNAi experiments showed that this increase is independent of lin-3 / EGF ( data not shown ; Guerry et al . 2007 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032438 SentenceID s103 SENTENCE : Neither band was observed in lysates or immunoprecipitates using nonspecific IgG or an unrelated antibody , anti-cblB protein ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032438 SentenceID s105 SENTENCE : Finally , the MEI-1 band was absent from lysates of mei-1 ( null ) worms ( data not shown ) , and the PPH-4 . 1 band was not detected when the antibody was preincubated with a blocking protein ( Sumiyoshi et al . 2002 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032438 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : body Since ppfr-1 ( RNAi ) results in little lethality ( Table 1 , line 3 ) and did not display polar body defects ( data not shown ) , RNAi represents an incomplete knockdown .
PaperID WBPaper00032438 SentenceID s95 SENTENCE : However , RNAi to none of these genes altered mei-1 ( gf ) hatching at 20 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032439 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : In an otherwise wild-type background , gem-1 ( bc364 ) homozygotes have no apparent mutant phenotype ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032439 SentenceID s89 SENTENCE : body The anchor cell can be derived from either Z1 or Z4 and requires only three successive cell divisions within either lineage . a gem-1 ( bc364 ) homozygotes also exhibit normal locomotion , body shape , growth rate , and brood size ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032439 SentenceID s90 SENTENCE : 586 B . J . Kemp et al . progenitors Z1 and Z4 ( Figure 4 ) , most or all of the cells in the pharynx , and multiple neurons in the head and tail ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032878 SentenceID s37 SENTENCE : Similarly , enhanced adaptation was not observed by expression of gpb-1 and gpc-1 in either developmental stage ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032878 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : We looked at the morphology of AWC neurons by cell-specific expression of Venus in the gpc-1 mutants , but no abnormality was observed ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032912 SentenceID s190 SENTENCE : Although most RNA was degraded ( data not shown ) , the FBFGLD-2 interaction was still seen ( Figure 6G , lanes 2 and 3 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032912 SentenceID s205 SENTENCE : At the highest concentration tested , GLD-2 polyadenylated the substrate RNA by hundreds of nucleotides ( Figure 7B , lanes 26 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032931 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : Expression of AID H56L in the rec12D background failed to rescue the deficiency in tetrad formation ( Figure 1D ) , even though similar levels of H56L and wild-type AID protein were produced ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032931 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : We noted a slight effect on cell numbers during vegetative growth after AID expression , but the rate of doubling was not markedly changed ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00032931 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : GFP-AID induction was confirmed by flow cytometry ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00033092 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : However , je5 also led to 50 % embryonic lethality , and we observed no embryonic lethality with any of these new extragenic suppressors ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00033092 SentenceID s87 SENTENCE : The g-32P-labeled RTPCR products of e936 showed a slight increase in the usage of the 1 and mutated wild-type wt splice sites in smu-1 ( RNAi ) animals , compared to unc-73 ( e936 ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00033166 SentenceID s110 SENTENCE : The abundances of transcripts from these genes were normalized to the abundance of two genes that displayed stable expression over a range of zinc concentrations , ama-1 and rps-23 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00033166 SentenceID s111 SENTENCE : At the low concentration of 2 mm zinc , cdf-1 transcripts were most abundant , cdf-2 transcripts were intermediate in abundance , and sur-7 transcripts were least abundant ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00033166 SentenceID s169 SENTENCE : cdf-2 ( tm788 ) did not cause significant lethality , and cdf-2 ( tm788 ) hermaphrodites and males were fertile ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00033166 SentenceID s170 SENTENCE : The cdf-2 ( tm788 ) mutation did not suppress the multivulval phenotype caused by constitutively activated let-60 ( n1046 ) Ras ( data not shown ) , by contrast to loss-of-function mutations of cdf-1 and sur-7 ( Bruinsma et al . 2002 ; Yoder et al . 2004 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00033166 SentenceID s42 SENTENCE : The linear portion of the plot was from day 7 to day 17 ( Figure 2B and data not shown ) , and we defined this slope as the population growth rate .
PaperID WBPaper00033166 SentenceID s54 SENTENCE : Thirty minutes was sufficient time for worms to expel cdf-2 Mediates Zinc Metabolism 1017 65Zn from the intestinal lumen ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00033469 SentenceID s103 SENTENCE : boundaries, cell boundaries, cortically, furrows In addition , GFPT R10D12 . 14 was cortically enriched near cytokinetic furrows and at cell boundaries in oocytes ( Figure 6 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00033469 SentenceID s139 SENTENCE : Finally , the expression of RFL-1 in vulval epithelial cells may help to explain the frequent vulval ruptures observed in young adult rfl-1 ( or198ts ) hermaphrodites raised at restrictive temperatures ( data not shown ) and in vulval defects observed after depletions of other neddylation pathway components ( Jones and Candido 2000 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00033469 SentenceID s141 SENTENCE : We did not detect changes in localization for any of the suppressor fusions following rfl-1 , nedd-8 , and ula-1 depletions ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00033469 SentenceID s142 SENTENCE : Similarly , no change in GFPT RFL-1 localization was observed upon depletion of the suppressor genes mus-101 , R10D12 . 14 , mnk-1 , F25H5 . 5 , T26E3 . 6 , or F22B8 . 7 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00033469 SentenceID s148 SENTENCE : nuclear Using Western blots , we detected similar levels of GFPT RFL-1 in extracts from ULA-1-depleted worms and wild-type worms ( data not shown ) , suggesting that ULA-1 is required for RFL-1 nuclear enrichment independent of any changes in protein levels .
PaperID WBPaper00033469 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : At temperatures $ 24 , most rfl-1 ( or198ts ) larvae matured into either sterile or fertile adults with ruptured vulvae and produced very few or no progeny ( data not shown ) , precluding use of higher temperatures to achieve a lower background level of embryonic hatching for suppressor screening .
PaperID WBPaper00033469 SentenceID s75 SENTENCE : We examined the terminal phenotypes of the unhatched , upshifted rfl-1 ( or198 ts ) and found that 16 / 18 unenhanced and unhatched rfl-1 ( or198 ts ) embryos arrested after elongation to or beyond the threefold stage ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00033469 SentenceID s78 SENTENCE : After sel-10 depletion at 18 , we found that 25 / 28 ( 89 % ) of the enhanced mutant embryos failed to hatch , and many of the unhatched embryos appeared to arrest after little if any elongation ( data not shown ) , a more severe phenotype than we observed after upshifts of unenhanced rfl-1 ( or198 ts ) embryos to 26 ( see above ) .
PaperID WBPaper00033469 SentenceID s79 SENTENCE : Other rfl-1 ( or198 ts ) embryos enhanced by sel-10 depletion arrested after a variable amount of elongation ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00034719 SentenceID s39 SENTENCE : First , the mutation responsible for the tumorous phenotype maps to a genomic region containing ZK1128 . 2 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00034719 SentenceID s48 SENTENCE : While mett-10 ( oz36 ) behaves as a complex allele at lower temperatures to cause a tumorous phenotype , including both loss-offunction and poisoning properties ( see below ) , it behaves as a true loss-of-function allele at 25 , failing to complement a deficiency ( sive temperature , mett-10 or maternal-effect lethal ( Mel ) , with somatic phenotypes including slow growth ( Gro ) , protruding vulva ( Pvl ) , and distension of the intestinal lumen ( data not shown ; Table 2 ; Figure 3 , B and E ) .
PaperID WBPaper00034719 SentenceID s60 SENTENCE : Moreover , many germ lines contain pachytene cells in the proximal-most region of the germ line , which is normally occupied by diakinetic oocytes ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00034719 SentenceID s69 SENTENCE : The somatic and germ line mett-10 loss-of-function defects are rescued by a wild-type mett-10 transgene ( Table 2 ; data not shown ) and , with the exception of maternal-effect embryonic lethality , they are rescued maternally ( Table 2 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035070 SentenceID s32 SENTENCE : We believe that all six mec-15 lesions produce the complete loss-of-function phenotype because all alleles produced the same phenotype and placing alleles ( u75 and u215 ) over deletions of the region ( e . . , mnDf29 ) did not enhance the mutant defects ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035070 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : Moreover , animals doubly mutant for a mec-15 allele ( u75 , u251 , u267 , js414 ) and smg-4 ( ma116 ) , which prevents nonsense-mediated mRNA decay ( Pulak and Anderson 1993 ) , exhibited no additional phenotypes ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035070 SentenceID s37 SENTENCE : mec-15 ( u75 ) mutants transformed with the wild-type T01E8 . 4 gene with 3 kb of upstream DNA were fully touch sensitive ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035070 SentenceID s52 SENTENCE : bodies, cell bodies rpm-1 mutants produce a temperature-sensitive Sam phenotype similar to mec-15 mutations , although TRNs in rpm-1 mutants have normal cell bodies and the animals are touch sensitive ( Schaefer et al . 2000 ) . fsn- 1 mutants do not produce a Sam phenotype ( data not shown ) , suggesting that MEC-15 may be the F-box protein that associates with RPM-1 to regulate synaptogenesis in the TRNs .
PaperID WBPaper00035070 SentenceID s92 SENTENCE : bodies, cell bodies, synapse Both sets of animals responded normally to touch and produced wild-type synapse and cell bodies ( data not shown ) , suggesting that increasing MEC-7 mRNA production is not enough to produce mec-15 phenotypes .
PaperID WBPaper00035071 SentenceID s108 SENTENCE : cilia We did not find activation of cilia genes in nontransgenic neurons ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035071 SentenceID s109 SENTENCE : In addition , we did not find neurons that were rescued for their Dyf phenotype , except for those sensory neurons in which we intentionally expressed DAF-19C ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035071 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : nucleus This nucleus always resided in the gfpmarked ASER neuron ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035071 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : cilia By contrast , daf-19c expressed from its own promoter restored direct-target cilia gene expression as well as cilia formation in all CSNs in the head and tail of the worm ( Figure 2B and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035071 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : Expression of DAF-19C in the single ASER neuron activated bbs-7Tgfp , che-13TDsRed and OSM-5 expression , tested by antibody staining , in the neuron ( Figure 2 , C and C9 vs . D and D9 , and E ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035071 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : cilia Frequencies of reporter gene expression , rescue of dye filling , and cilia formation were confirmed in larvae and found to be very similar to those in adults ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035071 SentenceID s37 SENTENCE : cilia Again we confirmed the expected expression pattern of DAF-19C and the activation of its direct-target cilia genes bbs-7Tgfp and che-13TDsRed ( Figure 4 , CE ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035071 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : daf-12 animals showed responses similar to wild type ( data not shown ) , a 42 . 4 % average ratio change ( N 10 ) in response to a 40-mm down-step ( Figure 3C ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035071 SentenceID s51 SENTENCE : daf-12 animals showed a wildtype response , a 10 . 6 % ratio change ( Figure 3D ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035071 SentenceID s69 SENTENCE : Consistent with the gfp expression profile of the promoters , all were able to induce DAF-19C expression from the late embryonic to adult stages as confirmed by immunofluorescent staining with antibodies against DAF-19C ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035086 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : A subset of the images were analyzed by manually adjusting the threshold of the image and then outlining the worm using the Analyze Particles ' ' option in ImageJ ; there was no significant difference between manually analyzed and batch processed images ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035158 SentenceID s117 SENTENCE : The egg-laying defects caused by the egl-9 ( ia60 ) or egl-9 ( sa330 ) alleles were also less severe , when compared to other egl-9 mutations ( Darby et al . 1999 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035166 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : axons oyIs14 sra-6Tgfp PVQ , ASH , ASI Sarafi-Reinach et al . ( 2001 ) hdIs26 , hdIs29 sra-6TDsRed2 odr-2Tcfp PVQ , ASH , ASI PVP , and other head and VNC neurons Hutter ( 2003 ) oxIs12 unc-47Tgfp RMEV and all other GABAergic neurons McIntire et al . ( 1997 ) juIs8 unc-25Tgfp RMEV and all other GABAergic neurons Jin et al . ( 1999 ) zdIs13 tph-1Tgfp HSN , ADF , NSM Clark and Chiu ( 2003 ) bwIs2 flp-1Tgfp AVK only Much et al . ( 2000 ) otIs173 F25B3 . 3TDsRed2 Panneuronal This work 920 C . Benard et al . position ( data not shown ) , yet we found that zig-3 mutants , but no other single zig mutants , display position defects of individual and specific sets of axons in the ventral nerve cord ( Table 2 ; Figure 3 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035176 SentenceID s115 SENTENCE : However , this effect of mpk-1 on cell cycle timing is unlikely to be the primary cause of par-1 ( zu310 ) suppression , as we did not find any correlation between cell cycle timing and par-1 suppression in the other suppressors identified ( data not shown ) , and slowing down the cell cycle in P1 by disrupting the function of two unrelated genes ( F33H2 . 5 and div-1 , Figure S4A ) did not suppress par-1 ( zu310 ) phenotypes ( Figure S4 , B and C ; see below ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035176 SentenceID s145 SENTENCE : P granules, granules Interestingly , we found that P granules were restricted to one or two cells in later stage mpk-1 ; par-1 double mutant embryos , indicating that mpk-1 can act to asymmetrically segregate P granules at a later step during embryonic development ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035176 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : Our data indicate that mpk-1 impinges on PAR-1 localization in one-cell stage par-1 ( zu310 ) mutant embryos and that loss of mpk-1 function can not bypass the requirement for PAR-1 activity , as asymmetric distribution of MEX-5 was not restored in mpk-1 ( ga111 ) ; par- 1 ( zu310 ) embryos at fully restrictive temperature ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035176 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : Consistent with previous reports for other alleles of par-1 that carry point mutations in the kinase domain ( Guo and Kemphues 1995 ) , the PAR-1 protein is still detectable by Western blot analysis on embryonic extracts of par-1 ( zu310 ) animals at both elevated and completely restrictive temperature ( Figure S2 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035176 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : These 60 candidates were subsequently retested in two independent assays ( two plates per assay ) and the embryonic lethal phenotype was determined by counting hatched vs . unhatched progeny and compared with control 966 A . C . Spilker et al . plates ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035176 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : Under the conditions used for the suppression however , knockdown of the function of these genes leads , if so , only to subtle embryonic lethality in wild-type animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035198 SentenceID s173 SENTENCE : synaptic, synaptic vesicle, vesicle We never observed SNB-1TGFP mislocalization in the DNCs of Rac-signaling mutant L1 larvae ( data not shown ) , suggesting that this Rac-signaling pathway does not participate in synaptic vesicle cargo recognition during DD neuron remodeling ( Sakamoto et al . 2005 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035199 SentenceID s127 SENTENCE : Finally , animals harboring both class I and class II Eri mutations are sterile at 25 ( and exhibit brood sizes similar to class I Eri animals when reared at temperatures slightly below the nonpermissive temperature ) , indicating that class I Eri alleles are epistatic to class II alleles with regards to sterility ( Figure 5C and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035199 SentenceID s151 SENTENCE : Similar results were observed for eri-1 , eri-3 , and rrf-3 sperm ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035199 SentenceID s166 SENTENCE : Defects similar to those described above were found in sperm for all class I Eri animals , whereas sperm of class II Eri animals exhibited normal morphology and function ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035199 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : On that basis , R09A1 . 1 was named endogenous-RNAi deficient Argonaute-1 ( ergo-1 ) ( Yigit et al . 2006 ) . eri- 8 ( gg098 ) animals failed to complement ergo-1 ( tm1860 ) animals for enhancement of RNAi ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035199 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : Third , eri-9 ( gg106 ) failed to complement the RNAi enhancement phenotype shown by a C26E6 . 7 deletion mutant ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035199 SentenceID s48 SENTENCE : Database searches reveal a single homolog of ERI-9 in C . briggsae and C . remanei ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035199 SentenceID s49 SENTENCE : We have not detected sequence homologs of ERI-9 in other , more divergent organisms ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035199 SentenceID s54 SENTENCE : Finally , our genetic screens have identified missense alleles of both dcr-1 and rrf-3 [ encoding DCR-1 ( G492R ) and RRF- 3 ( G187E ) ] , which do not affect expression of their encoded proteins or the ability of these mutant proteins to assemble into ERI / DCR complexes ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035199 SentenceID s68 SENTENCE : We conducted RNAi-mediated knockdown of these 68 RNAs ( individually ) and failed to identify any suppressors of class I Eri sterility ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035199 SentenceID s69 SENTENCE : In addition , we screened several million genomes ( following EMS mutagenesis ) for suppressors of Erimediated sterility and failed to identify a single suppressor ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035199 SentenceID s79 SENTENCE : The class I Eri mutants appear to be nonconditional for loss of endo siRNA accumulation and misregulation of target RNAs , as these defects occur at all temperatures ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035228 SentenceID s212 SENTENCE : P-granule Severe embryonic defects prevented further characterization of the PGL-1 phenotype , but we predict that PGL-1 mislocalization ( data not shown ) stems from compromised actin-based P-granule segregation in these mutants .
PaperID WBPaper00035228 SentenceID s216 SENTENCE : RNAi depletion typically resulted in decreased PGL-1 signal ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035246 SentenceID s115 SENTENCE : Microtubule Microtubule wreaths were present in sperm from the double mutant , indicating that these structures do not depend on meiotic DSBs induced by SPO-11 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035246 SentenceID s49 SENTENCE : nuclei By the time of the first ovulation , the number in rrf-3 mutants of sperm-like nuclei relative to N2 increased to half of the N2 levels ( data not shown ) , but these gonads still contained cells with multiple or misshapen nuclei .
PaperID WBPaper00035521 SentenceID s158 SENTENCE : As expected , N2 XX and him-8 ( me4 ) XX hermaphrodites exhibited expression of these genes in late pachytene extending to diakinesis ( Figure 6C and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035521 SentenceID s159 SENTENCE : Expression was also observed in him-8 ( e1489 ) XX hermaphrodites ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035521 SentenceID s160 SENTENCE : In contrast , in the germ lines of both N2 X0 males and fem-3 ( lf ) X0 females transcription of these genes was not activated ( Figure 6C and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035521 SentenceID s42 SENTENCE : The control sense probes gave little or no signal ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035521 SentenceID s89 SENTENCE : The RAD-51 foci observed on the single X in N2 males were SPO-11 dependent , indicating that breaks were induced by the meiotic recombination machinery ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035521 SentenceID s99 SENTENCE : transition zone We also observed an extension of the transition zone in N2 X0 and fem-3 ( lf ) X0 germ lines compared to tra-2 XX male and N2 XX hermaphrodite germ lines , respectively , as in him-8 XX hermaphrodite germ lines ( data not shown ; Figure 1 , B and C ; Carlton et al . 2006 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035530 SentenceID s136 SENTENCE : By contrast , the expression of PHA-4 in the AB lineage was similar to wild type after the RNAi treatment ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035530 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : chromosome However , for two mutations , cbr-lin-11 ( sy5336 ) and unc- ( sy997 ) , difficulty in scoring the phenotype led to a weak chromosome signal ( cbr-lin-11 ) ( Figure 2 ) or no localization [ unc- ( sy997 ) ] ( Table 1 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035530 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : chromosome However , the other mutation mapping to chromosome III did not show this correlated increase in signal for chromosome I ( Figure 1 and data not shown ) , suggesting the chromosome I signal for cbr-dpy-1 was specific for that cross .
PaperID WBPaper00035530 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : The adult mutants were settled on the bacterial lawn with little crawling ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035530 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : The region corresponds to a single supercontig positioned by a single sequence-tagged site ( STS ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035530 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : chromosome On the basis of these findings we looked for other anomalous results associated with specific mutations and found only one other region that may represent a misassembly with a small segment of 125 kb currently located on chromosome V that may belong to chromosome IV ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035530 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : We also noted , on the basis of hlh-1 expression patterns , the transformation of Cxa lineages to Cxp cells seen in C . elegans , which was not seen in C . briggsae ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035530 SentenceID s37 SENTENCE : To test the hypothesis , two different , partially overlapping C . briggsae BAC clones , each carrying the partial genomic region for cbr-unc-22 , were co-injected and together were able to rescue the Unc phenotype by microinjection , indicating that the observed Unc phenotype was produced by the mutation in this locus ( see materials and methods , data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035530 SentenceID s68 SENTENCE : Plasmid constructs carrying the C . elegans wild-type unc-119 genomic regions and fosmids generated by the modENCODE project ( www . modencode . org ) carrying the C . briggsae unc-119 gene both rescued the mutant ( Table S1 , data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035551 SentenceID s137 SENTENCE : EOR-1 was present in EOR-2TGFP immunoprecipitates from staged L4 animals ( Figure 5A ) , as well as from adults ( data not shown ) and mixed stage animals ( Figure 5B and 5C ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035551 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : We found that GAL4TEOR-2 fusion proteins failed to interact with EOR-1 in yeast two-hybrid assays , and GSTTEOR-2 failed to interact with EOR-1 in vitro ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035961 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : Similar to quinine , loss of OSM-9 and OCR-2 , alone or in combination , completely or partially restored the response of grk-2 animals to primaquine ( Figure 1B ) , amodiaquine ( Figure 1C ) , quinacrine , chloroquine , and shikimic acid ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035961 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : Loss of neither TRPV channel , alone or in combination , restored AWA- mediated chemotaxis to grk-2 mutant animals at any concentration ( Figure 3 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035961 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : Transgene expression had no effect in wild-type animals , indicating that transgene expression did not disrupt ASH function ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035961 SentenceID s62 SENTENCE : Furthermore , we found that loss of the other neuronally expressed RGS proteins , EGL-10 , RGS-1 , RGS-2 , RGS-3 , RGS-6 , or RGS-10 / 11 ( Koelle and Horvitz 1996 ; Dong et al . 2000 ; Kunitomo et al . 2005 ; Ferkey et al . 2007 ; M . Koelle , personal communication ) , does not restore ASH-mediated behaviors ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035961 SentenceID s76 SENTENCE : Importantly , temporal rescue of GRK-2 function in adult grk-2 mutant animals is sufficient to restore chemosensory response to octanol and quinine ( Fukuto et al . 2004 and data not shown ) , indicating that the mechanisms that dampen signaling in the absence of GRK-2 function are under ongoing regulatory control .
PaperID WBPaper00035977 SentenceID s62 SENTENCE : GFP expression was observed in worms carrying the iftb-1 ( nb101 ) - or iftb-1 ( nb131 ) - containing transgene , but not in worms carrying the wild-type transgene either on cosmids or as an amplified genomic fragment ( Figure 3C and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00035977 SentenceID s93 SENTENCE : By Western blot analysis , the size of the GFP produced in these mutants was found to be identical to that of GFP expressed from the unmodified ATG reporter ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036019 SentenceID s110 SENTENCE : Gonad Sex Differentiation in C . elegans 529 males at restrictive temperature exhibit gonadal feminization similar to that caused by cdk-1 RNAi ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036019 SentenceID s118 SENTENCE : In each case , RNAi of embryos gave sterile adults , confirming the effectiveness of the depletion , but we observed no feminization of the male gonad ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036019 SentenceID s128 SENTENCE : Indeed , cdk-1 ( RNAi ) males and hermaphrodites had almost no POPTOP activity in the larval somatic gonad ( Figure 5 , B and E ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036021 SentenceID s100 SENTENCE : None of the nine other putative interactors confers a Soc phenotype when tested in a clr-1 ( e1745ts ) ; egl-15 ( n1457 ) background , suggesting that none provides the link to SEM-5 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036021 SentenceID s12 SENTENCE : The only assays that revealed egl-15-like phenotypes were those conducted with sem-5 ( data not shown ) ; these assays confirmed the common functions shared between SEM- 5 and EGL-15 ( DeVore et al . 1995 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036021 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : When tested with this EGL-15 ( K672A Intra I ) bait ( NH # 726 ) , all 10 interactors failed to show yeast twohybrid binding activity ( Figure 1B and data not shown ) , indicating that all 10 require an active kinase domain to interact with EGL-15 ( Intra I ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036072 SentenceID s120 SENTENCE : synaptic It is also reported that synaptic development of the DA9 neuron is normal in unc-18 mutants ( data not shown ; Zhao and Nonet 2000 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036072 SentenceID s123 SENTENCE : However , we did not find the dorsal migration defects of the distal tip cells in unc-18 and unc- 68 mutants as well ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036072 SentenceID s157 SENTENCE : In C . elegans , we could not find any alteration in the localization of Venus- TUNC-6 in unc-40 mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036072 SentenceID s25 SENTENCE : axons These mutants had no morphological defects on cell shapes except for axons and the penetrance of the localization phenotype in each mutant was 100 % ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036072 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : In these mutant worms , VenusTUNC-6 was expressed abnormally in the neurons , but the expression in other cell types was similar to that in the wild type ( data not shown ) , suggesting that UNC-6 localization in the neurons is regulated by a unique mechanism .
PaperID WBPaper00036072 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : body, cell body In these mutant worms , VenusTUNC-6 was accumulated abnormally in the D ) , but a normal distribution pattern in other cell types was observed ( data not shown ) , suggesting that , like TABLE 1 Summary of mutants displaying VenusTUNC-6 localization defects Gene Allele LG Mammalian homolog Accumulated unevenly in the cell body of neurons unc-14 e57 , gh34 I -- unc-51 e369 V ULKI Accumulated evenly in the cell body of neurons unc-104 e1265 II KIFIA ND gh23 II ND Accumulated in muscle cells ND gh33 I ND unc-68 e540 , gh21 , gh22 , gh28 , gh29 , gh32 , gh37 , r1162 V Ryanodine receptor ND gh27 , gh38 V ND ND gh26 X ND unc-18 e234 X Sec1 / Munc18 syd-1 ; rpm-1 ju82 ; ju44 II / V SYDEI ; Pam / Highwire Accumulated in vulval precursor cells and vulval cells ND gh25 IV ND Strongly expressed in unc-6-expressing cells ND gh36 IV ND ND , not determined .
PaperID WBPaper00036072 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : In male worms , VenusTUNC-6 was expressed in the ray ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036072 SentenceID s53 SENTENCE : VenusTUNC-6 accumulated in the muscle cells of the trans-heterozygous strain e540 / gh27 , but the level was clearly lower than that of the homozygous strains e540 / e540 , gh27 / gh27 , and gh38 / gh38 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036072 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : The general distribution pattern of VenusTUNC-6 in the wild-type genetic background was similar to that of 3xHA-tagged UNC-6 , reported previously ( Wadsworth et al . 1996 ) , except for our additional observation of VenusTUNC-6 expression in P6 . p descendants , ventral muscle , dorsal muscle in the tail , and in the ray of the male tail ( Figure 1 , data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036072 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : These differences were probably due to the different fixation methods used , because with Bouin ' s fixative ( Nonet et al . 1997 ) , HA staining of urIs1 ( 3xHATUNC-6 , Wadsworth et al . 1996 ) showed an identical pattern to ghIs9 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036072 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : In addition , an unc-6 promoterTmRFP fusion gene also showed the same pattern ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036072 SentenceID s92 SENTENCE : In gh25 mutants , the intensity of VenusTUNC-6 was increased in the VPCs and vulval cells ( Figure 5 , B and C ; Table 1 ) , but its distribution was normal in the other cell types ( data not shown ) , suggesting that VPCs have a specific mechanism for secreting UNC-6 .
PaperID WBPaper00036073 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : Post-embryonic phenotypes ( PED and defecation ) were wild type in heterozygous animals issued from homozygous mothers , thereby indicating that the mutations are all recessive ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036127 SentenceID s115 SENTENCE : adherens junctions, junctions Embryos were fixed and stained using an antibody against mCHERRY to identify those carrying a mir-52 rescuing transgene marked by DLG-1 TmCHERRY ( mjEx123 ) ( data not shown ) and with a-MH27 antibody ( B and E ) , which is specific for AJM-1 , to visualize adherens junctions .
PaperID WBPaper00036127 SentenceID s162 SENTENCE : However , neither injection of double-stranded RNA against cdh-3 nor a putative loss-offunction mutant of cdh-3 ( Pettitt et al . 1996 ) failed to suppress the Pun phenotype of mir-51 family mutants ( Figure S6 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036127 SentenceID s165 SENTENCE : Overexpression of CDH-3 through a transgene containing a cdh-3 genomic fragment did not induce a Pun phenotype in wild-type or mir-52 rescued animals ( Figure 4O and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036127 SentenceID s3 SENTENCE : chromosomes There are six miR-51 family miRNAs in C . elegans , miR-51 , miR-52 , miR-53 , miR-54 , miR-55 , and miR-56 ( Figure 1B ) . miR-51 / miR-53 and miR-54 56 are clustered in the genome on chromosomes IV and X , respectively . miR-54 56 are likely derived from the same transcript ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036127 SentenceID s40 SENTENCE : The lethality of the mir-51 family mutant can be rescued using transgenes carrying genomic constructs for any mir-51 family miRNA ( Figure 2A and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036127 SentenceID s61 SENTENCE : 900 W . R . Shaw et al . including slow growth ( Gro ) and an inability of males to mate ( Figure 2A and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036127 SentenceID s68 SENTENCE : The Pun phenotype of mir-51 family mutants can be rescued using transgenes containing genomic fragments corresponding to any mir-51 family miRNA ( Figure 2A and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036195 SentenceID s104 SENTENCE : cilia, dendrites Again , these showed only subtle defects in amphid and ray neuron dendrites and cilia ( Figure 4 , D and E , and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036195 SentenceID s110 SENTENCE : cilia, dendrite In tba-6 ; tba-9 tbb-4 triple mutants ( n 44 ) , 100 % of CEM cilia exhibited a defective club-like shape , with prominent varicosities of KLP-6TGFP in the distal dendrite ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036195 SentenceID s142 SENTENCE : Unexpectedly , in all of these mutants , males that responded to contact were able to locate the hermaphrodite vulva with wild-type efficiency and mate successfully ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036195 SentenceID s166 SENTENCE : body However , tba-9 hermaphrodites and males displayed increases in body bend frequency and flex , a measurement of bending angle ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036195 SentenceID s168 SENTENCE : These animals also exhibited a hyperexploratory phenotype : in exploratory behavior assays , these animals consistently moved through more areas of the plate than wild-type controls ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036195 SentenceID s173 SENTENCE : However , we found that tba-9 , tbb-4 , and tba-9 tbb-4 double mutants all responded robustly to the AWA -sensed odorant diacetyl ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036195 SentenceID s176 SENTENCE : Again , we observed no differences in the response of tbb-4 , tba-9 , or tba-9 tbb-4 double mutants using a four-quadrant salt chemotaxis assay ( Hart 2005 ) compared to wild-type controls ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036195 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : Expression was also occasionally apparent in the amphid sheath ( AMsh ) and socket ( AMso ) glial cells ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036195 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : In the male tail , Ptba-9TmCherry was expressed in the hook HOA and the ray RnA neurons as judged by morphology , position , and lack of overlap with the RnB marker Ppkd-2TGFP ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036195 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : Of these three genes , only tbb-4 harbors a strong candidate X-box ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036195 SentenceID s51 SENTENCE : We also observed the expression of both TBB-4TYFP and TBA-9TYFP in vulval muscles ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036195 SentenceID s75 SENTENCE : cilium We detected no apparent mislocalization of TBB-4TYFP in tba-9 mutants ( data not shown ) ; however , any decrease in TBB-4 localization to the RnA cilium might have been obscured by the presence of this protein in RnB .
PaperID WBPaper00036195 SentenceID s81 SENTENCE : soma ) However , we did find that the soma of amphid neurons sometimes stained more weakly in tbb-4 ( data not shown ) and tba-9 tbb-4 ( Figure 4A ) animals than in controls .
PaperID WBPaper00036195 SentenceID s84 SENTENCE : We also found that the ASI amphid neuron sometimes failed to fill with dye in tbb-4 and tba-9 mutants , although this defect was variable ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036201 SentenceID s81 SENTENCE : chromosome Furthermore , a high mutational load is still present after disregarding variants on chromosome V ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036232 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : Surprisingly , lin-1 ( n176 ) and lin-1 ( n1047 ) were not suppressed by moc-3 ( lf ) or dph-3 ( lf ) ( Table 1 ) , and lin-1 ( n303 ) also appeared not to be suppressed by moc-3 ( lf ) ( data not shown ; materials and methods ) , suggesting that the suppression of lin-1 ( e1275 ) by moc-3 ( lf ) and dph-3 ( lf ) depended on either the relatively weak penetrance of the mutant phenotype or an unknown property of the e1275 allele .
PaperID WBPaper00036232 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : RTPCR data indicated that this altered transcript was produced in ku305 worms ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036232 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : Notably , the Moco synthesis pathway , another functional partner of moc-3 , did not affect the Muv phenotype of lin-1 ( e1275 ) via RNAi or null mutation ( data not shown ) , indicating that the tRNA modification function of the moc-3 / urm-1 module , not the Moco synthesis function , is responsible for this suppression ability .
PaperID WBPaper00036232 SentenceID s93 SENTENCE : We have not been able to directly detect the readthrough protein product using antibodies from commercial sources , nor those generated in our own lab ; all immunochemical tests failed to detect LIN-1 protein on a Western blot from whole-worm extracts ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036408 SentenceID s149 SENTENCE : We also performed dsRNAi for 19 ubc genes in eri-1 ; rpm-1 ; muIs32 strain and did not observe detectable suppression of rpm-1 ( lf ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036408 SentenceID s150 SENTENCE : We also tested protein interactions between UEV-3 and UBC genes using yeast two-hybrid assays and were not able to detect a positive interaction with UEV-3 , out of 11 UBC genes and 2 UEV genes tested ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036408 SentenceID s153 SENTENCE : We detected interactions between UEV-3 and PMK-3 , but not between UEV-3 and the other three kinases or CEBP-1 ( Figure 6A , data not shown for dlk-1 , mkk-4 , cebp- 1 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036408 SentenceID s162 SENTENCE : Moreover , overexpression of pmk-3 ( 1 ) in uev-3 ; rpm-1 mutants does not cause any detectable effects , nor does the overexpression of uev-3 ( 1 ) in pmk-3 ; rpm-1 mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036408 SentenceID s90 SENTENCE : The transgenes alone or in a uev-3 background did not cause any significant defects ( Figure 3C , data not shown for [ Pmyo-3-uev-3 ] and [ Prgef-1-uev-3 ] transgenes alone ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036766 SentenceID s119 SENTENCE : 5-HT and fluoxetine did not produce an appreciable change in the expression of a GFP reporter for the GABA biosynthesis enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase unc-25 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036766 SentenceID s130 SENTENCE : We did not detect a significant change in the expression and localization of the GFP-tagged EAT-4 protein ( EAT-4TGFP ) and GLR-1 protein ( GLR-1TGFP ) in animals treated with 5-HT or fluoxetine ( data not shown , see below ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036766 SentenceID s137 SENTENCE : Sensitivity to fluoxetine-induced paralysis was not significantly changed in mutants of mod-1 ( two alleles ) , ser-3 ( three alleles ) , ser-4 , T02E9 , and C24A8 . 1 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036766 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : In WT animals incubated for 4 hr on culture plates containing 0 . 5 mg / ml fluoxetine or 0 . 4 mg / ml imipramine , 5-HT immunoreactivity in AIMs and RIH was substantially reduced ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036766 SentenceID s166 SENTENCE : puncta, synapses Although GFP intensity of individual puncta was not significantly changed ( data not shown ) , the number of GLR-1TGFP synapses was reduced in ser-7 mutants , compared to age-matched WT animals ( Figure 7a ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036766 SentenceID s339 SENTENCE : Animals did not laid egg in M9 buffer ( data not shown ) ( Trent et al . 1983 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00036766 SentenceID s62 SENTENCE : presynaptic By contrast , 5-HT and fluoxetine did not inhibit sensitivity to levamisole , a specific agonist of the nicotinic ACh receptor UNC-29 in the body-wall muscles ( data not shown ) ( Nurrish et al . 1999 ) , suggesting that 5-HT regulates presynaptic ACh neurotransmission .
PaperID WBPaper00036766 SentenceID s74 SENTENCE : However , SER-5 and SER-7 have not been detected in neurons directly involved in locomotion ( Tsalik et al . 2003 ; Carre-Pierrat et al . 2006 ; Harris et al . 2009 ) and ser-7 mutants do not exhibit defects in GLR-1mediated nose-touch response ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037063 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : nuclear No induction was observed for general heat shock response ( Phsp-16TGFP ) , the unfolded protein response ( Phsp-4TGFP ) , or reduced insulin-like signaling ( nuclear localization of daf-16TGFP ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037063 SentenceID s85 SENTENCE : This induction requires the skn-1 transcription factor ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037088 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : extracellular The extracellular domain of GCY-22 is most homologous to mammalian guanylyl cyclase B ( data not shown ) , which binds natriuretic peptides , raising a possibility that GCY-22 might be a receptor for hormonal peptides .
PaperID WBPaper00037088 SentenceID s65 SENTENCE : egl-30 ( pe914 ) is a presumptive gain-offunction mutation because it caused hyperactive locomotion and constitutive egg-laying phenotypes ( data not shown ) , which are typical phenotypes of egl-30 ( gf ) alleles ( Schade et al . 2005 ; Williams et al . 2007 ) . pe914 is a missense mutation in linker I , a well-conserved domain of Gqa across phylogeny ( Figure 4A ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037088 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : Through the screening , we obtained 23 suppressor mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037118 SentenceID s21 SENTENCE : The resulting B29 progeny are less viable than the F1 ( Figure 2 , D and F ) , but surviving females are comparable in fertility to F1 females ( data not shown ) , and viable males , roughly one quarter of which are fertile , are also produced ( Table 1 and Figure 2G ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037118 SentenceID s30 SENTENCE : 9 JU1325 males also failed to produce males ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037125 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : The splicing pattern of T27F7 . 3 was confirmed by our RT PCR analysis ( data not shown ) and numerous EST clones in Wormbase .
PaperID WBPaper00037125 SentenceID s37 SENTENCE : A similar L1 larval arrest phenotype was observed when eIF1 activity was knocked down by RNA interference upon injecting eIF1 dsRNA ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037125 SentenceID s81 SENTENCE : The C . elegans eIF1 transgene carrying the sui1-4 mutation promoted GFP expression from both GUG and UUG reporters unlike transgenes carrying the wild-type eIF1 and the mutant eIF1 genes containing the sui1 -1 , sui1 -17 , or mof2 -1 mutations ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037649 SentenceID s64 SENTENCE : In addition , we could not detect any correlation between any other previously described phenotype and the DMPP resistance of daf-2 alleles ( data not shown ) . it issue-specic requirement of the DAF-2 / InsR pathway for L2 developmental speed : The DAF-2 / InsR pathway is a major regulator of dauer formation , metabolism , and life span of C . elegans .
PaperID WBPaper00037649 SentenceID s80 SENTENCE : These low concentrations were used because of high toxicity observed with transgenes expressing DAF-2 both conditionally and nonconditionally ( data not shown ) . a Eggs were laid at 15 overnight .
PaperID WBPaper00037650 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : spindle Some class I embryos harbor more than two MTOCs and consequently assemble a multipolar spindle ( data not shown ; legend of Figure 1 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037650 SentenceID s17 SENTENCE : spindle Occasional class II embryos have more than two MTOCs and assemble a multipolar spindle ( data not shown ; legend of Figure 1 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037650 SentenceID s21 SENTENCE : Although gfi-3 ( RNAi ) increases the embryonic lethality conferred by such-1 ( h1960 ) animals , it does not confer meiotic arrest ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037650 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : centrioles Class I sperm ( 32 % ) contain DNA and one or two separate SAS-4 foci , presumably corresponding to two or four centrioles ( Figure 3B ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037650 SentenceID s77 SENTENCE : We found that animals transheterozygous between such-1 ( t1668 ) and the previously identified allele such-1 ( h1960 ) give rise to 91 % ( 63 % SEM , N 1068 ) embryonic lethality , whereas the progeny of such-1 ( t1668 ) or such-1 ( h1960 ) heterozygous animals is viable ( data not shown ; Tarailo et al . 2007 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037651 SentenceID s105 SENTENCE : ing-3 ( tm2530 ) mutants display no Lsy phenotype ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037651 SentenceID s42 SENTENCE : RTPCR data suggest that additional splice variants may be produced by the lsy-12 locus ( some possibly even including the more upstream predicted gene T11A5 . 1 ) , but we have not been able to conclusively identify the start and end of such alternative transcripts ( data not shown ; see also www . wormbase . org ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037651 SentenceID s54 SENTENCE : A deletion allele of mys-4 does not display a Lsy phenotype ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037651 SentenceID s55 SENTENCE : Reporters of the lsy-12 locus that only contain upstream regulatory information showed restricted expression patterns and no expression in ASE ( data not shown ) , likely because not all regulatory elements of this large locus are located in the 59 upstream region .
PaperID WBPaper00037652 SentenceID s111 SENTENCE : Expression of the full length daf-19m cDNA using the daf-19m P1 promoter did not rescue PKD-2TGFP expression in n4132 tail HOB / RnB or head CEM / IL2 neurons ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037659 SentenceID s198 SENTENCE : However , no other types of mutations were found to affect gene products ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037671 SentenceID s108 SENTENCE : When animals of this genotype are grown on such-1 ( exon 10 ) RNAi , a 2 . 4 % hatching rate is observed ; however , all of the such-1 RNAi-treated embryos are multicellular ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037671 SentenceID s75 SENTENCE : soma Limited expression is observed in the soma of the adult , including some head neurons and vulval precursor cells ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037671 SentenceID s77 SENTENCE : soma Only the gfi-3 transgene is observed in the soma of the L1L4 larval stages and is also expressed in the gut cells of the adult animal ( Figure 4E , data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037671 SentenceID s86 SENTENCE : Wild-type animals fed bacteria expressing either such-1 RNAi construct exhibited no embryonic lethality ( Figure 5B and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037686 SentenceID s134 SENTENCE : Despite its extremely inhibitory effect on worm movement , pure lawns of CBX120 are little different from pure lawns of SAFR-032 in their ability to support good worm growth , and neither of these bacterial strains has much effect on fecundity or rate of maturation , as compared to E . coli OP50 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037686 SentenceID s144 SENTENCE : For some of these genes , independent mutant alleles were tested and found to exhibit the same phenotypes as for the reference alleles ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037686 SentenceID s174 SENTENCE : Male leaving assays ( Lipton et al . 2004 ) confirmed this ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037686 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : The genetic map position for bus-4 was determined using SNP markers ( data not shown ) , and a plausible candidate locus , T22B11 . 2 , was identified within the probable interval for this gene .
PaperID WBPaper00037686 SentenceID s98 SENTENCE : A bus-12pTGFP reporter construct was expressed only weakly ( data not shown ) , but a rescuing bus-12 operon construct with dsRedII ( materials and methods ) exhibited strong expression in seam cells ( Figure 6D ) , along with some gut expression mainly in the posterior intestine ( Figure 6E ) and in a few unidentified cells in the head ( Figure 6F ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037804 SentenceID s101 SENTENCE : In addition , the locomotion and the sensitivity to aldicarb of neuronalp- HID-1 ( G2N ) -GFP expressing hid-1 mutants remained impaired , suggesting that HID-1 ' s function was compromised ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037804 SentenceID s102 SENTENCE : Similar results were obtained when the HID-1 ( G2N ) -GFP was expressed under the hid-1 promoter ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037804 SentenceID s106 SENTENCE : vesicular Tubules extending from these mHID-1-GFP labeled vesicular structures were frequently observed ( Figure 4D ) and detected in time-lapse experiments ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037804 SentenceID s128 SENTENCE : By contrast , no change in the distribution of HID-1 - GFP was detected in other mutants used in this study ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037804 SentenceID s136 SENTENCE : Expression of this fusion protein was observed in both wild type ( not shown ) and hid-1 mutants predominantly in the nervous system , the intestine , the pharynx ( Figure 2A ) and in uv1 secretory cells ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037804 SentenceID s140 SENTENCE : HID-1-GFP under the hid-1 promoter was capable of rescuing the uncoordinated movement ( data not shown ) , aldicarb resistance ( Figure 2B ) , the egg laying ( Table 1 ) and the defecation defects ( Figure 2D ) of hid-1 ( sa722 ) null mutants .
PaperID WBPaper00037804 SentenceID s145 SENTENCE : In addition , bacterial feeding RNAi of hid-1 phenocopied the defecation defects ( Figure 2D ) , but not the locomotory phenotypes of hid-1 mutants ( data not shown ) , consistent with HID-1 acting in the RNAi-sensitive intestine to regulate the defecation motor program and the RNAi-resistant nervous system ( SIMMER et al . 2002 ; TAVERNARAKIS et al . 2000 ) to regulate locomotion .
PaperID WBPaper00037804 SentenceID s178 SENTENCE : In addition , the locomotion and the sensitivity to aldicarb of neuronalp-HID-1 ( G2N ) GFP expressing hid-1 mutants remained impaired suggesting that HID-1 ' s function was compromised ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037804 SentenceID s179 SENTENCE : Similar results were obtained when the HID-1 ( G2N ) -GFP was expressed under the hid-1 promoter ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037804 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : Expression of this fusion protein was observed in both wild type ( not shown ) and hid-1 mutants predominantly in the nervous system , the intestine , the pharynx ( Figure 2A ) , and in uv1 secretory cells ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037804 SentenceID s183 SENTENCE : vesicular Tubules extending from these mHID-1-GFP labeled vesicular structures were frequently observed ( Figure 4D ) and detected in time-lapse experiments ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037804 SentenceID s192 SENTENCE : By contrast , no change in the distribution of HID-1-GFP was detected in other mutants used in this study ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037804 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : HID-1-GFP under the hid-1 promoter was capable of rescuing the uncoordinated movement ( data not shown ) , aldicarb resistance ( Figure TABLE 1 hid-1 ( sa722 ) mutants show defective egg laying phenotype Genotype Embryos in utero ( mean ) a Percentage of worms with late-stage embryos in uterob n N2 15 . 23 6 0 . 87 0 30 hid-1 ( sa722 ) 22 . 43 6 1 . 0 63 . 2 36 hid-1p-HID-1-GFP 14 . 48 6 0 . 77 1 27 rab-3p -HID-1-GFP 14 . 0 6 0 . 73 0 24 a L4 stage hermaphrodites of each genotype were aged for 4042 hr and individually dissected to release embryos from the uterus .
PaperID WBPaper00037804 SentenceID s282 SENTENCE : ER, Golgi, cuticle However , the lack of defects in cuticle formation and yolk secretion ( data not shown ) argue against a broad function of HID-1 in regulating general ER or Golgi trafficking .
PaperID WBPaper00037804 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : In addition , bacterial feeding RNAi of hid-1 phenocopied the defecation defects ( Figure 2D ) , but not the locomotory phenotypes of hid-1 mutants ( data not shown ) , consistent with HID-1 acting in the RNAi-sensitive intestine to regulate the defecation motor program and the RNAi-resistant nervous system ( Tavernarakis et al . 2000 ; Simmer et al . 2002 ) to regulate locomotion .
PaperID WBPaper00037804 SentenceID s59 SENTENCE : ER, Golgi, cuticle However , the lack of defects in cuticle formation and yolk secretion ( data not shown ) argue against a broad function of HID-1 in regulating general ER or Golgi trafficking .
PaperID WBPaper00037906 SentenceID s119 SENTENCE : nuclear LIN-15A protein nuclear accumulation , but not lin- 15A mRNA , is reduced in lin-56 ( lf ) mutants : Antisera directed against the LIN-15A protein revealed broad nuclear staining ( Figure 4A ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037906 SentenceID s125 SENTENCE : nuclear LIN-15A nuclear accumulation appeared greater in early lin-56 ( n3355 ) embryos than in early lin- 56 ( n2728 ) embryos ( data not shown ) , suggesting that n3355 may not be as strong an allele of lin-56 as is n2728 or that another gene deleted by n2728 may also have an effect on LIN-15A levels .
PaperID WBPaper00037906 SentenceID s126 SENTENCE : LIN-15A expression and localization in lin-8 ( n2731 ) and lin-38 ( n751 ) embryos were indistinguishable from those in wild type ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037906 SentenceID s67 SENTENCE : 808 E . M . Davison et al . appear to recognize a doublet ( data not shown ) , which could represent alternative splice variants of lin-56 or products resulting from distinct transcriptional initiation sites .
PaperID WBPaper00037906 SentenceID s72 SENTENCE : nuclei Starting at the late one-cell or early two-cell stage , LIN-56 staining was observed in the nuclei of most if not all somatic cells throughout embryonic and larval development as well as in adulthood ( Figure 2 , B , C , and E ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037906 SentenceID s73 SENTENCE : Nuclear Nuclear staining was never observed with the anti- LIN-56 antibodies in the somatic cells of lin-56 ( n2728 ) animals of any stage ( Figure 2D ; data not shown ) , demonstrating specificity .
PaperID WBPaper00037906 SentenceID s9 SENTENCE : Furthermore , RNAi ( Fire et al . 1998 ) of ZK673 . 3 but not of ZK673 . 4 resulted in a Muv phenotype in lin-15B ( n744 ) animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037906 SentenceID s96 SENTENCE : Two Class A synMuv Proteins Interact 809 8 ( n2731 ) and lin-38 ( n751 ) animals was not different from that of the wild type ( Figure 3A ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037906 SentenceID s99 SENTENCE : nuclear By contrast , LIN-56 nuclear staining was greatly reduced in lin-15A ( n767 ) and lin- 15AB ( e1763 ) individuals at all stages ( Figure 3A ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037959 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : We chose this method both because it could be easily combined with our anoxia assay in which the alkaline bleach method is used and because the feeding RNAi method ended in failure , since feeding on the Escherichia coli strain HT115 dramatically increased the survival rate under anoxia , which masked the change of survival rate by nsy-1 RNAi and mutation ( data not shown ) . dsRNA preparation and soaking were carried out as described previously ( Sugimoto 2006 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037959 SentenceID s72 SENTENCE : We chose this method both because it could be easily combined with our anoxia assay in which the alkaline bleach method is used , and because the feeding RNAi method ended in failure , since feeding on the E . coli strain HT115 dramatically increased the survival rate under anoxia , which masked the change of survival rate by nsy-1 RNAi and mutation ( data not shown ) . dsRNA preparation and soaking were carried out as described previously ( SUGIMOTO 2006 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037960 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : X chromosome, chromosomal, chromosome, nuclei In gonads from mnT12 / 1 males stained with antibodies recognizing H3K9me2 and SYP-1 , late-pachytene nuclei commonly have a chromosomal region that stains strongly with H3K9me2 ( corresponding to the X chromosome portion of mnT12 ) , which does not colocalize with SYP-1 staining ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00037960 SentenceID s93 SENTENCE : Qualitatively , no obvious differences in SYP-1 loading patterns were seen in mnT12 / 1 males ; thus , there does not seem to be a gross defect in synapsis in these animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00038083 SentenceID s100 SENTENCE : Given the essential role of the 20S subunits , their depletion resulted in lethality of the worms ( data not shown ) , and these worms displayed only a weak GFP signal in the intestine , most likely due to reduced transcript levels of UbV-GFP ( Figure S2 and Table S1 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00038083 SentenceID s68 SENTENCE : Given the essential role of the 20S subunits , their depletion resulted in lethality of the worms ( data not shown ) and only displayed a weak GFP signal in the intestine most likely due to reduced transcript levels of UbV-GFP ( Figure S2 , Table S1 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00038150 SentenceID s90 SENTENCE : However , unc-22 RNAi still causes twitching down to a 1 / 200 , 000 dilution of bacterial RNAi food in both N2 and eri-1 ( data not shown ) , at which point , errors from dilution is probably more variable than the phenotypic penetrance .
PaperID WBPaper00038150 SentenceID s97 SENTENCE : Two , putting L3s on RNAi food and scoring the next generation versus putting embryos on RNAi food and scoring the same generation results in almost identical phenotypic penetrance ( data not shown ; Vastenhouw et al . 2006 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00038233 SentenceID s12 SENTENCE : This shift was seen at glucose concentrations of $ 250 mm ( Figure 1B and data not shown ) , even though animals were fully fertile at 250 mm glucose , suggesting that reproductive timing is more sensitive to glucose stress than brood size .
PaperID WBPaper00038233 SentenceID s125 SENTENCE : Combining an HT115 food source with glucose stress did not produce a change in fertility , reproductive timing , or pharyngeal pumping rates compared to an OP50 food source in wild-type animals ( data not shown ) , which suggests that dauer formation is more sensitive to nutrient composition .
PaperID WBPaper00038233 SentenceID s130 SENTENCE : At lower levels of insulin signaling ( 23 . 524 ) , concentrations of glucose below the threshold for fertility stress had little to no effect on dauer formation ( Figure 5B ) , and at restrictive temperatures ( $ 25 ) , 250 mm glucose had no effect on dauer formation ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00038233 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : As the animals aged , exposure to glucose concentrations below the toxicity threshold caused no change in pumping rates , whereas concentrations at ( 250 mm ) or above ( 333 mm ) the threshold caused a slight reduction in pumping rates ( 20 % decrease compared to control ; Figure 1C and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00038233 SentenceID s178 SENTENCE : In wild-type animals , threshold levels of glucose stress ( 250 mm glucose ) resulted in an accumulation of both trehalose and glucose ( Figure 7A and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00038233 SentenceID s180 SENTENCE : A lack of O-GlcNAc cycling also resulted in an accumulation of both trehalose and glucose ( 1 . 5- to 2-fold increase compared to control ; Figure 7A ) ( Hanover et al . 2005 ; Forsythe et al . 2006 ; and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00038233 SentenceID s202 SENTENCE : Loss of O-GlcNAc cycling did ( intermediate to high 1 . 3- to 2-fold ( low insulin signaling ) , 377 Similar to the effects in a wild-type background , when insulin signaling was intermediate to high , a lack of O-GlcNAc cycling or the presence of glucose stress resulted in an accumulation of both trehalose and glucose ( Figure 7B and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00038245 SentenceID s152 SENTENCE : Complementation of the H99a gat1D and KN99a gat1D mutants with the GAT1 gene restored wild-type mating in all tested crosses ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00038245 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : boundaries Primers for genes URO1 ( CNAG04305 . 2 ) , DAL1 ( CNAG00934 . 2 ) , URE1 ( CNAG05540 . 2 ) , GDH1 ( CNAG01577 . 2 ) , GLN1 ( CNAG00457 . 2 ) , GLT1 ( CNAG04862 . 2 ) , GDH2 ( CNAG00879 . 2 ) , AMT1 ( CNAG00235 . 2 ) , AMT2 ( CNAG04758 . 2 ) , PUT1 ( CNAG02049 . 2 ) , PUT5 ( CNAG02048 . 2 ) , and PUT2 ( CNAG05602 . 2 ) ( Table S2 ) were designed to span exonexon boundaries and tested to verify that they bind specifically to their respective cDNA genes but not H99 genomic DNA ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00038245 SentenceID s96 SENTENCE : The gat1D mutant is unable to utilize the most easily assimilated nitrogen source in both ammonium replete and sufficient conditions ( 1100 mm ) ( data not shown ) , paradoxically suggesting that the nitrogen metabolite repression mechanism that occurs in the presence of ammonium blocks the ability to utilize ammonium itself .
PaperID WBPaper00038270 SentenceID s137 SENTENCE : We tested ace-2 ( g72 ) mutants and found they were sensitive to aldicarb ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00038270 SentenceID s138 SENTENCE : junction, neuromuscular junction We then combined the ace-1 ( nd35 ) and ace-2 ( g72 ) mutations and found that ace-2 ( g72 ) ; ace-1 ( nd35 ) double mutants were more sensitive to aldicarb than the ace-2 ( g72 ) single mutants ( data not shown ) , indicating that both acetylcholinesterases function in the neuromuscular junction to degrade acetylcholine .
PaperID WBPaper00038270 SentenceID s57 SENTENCE : We tested another allele of ace-1 [ ace-1 ( p1000 ) ] and found that it , too , caused significant defects in slowing behavior ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00038270 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : Mutations in dgk-1 , and dop-3 were loss-of-function mutations , and the egl-30 mutation was a gain-of-function mutation ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00038341 SentenceID s134 SENTENCE : RNAi targeting cul-2 or elc-1 resulted in defects before gastrulation as expected ( Kipreos 2005 ) , which precluded us from determining directly whether these complex members function in gastrulation ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00038390 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : However , our subsequent analysis revealed no mutation in the die-1 locus of ot108 mutant animals and , moreover , the ot108 mutant phenotype could not be rescued with a genomic piece of DNA that rescues a canonical die-1 allele ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00038390 SentenceID s48 SENTENCE : However , our subsequent analysis revealed no mutation in the die-1 locus of ot108 mutant animals and , moreover , the ot108 mutant phenotype could not be rescued with a genomic piece of DNA that rescues a canonical die-1 allele ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00038390 SentenceID s83 SENTENCE : Fig . 3 ) , while the more distant paralog ztf-28 shows no expression in embryos and postembryonically is only expressed in the intestine ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00038390 SentenceID s86 SENTENCE : As assessed with translational gfp reporters that fuse the entire loci to gfp , the most closely related lsy-27 paralog , ztf-25 , displays an essentially indistinguishable broad , embryo-restricted expression pattern ( Figure S3 ) , while the more distant paralog ztf-28 shows no expression in embryos and postembryonically is expressed only in the intestine ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00038408 SentenceID s106 SENTENCE : In some animals , we observed ectopic induction along with loss of lag-2 reporter expression ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00038408 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : Although the distal element alone does not drive expression in P6 . p when placed directly adjacent to the 2Xnls : : yfp coding region ( data not shown ) , the distal element conferred P6 . p -specific expression when combined with a 200-bp minimal promoter region from gcy-5 ( Figure 2J ) .
PaperID WBPaper00038408 SentenceID s17 SENTENCE : lateral We note that additional sequences conforming to this consensus are also found elsewhere in the full-length lag-2 59 flanking region ( data not shown ) as well as in the 59 flanking region of apx-1 and dsl-1 ( Figure 4B ) , the two other lateral signal genes .
PaperID WBPaper00038523 SentenceID s107 SENTENCE : Young adult am117 hermaphrodites displayed over 250 pharyngeal pumps per minute , a value that is similar to young adult wild-type worms ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00038523 SentenceID s109 SENTENCE : To determine whether the am117 mutation affects the insulin / IGF-1 signaling pathway , we analyzed the am117 strain for defects in Dauer formation . am117 worms cultured at 27 did not display measurable levels of Dauer larvae ( data not shown ) , suggesting that am117 does not affect the insulin / IGF-1 signaling pathway .
PaperID WBPaper00038523 SentenceID s120 SENTENCE : body Strains that displayed the scrawny phenotype also displayed increased late progeny production , whereas strains that displayed wild-type body morphology displayed wild-type levels of late progeny production ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00038523 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : body Of these strains , 22 primarily extended lifespan , 14 primarily extended fast body movement span , four primarily extended self-fertile reproductive span , three primarily extended fast pharyngeal pumping span , and two primarily extended pharyngeal pumping span ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00038523 SentenceID s151 SENTENCE : We observed similar abnormalities in mated hermaphrodites ( data not shown ) , suggesting that mating and the subsequent increased progeny production on days 510 has little effect on the deterioration of the proximal gonad .
PaperID WBPaper00038523 SentenceID s179 SENTENCE : " Related to this possible consequence of the masses , mated hermaphrodites produce more progeny late in life when the masses are accumulating and internal hatching of progeny increases substantially in mated hermaphrodites compared to self-fertilized hermaphrodites ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00038523 SentenceID s48 SENTENCE : This mutation segregated with the lifespan extension phenotype after four rounds of backcrossing ( data not shown ) , supporting the conclusion that the missense change resulting in the E725K substitution is the am88 mutation , and am88 is a novel allele of age-1 .
PaperID WBPaper00038523 SentenceID s60 SENTENCE : Indeed , the mutations that we identified on the basis of an extended self-fertile reproductive span reduced the rate of sperm utilization , as measured by the rate of self-progeny production ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00038523 SentenceID s85 SENTENCE : 348 S . E . Hughes , C . Huang , and K . Kornfeld The mutation am116 significantly increased late progeny production of hermaphrodites mated early or late in life . am116 hermaphrodites mated late in life produced 9 . 7 progeny on day 10 and subsequent days , an increase of 170 % compared to wild type ( Table 3 , line 3 ) . am116 hermaphrodites mated early in life produced 7 . 9 progeny on day 10 and subsequent days , an increase of 340 % compared to wild type ( Table 3 , line 2 ; Figure 4C ) . am116 hermaphrodites displayed high levels of egg hatching and low levels of larval lethality and adult sterility at 15 , 20 , and 25 that were similar to wild type ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00038523 SentenceID s92 SENTENCE : To determine whether am116 affects insulin / IGF-1 signaling , we monitored formation of Dauer larvae , since mutations that decrease insulin / IGF-1 signaling typically cause a Dauer constitutive phenotype ( Riddle et al . 1997 ) . am116 mutants did not display a Dauer constitutive phenotype ( data not shown ) , suggesting that the am116 mutation does not affect a major component of the insulin / IGF-1 signaling pathway .
PaperID WBPaper00038523 SentenceID s99 SENTENCE : Compared to wild-type animals , am117 mutants displayed a slightly higher level of eggs that failed to hatch and a similar level of death during larval development and adult sterility ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00038528 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : In contrast , UNC-73E expression in peptidergic neurons using the egl-3 promoter ( Kass et al . 2001 ) did rescue unc-73 ( ce362 ) and Is [ D1 ] ; unc- 73 ( ev802 ) slow movement phenotypes ( Figure 3 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00038528 SentenceID s76 SENTENCE : Is [ D1 ] ; unc-73 ( ev802 ) lethargy also suppressed the hyperactivity of the egl-30 ( tg26 ) gain-of-function allele and the hyperactivity of animals expressing a constitutively active egl-30 cDNA in cholinergic motor neurons , which is consistent with a study identifying UNC-73E as a downstream effector of Gaq / EGL-30 ( Williams et al . 2007 ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00038528 SentenceID s89 SENTENCE : Increased acetylcholine release and sensitivity are likely factors involved in the activated Gas / GSA-1 pathway rescue of unc- 73 RhoGEF-2 lethargy as gsa-1 ( ce81 ) unc-73 ( ce362 ) and Is [ D1 ] ; gsa-1 ( ce81 ) unc-73 ( ev802 ) double mutants were hypersensitive to both aldicarb and 0 . 5 mM levamisole ( Figure 1 , C and E , and Figure S1 A ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00039858 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : PCR analysis of these rescued emb-1 ( hc62ts ) lines demonstrated that the lines were homozygous for the emb-1 ( hc62ts ) allele and contained the transgene ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00039957 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : Analysis of SYP-3 showed no homotypic interactions ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00039957 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : However , the C-terminal region of SYP-1 alone is not sufficient for an interaction with SYP-3 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00039957 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : Its C-terminal domain , however , is necessary for its interaction with SYP-1 , as revealed by the yeast two-hybrid studies , and further supporting the SYP-1 / SYP-2 interaction detected both by expression in Xenopus XTC cells , a heterologous system where meiotic proteins are not normally expressed ( data not shown ) , and by co-immunoprecipitation .
PaperID WBPaper00039957 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : However , an interaction between SYP-3 and either SYP-1 or SYP-2 was not observed by Western blot analysis of the SYP-3 -GST pull-down probed with SYP-1 or SYP-2 specific antibodies ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00039957 SentenceID s74 SENTENCE : We also detected the ability of individually expressed GFP-tagged SYP-1 , but not SYP-2 , to form aggregates in XTC cells , which most likely correspond to the higher-order protein structures referred to as polycomplexes ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040002 SentenceID s128 SENTENCE : These animals also showed 100 % penetrance of gland defects ( data not shown ) , arguing that the phenotype is specific to iv38 and is not caused or enhanced by the inversion associated with ivIs12 .
PaperID WBPaper00040002 SentenceID s171 SENTENCE : projection The estimated volume measurement is consistent with measurements of EM photomicrographs , in which the cross-sectional area of the g1P projection is 2 . 5-fold larger in sma-1 compared to WT ( Figure 7 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040002 SentenceID s196 SENTENCE : While such laser treatment did appear to result in swelling of glands in the area of surgery ( data not shown ) , the animals were badly damaged and did not survive long after surgery , preventing appropriate analysis .
PaperID WBPaper00040002 SentenceID s225 SENTENCE : projection The estimated volume measurement is consistent with measurements of EM photomicrographs , in which the cross-sectional area of the g1P projection is 2 . 5-fold larger in sma-1 compared to WT ( Figure 7 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040002 SentenceID s244 SENTENCE : While such laser treatment did appear 21 to result in swelling of glands in the area of surgery ( data not shown ) , the animals were badly damaged and did not survive long after surgery , preventing appropriate analysis .
PaperID WBPaper00040002 SentenceID s37 SENTENCE : The rearrangement is most likely an inversion ( rather than a transposition ) , as no other region of the genome showed suppression of recombination ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040002 SentenceID s42 SENTENCE : These animals also showed 100 % penetrance of gland defects ( data not shown ) , arguing that the phenotype is specific to iv38 and is not caused or enhanced by the inversion associated with ivIs12 .
PaperID WBPaper00040002 SentenceID s69 SENTENCE : The rearrangement is most likely an inversion ( rather than a transposition ) , as no other region of the genome showed suppression of recombination ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040126 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : Most of the SNPs we identified could be predicted in silico from the sequence of the CB4856 strain ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040126 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : We also found that or1089 ts failed to complement spd-2 ( or293 ts ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040214 SentenceID s99 SENTENCE : We identified putative ETS- 5 binding sites similar to both Fli-1 and Pet-1 binding sites upstream of many of the BAG -expressed genes ( data not shown ) , raising the possibility that ETS-5 directly regulates expression of BAG genes using these binding sites .
PaperID WBPaper00040220 SentenceID s134 SENTENCE : axon, synaptic Overexpression of DLK-1 resulted in similar severity and penetrance of phenotypes as those seen in rpm-1 ( lf ) mutants including axon termination defects in the ALM ( Figure 6A ) and PLM neurons ( Figure 6B ) , and defects in synaptic branch extension in the PLM neurons ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040220 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : One of these open reading frames , F25D1 . 1c , encodes a 385-amino-acid protein that has a conserved start site with mammalian PP2Ca / PPM1A ( data not shown and Figure 1 , A and B ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040222 SentenceID s104 SENTENCE : L4-to-adult survivorship of ancestral controls is slightly but not significantly lower in mev-1 ( s = 0 . 958 ) than in N2 ( s = 1 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040222 SentenceID s111 SENTENCE : Fifteen of the 72 mev-1 lines ( 21 % ) and one of the 48 N2 lines ( 2 % ) went extinct by Gmax 125 ( data not shown ) , a difference both highly significant ( 2x2 contingency table LRT p < 0 . 002 ) and substantially greater than the difference in absolute fitness between the two strains .
PaperID WBPaper00040222 SentenceID s114 SENTENCE : Gbot / Gmax was 87 . 5 % in mev-1 and 92 . 9 % in N2 ( one-tailed t-test assuming unequal variances , t = -4 . 290 , p < 0 . 0001 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040222 SentenceID s122 SENTENCE : N2 worms lived significantly longer ( ancestral control lines , 12 . 4 0 . 7 days ; MA lines , 12 . 8 0 . 4 days ) than mev-1 worms ( ancestral control lines , 10 . 3 0 . 7 days ; MA lines , 9 . 9 0 . 2 days ; N2 vs . mev-1 , p = 0 . 0001 ) , but there was no effect of MA treatment on lifespan , nor significant among-line variation in lifespan ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040222 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : L4-to-adult survivorship of ancestral controls is slightly but not significantly lower in mev-1 ( s = 0 . 958 ) than in N2 ( s = 1 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040222 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : Fifteen of the 72 mev-1 lines ( 21 % ) and one of the 48 N2 lines ( 2 % ) went extinct by Gmax 125 ( data not shown ) , a difference both highly significant ( 2 2 contingency table LRT , P , 0 . 002 ) and DMw ( 103 ) VL VE VM ( 104 ) 0 . 0047 ( 0 . 053 ) 0 . 474 ( 0 . 108 ) 21 . 23 ( 0 . 88 ) 0 . 162 ( 0 . 053 ) 0 . 563 ( 0 . 053 ) 6 . 292 0 . 067 ( 0 . 084 ) 0 . 518 ( 0 . 12 ) 21 . 95 ( 0 . 92 ) 0 . 123 ( 0 . 056 ) 0 . 649 ( 0 . 068 ) 2 . 24 fitness or total reproductive fitness ; VL is among-line component of variance ; VE is within-line ( environ- Figure 1 Frequency histogram of relative fitnesses ( w ) of the mev-1 and N2 MA lines .
PaperID WBPaper00040222 SentenceID s44 SENTENCE : Gbot / Gmax was 87 . 5 % in mev-1 and 92 . 9 % in N2 ( one-tailed t-test assuming unequal variances , t = 24 . 290 , P , 0 . 0001 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040222 SentenceID s52 SENTENCE : N2 worms lived significantly longer ( ancestral control lines , 12 . 4 6 0 . 7 days ; MA lines , 12 . 8 6 0 . 4 days ) than mev-1 worms ( ancestral control lines , 10 . 3 6 0 . 7 days ; MA lines , 9 . 9 6 0 . 2 days ; N2 vs . mev-1 , P = 0 . 0001 ) , but there was no effect of MA treatment on life span , nor significant among-line variation in life span ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040235 SentenceID s26 SENTENCE : processes However , defects seen in the ALA processes of unc-53 ( n166 ) ; vab-8 ( e1017 ) double mutants were no more severe than in each null allele alone ( data not shown ) , eliminating the possibility that the enhanced canal phenotype was secondary to the ALA pioneer .
PaperID WBPaper00040235 SentenceID s92 SENTENCE : We hypothesized that UNC-53 may function with the ligand UNC-6 / Netrin , and its receptors UNC-40 / DCC and UNC-5 , however none of these proteins displayed defects in the extension of the anterior or posterior excretory canals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040337 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : process Therefore , egg laying , a process that is genetically separable from MSP-based sperm signaling for oocyte maturation and ovulation ( McGovern et al . 2007 ) , may be defective in gsp-3 / 4 mutants ( Table 1 , Table S3 , and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040337 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : Likewise , immunolocalization of GSP-3 / 4 in wildtype males revealed their expression is limited to spermproducing germlines ( Figure 1B and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040337 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : In contrast , staining was detectable in single-mutant male gonads similar to levels observed in wild type ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040337 SentenceID s94 SENTENCE : After 48 hr , animals that had successfully mated accumulated large numbers of male sperm in and around their spermathecae ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040461 SentenceID s156 SENTENCE : We roughly mapped the genetic modifier ( through conventional crosses , data not shown ) , and not surprisingly , it mapped close to slo-1 .
PaperID WBPaper00040544 SentenceID s102 SENTENCE : Worms injected with dsRNA corresponding to ORF R10D12 . 14 yielded a striking number of live progeny ( Table 1 ) in contrast to uninjected worms or worms injected with dsRNA from other ORFs in the region ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040544 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : Neither sao-1 ( ik1 ) nor sao-1 ( ok3335 ) can restore embryonic viability to these aph-1 mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040544 SentenceID s133 SENTENCE : A strong interaction between SAO-1 and SEL-10 is detected by expression of a HIS3 reporter ( HIS growth assay , data not shown ) and a lacZ reporter ( b-galactosidase activity assay , Figure 3A ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040544 SentenceID s136 SENTENCE : The SAO-1 interaction appears specific for the WD40 domain from SEL-10 , as we did not detect an interaction with the WD40 domain from another C . elegans Fbw7 protein , LIN-23 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040544 SentenceID s20 SENTENCE : These include embryonic lethality ( bottom row of Table 3 ) , reduced brood size , egg retention , and increased incidence of males ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040544 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : Furthermore , we note that the independently isolated ik1 allele also exhibits a very low , though significant embryonic lethality at 25 and even more at 27 ( bottom row of Table 3 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040572 SentenceID s130 SENTENCE : chromosome, synaptonemal complex In addition , the chromosome axes and the synaptonemal complex assembled normally in him-5 mutants ( Figures 4B , Figure S3 A , and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040572 SentenceID s154 SENTENCE : SC Quantification of synapsis revealed no differences in SC establishment ( n 10 gonads / genotype , data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040572 SentenceID s166 SENTENCE : No staining is observed outside of the gonad ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040572 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : 35 amino acids ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040572 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : nuclei Similarly for the deletion allele , although not statistically different between days 1 and 4 , the trend is toward increased numbers of nuclei with autosomal univalents ; for example , 12 univalents can be seen in day 4 gonads but in the course of many experiments have never been seen in 1-day-old adults ( Figure 2 , B and C and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040572 SentenceID s48 SENTENCE : autosomes Similar results were found for other autosomes using dpy-5 I ; unc-4 II ; him-5 and unc-25 III ; dpy-11 him-5 hermaphrodites ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040572 SentenceID s92 SENTENCE : In some of the irradiated animals , hatching rates reached 100 % , indicating that complete suppression is possible ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040681 SentenceID s14 SENTENCE : Four of the mutant lines that we identified , ns255 , ns259 , ns260 , and ns267 , had a strong dominant reduction in ver-1 promoter : : gfp expression and could not be assayed in complementation studies ( Table 1 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040681 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : Expression is also observed in the PHsh and PHso glia in the tail ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040681 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : Nine of the alleles that we isolated failed to complement the allele ns258 , also identified in our screen ( Table 1 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040681 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : C2H2 zinc-finger factor ztf-16 is required for ver-1 expression The ns169 and ns178 alleles fail to complement ns171 , another allele isolated in our screen , and in all three alleles expression of a ver-1 promoter : : gfp transgene in the AMsh and PHsh glia of adult animals raised at 25 is strongly attenuated ( Table 1 ; Figure 4 , A and B ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040681 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : However , we found that two different alleles of lit-1 had no defects in ver-1 promoter : : gfp expression ( data not shown ) , suggesting that LIT-1 is unlikely to control ZTF-16 function in this context .
PaperID WBPaper00040681 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : However , rescue of ver-1 promoter : : gfp expression in the PHsh glia was not observed ( data not shown ) , perhaps due to low expression levels . c P , 0 . 001 .
PaperID WBPaper00040681 SentenceID s58 SENTENCE : A 2 . 5-kb region immediately adjacent to the ztf-16 start codon is expressed in hypodermal and other cell types , but not in glia ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040681 SentenceID s73 SENTENCE : The region of the ns260 deletion is represented by a solid horizontal line [ includes insertion ( T ) 7CA ( T ) 14 ] . ns255 likely represents a rearrangement of the gene , shown by a horizontal dashed line ( precise ends unknown ) , as PCR products using primers covering exons 26 are absent , weak , or consist of multiple-sized fragments ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040681 SentenceID s96 SENTENCE : We were able to purify zinc fingers 26 of the protein , but these showed only weak , nonspecific binding to a 40-bp biotin-labeled probe from the ver-1 gene ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040819 SentenceID s114 SENTENCE : Like the germline expression of other transgenes ( Kelly et al . 1997 ) , this vha-12-containing transgene undergoes epigenetic silencing , and its effect on spe- 5-associated self-sterility progressively diminished as the strain was propagated ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040819 SentenceID s119 SENTENCE : SPE-5 expression apparently occurs at a very low level or is somehow partly masked , so long exposures ( 20 min ) were required to visualize it in wholeworm lysates , where a band appears in fem-3gf worms that contain sperm but is missing in fem-1lf worms that never contain sperm ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040819 SentenceID s79 SENTENCE : Control experiments indicated that the labeled secondary ( Fab1 ) 2 fragment used to visualize 1CB4 localization did not also generate a detectable level of fluorescence due to cross-reaction with the SPE-5 Mab ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040819 SentenceID s81 SENTENCE : Like all other spe-5 point and transposon mutants characterized previously ( Machaca and L ' Hernault 1997 ) , spe-5 ( ok1054 ) causes a spermatogenesis-defective phenotype and no evident embryonic or somatic defects ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040857 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : ttx-7 ( nj40 ) ; nj77 mutants showed slightly flattened sinusoidal tracks on cultivation plates unlike ttx-7 ( nj40 ) single mutants , which are characteristic of egl-8 mutant animals ( data not shown ; Lackner et al . 1999 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040923 SentenceID s110 SENTENCE : basal, basal lamina In addition , among the apl-1 ( yn5 ) mutants that survived , only a few developed into gravid adults and 46 % remained in L1 arrest compared to only 1 % of wild-type animals after 44 hr at 27 ( Table 2 ) ; most of these apl-1 ( yn5 ) L1-arrested animals died within 5 days and showed morphological defects such that organs appeared detached from their underlying basal lamina and animals contained multiple vacuolar-like structures ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040923 SentenceID s96 SENTENCE : apl-1 ( yn5 ) mutants , as well as transgenic APL-1 or APL-1EXT overexpression lines ( data not shown ) , retain eggs and show a decreased egg-laying rate ( Hornsten et al . 2007 ) , suggesting that this phenotype is due to high levels of APL-1EXT and not due to loss of signaling through the C . elegans AICD fragment .
PaperID WBPaper00040989 SentenceID s107 SENTENCE : In 13 addition , no enhancement of lin-35 ; slr-2 suppression was observed following double RNAi of the two prohibitin binding partners phb-1 and phb-2 relative to RNAi of either clone individually ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040989 SentenceID s112 SENTENCE : Furthermore , we verified that all eight of the synMuv suppressors identified by our screen suppressed the synMuv phenotype ( data not shown ) , indicating that our assay for synMuv suppression was robust . Finally , we tested 24 additional synMuv suppressors isolated by Cui and colleagues to see if these could suppress the lin-35 ; slr-2 phenotype ( Table S2 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040989 SentenceID s113 SENTENCE : None of these RNAi clones suppressed lin-35 ; slr-2 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040989 SentenceID s121 SENTENCE : Unlike other ribosome biogenesis genes , however , RNAi of C16A3 . 4 did not induce proximal germline tumors ( data not shown ) , and C16A3 . 4 contains multiple C2H2 Zn finger domains , suggesting a possible role in transcriptional regulation .
PaperID WBPaper00040989 SentenceID s154 SENTENCE : In addition , inx-6 mutants treated with phb-1 or phb-2 RNAi showed reduced levels of L1 fat stores based on Oil Red O staining , consistent with effects observed for lin-35 ; slr-2 and wild-type larvae ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040989 SentenceID s156 SENTENCE : In addition , we tested the other 24 lin-35 ; slr-2 suppressors identified from our screen for fat storage defects and inx-6 suppression , including raga-1 , a GTPase target of the nutrient-responsive TOR pathway ( Figure 3B and data not shown ) ( SCHREIBER et al . 2010 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040989 SentenceID s165 SENTENCE : Furthermore , we verified that all eight of the synMuv suppressors identified by our screen suppressed the synMuv phenotype ( data not shown ) , indicating that our assay for synMuv suppression was robust . Lastly , we tested 24 additional synMuv suppressors isolated by Cui and colleagues to see if these could suppress the lin-35 ; slr-2 phenotype ( Table S2 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040989 SentenceID s166 SENTENCE : None of these RNAi clones suppressed lin-35 ; slr-2 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040989 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : In addition , no enhancement of lin-35 ; slr-2 suppression was observed following double RNAi of the two prohibitin-binding partners phb-1 and phb-2 relative to RNAi of either clone individually ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040989 SentenceID s56 SENTENCE : Unlike other ribosome biogenesis genes , however , RNAi of C16A3 . 4 did not induce proximal germline tumors ( data not shown ) , and C16A3 . 4 contains multiple C2H2 Zn-finger domains , suggesting a possible role in transcriptional regulation .
PaperID WBPaper00040989 SentenceID s94 SENTENCE : In addition , inx-6 mutants treated with phb-1 or phb-2 RNAi showed reduced levels of L1 fat stores on the basis of Oil Red O staining , consistent with effects observed for lin-35 ; slr-2 larvae ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00040989 SentenceID s96 SENTENCE : In addition , we tested the other 24 lin-35 ; slr-2 suppressors identified from our screen for fat storage defects and inx-6 suppression , including raga-1 , a GTPase target of the nutrient-responsive TOR pathway ( Figure 3B and data not shown ) ( Schreiber et al . 2010 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041001 SentenceID s134 SENTENCE : In addition , weak-to-modest levels of sup-37 reporter expression were observed in all other cell types ( Figure 6 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041001 SentenceID s138 SENTENCE : nuclei, nucleus Both reporters localize predominantly to nuclei during late stages of embryogenesis ( Figure 7 , A and B ; data not shown ) , consistent with a role for SUP-37 in the nucleus .
PaperID WBPaper00041001 SentenceID s140 SENTENCE : cytoplasm, nuclei Expression of the SUP-37 translational reporters was also occasionally detected in both the cytoplasm and nuclei of early-stage embryos at time points preceding morphogenesis ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041001 SentenceID s143 SENTENCE : In addition , SUP-37 : : mCherry expression was faint but detectable in the spermatheca of adult hermaphrodites ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041001 SentenceID s165 SENTENCE : Furthermore , sup-37 mRNA levels , as well as P sup-37 : : GFP and P sup-37 : : his-24 : : mCherry reporters , were not sensitive to inhibition of ubc-18 or ari-1 activity , indicating that UBC-18 ARI-1 does not regulate sup-37 at the level of transcription ( Figure 8 , A and G ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041001 SentenceID s182 SENTENCE : Consistent with this , expression of a full-length SUP-37 : : mCherry fusion protein was not affected following sup-35 ( RNAi ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041001 SentenceID s216 SENTENCE : This conclusion is further supported by our finding that treatment conditions in which sup-35 ( RNAi ) leads to only a modest increase in the expression of the P pha-1 : : GFP reporter ( 1 . 2-fold ) , nevertheless still efficiently allow suppression of pha-1 ( e2123ts ) lethality at 25 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041001 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : Genetic mapping of sup-37 Preliminary mapping placed sup-37 on LGV linkage group ( LG ) V ( Schnabel et al . 1991 ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041001 SentenceID s45 SENTENCE : We further note that growth of homozygous tm481 mutants at 25 leads to a high incidence of sterility and that these sterile animals are defective at oogenesis ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041001 SentenceID s48 SENTENCE : ( 2 ) tm481 sterility is not rescued by sup-37 ( + ) -containing extrachromosomal arrays that rescue other sup-37 -associated phenotypes ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041001 SentenceID s49 SENTENCE : ( 3 ) sup-37 ( RNAi ) at 25 does not result in high levels of sterility in N2 animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041001 SentenceID s62 SENTENCE : In addition , 100 % ( n = 75 ) of tm356 and tm1083 homozygous mutants failed to internalize fluorescent beads past the grinder , whereas wild-type animals uniformly contained beads throughout the entire pharyngealintestinal tract ( Figure 3 , EH and data not shown ; n = 75 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041001 SentenceID s7 SENTENCE : A single RNAi clone that targeted gene C01B7 . 1 / ztf-12 showed strong suppression of pha-1 ( e2123ts ) at the nonpermissive temperature of 25 and also at the semipermissive temperature of 20 , suggesting that C01B7 . 1 defines the sup-37 locus ( Figure 1 ; Table 1 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041007 SentenceID s104 SENTENCE : However , the relative bending modulus parameter alone is not sufficient to functionally cluster genes ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041007 SentenceID s156 SENTENCE : However , the Relative Bending Modulus parameter alone is not sufficient to functionally cluster genes ( data not shown ) . b ) DAVID functional annotation tool enrichment scores for cluster 1 ( red ) and cluster 2 ( blue ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041535 SentenceID s138 SENTENCE : We saw a very weak enhanced-slowing defect for ser-4 ( Figure 5A ) and also , at most , a weak enhanced-slowing defect in the mod-1 ; ser-4 double mutant ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041535 SentenceID s149 SENTENCE : mod-1 ( ok103 ) ( shown ) had no significant defect ( P = 0 . 76 , Student ' s t-test ) , and two other mod-1 alelles gave similar results ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041535 SentenceID s212 SENTENCE : Chromosomal Chromosomal integrant of the extrachromosomal transgene adEx1616 from Tsalik et al . ( 2003 ) vsIs48 Expression of GFP in cholinergic Data not shown Chase et al . 2004 11 SI Source a
PaperID WBPaper00041535 SentenceID s32 SENTENCE : We note , however , that we isolated an abts-1 mutant in a screen performed using the mod-5 mutant background , and we have not detected any effect of abts-1 mutations on serotonin response in a wildtype background ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041535 SentenceID s55 SENTENCE : However , another study did not find a strong effect of SER-1 ( Hapiak et al . 2009 ) , and we found that a ser-1 null mutation individually or in combination with mod-1 or ser-4 mutations had little effect in our assays for response to exogenous serotonin ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041535 SentenceID s77 SENTENCE : To identify these cells , we generated strains that carried the mod-1 : : mCherry transgene plus an unc-47 : : GFP transgene to label the GABAergic motor neurons ( Figure 3J ) or an unc-17 : : GFP transgene to label the cholinergic motor neurons ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041573 SentenceID s354 SENTENCE : chromosome In the case of vab-3 ( ot266 ) , removing background variants reduced the accuracy of the mapping ( Figure 11B , bottom row of plots for linked chromosome X ) but removing indels had relatively little effect ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041593 SentenceID s83 SENTENCE : We also determined that sup-1 ( null ) mutants have approximately wild-type levels and localization of UNC-17 by immunostaining ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041597 SentenceID s109 SENTENCE : PTP-3 acts redundantly with UNC-40 in QL , similar to MIG-21 We found that the unc-40 ( n324 ) ; ptp-3 ( mu256 ) double mutant resulted in embryonic lethality ( data not shown ) , and we were unable to score Q cells and descendants in these mutants .
PaperID WBPaper00041597 SentenceID s122 SENTENCE : 1380 L . Sundararajan and E . A . Lundquist and unc-40 ( RNAi ) , showed no defects in QR or QL migration ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041597 SentenceID s164 SENTENCE : After Q migration and division ( 610 hr posthatching ) , egl-17 : : gfp expression was detected in the P cells ( the vulval precursor cells ) in the posterior ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041597 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : qid-5 ( mu245 ) failed to complement ptp-3 for AQR and PQR migration defects ( data not shown ) , indicating that mu245 is an allele of ptp-3 .
PaperID WBPaper00041597 SentenceID s3 SENTENCE : These three alleles mapped to linkage group III ( see Materials and Methods ) and failed to complement one another for AQR and PQR migration ( data not shown ) , suggesting they affected the same gene .
PaperID WBPaper00041597 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : mig-21 ( u787 ) failed to complement lq37 , lq78 , and lq84 for AQR and PQR migration defects ( data not shown ) , indicating that these mutations were new alleles of mig-21 .
PaperID WBPaper00041597 SentenceID s63 SENTENCE : ptp-3 had been shown previously to affect Q and descendant migrations ( Williams 2003 ) , and we found that qid-5 ( mu245 ) failed to complement ptp-3 ( mu256 ) for AQR and PQR migration ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041597 SentenceID s71 SENTENCE : ptp-3 ( ok244 ) caused no defects in AQR or PQR migration ( Figure 3 ) or in early Q neuroblast protrusion and migration ( data not shown ) , suggesting that the ptp-3A , D , and E products are not involved in Q migrations .
PaperID WBPaper00041597 SentenceID s9 SENTENCE : Relative agarose gel electrophoresis band intensities were used to determine which CB4856-associated SNP ' s were underrepresented in the mutant segregants . lq37 , lq78 , and lq84 all showed linkage to SNP ' s on LGIII , and each failed to complement each other and mig-21 ( u787 ) for AQR and PQR defects ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041682 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : -T . Chang et al . ( n369 ) animals alone raised at 15 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041850 SentenceID s113 SENTENCE : C . elegans PIG-1 Regulation 903 promoter , neither PIG-1 ( T169A ) nor PIG-1 ( T169D ) rescued the extra AVM phenotype of a pig-1 mutant ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041850 SentenceID s138 SENTENCE : To test whether the phosphorylation status of the threonine in the activation loop affects this localization , we examined the expression patterns of PIG-1 ( T169A ) : : GFP ( data not shown ) and PIG-1 ( T169D ) : : GFP ( Figure 5B ) during Q lineage divisions .
PaperID WBPaper00041850 SentenceID s140 SENTENCE : We obtained a similar result with PIG-1 ( KAD ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041850 SentenceID s142 SENTENCE : centrosomal We found that par-4 reduction had no effect on PIG-1 centrosomal localization ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041850 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : We obtained similar results when we scored the number of extra SDQs in these strains ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041850 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : Simultaneous RNAi to both mop-25 . 1 and mop-25 . 3 also failed to generate a phenotype , and double or triple RNAi experiments failed to enhance the mop-25 . 2 phenotype ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041850 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : Two existing alleles of mop-25 . 2 ( ok2073 and tm3694 ) , however , did not produce a significant extra neuron phenotype either alone or in a ced-3-sensitized background ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041850 SentenceID s56 SENTENCE : RNAi against aak-1 and loss-of-function mutations in aak-2 , sad-1 , or par-1 failed to generate a significant extra neuron phenotype in a ced-3 -sensitized background ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041850 SentenceID s57 SENTENCE : Simultaneous aak-1 and aak-2 RNAi also failed to generate a significant phenotype in a rrf-3 ; ced-3 background ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041850 SentenceID s66 SENTENCE : Our tagged par-4 and strd-1 transgenes showed a diffusely uniform localization in the cells of the Q lineage ( data not shown ) , possibly due to excess expression .
PaperID WBPaper00041921 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : 150 S . L . Edwards et al . and K . G . Miller , quantified data not shown for AMAN-2 - Venus and RFP- SYN-13 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00041921 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : cell soma, organelles, soma, synaptic, synaptic regions 158 S . L . Edwards et al . in the synaptic regions of unc-16 mutants increase linearly over time or whether they reach a steady state that is maintained by counteracting trafficking pathways ; however , in nonquantitative observations , we saw similar accumulations in newly hatched animals and adults ( K . G . Miller , data not shown ) , suggesting that the accumulation may reach a steadystate early in the animal ' s life ( or even embryonically ) that is balanced by reentry of some organelles into the cell soma .
PaperID WBPaper00042052 SentenceID s72 SENTENCE : In animals where all five Wnts were mutant ( Zinovyeva et al . 2008 ) , PHB neurons appear unhealthy , but did not appear to be displaced ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00042069 SentenceID s144 SENTENCE : We can also exclude the possibility that ham-3 operates upstream of egl-5 through our observation that egl-5 expression is unaffected in ham-3 mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00042314 SentenceID s109 SENTENCE : This property is not because cluster genes are parts of gene families : when gene families not represented in clusters were analyzed , none of the eight largest families were nematode specific ( data not shown ; also see discussion ) .
PaperID WBPaper00042314 SentenceID s120 SENTENCE : A similar pattern is seen when each of the 15 families is analyzed individually ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00042314 SentenceID s130 SENTENCE : However , their evolution was not solely by repeated tandem duplication , since phylogenetic analysis suggests that several duplications and internal rearrangements gave rise to this cluster ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00042314 SentenceID s137 SENTENCE : Although some are likely to be pseudogenes , there is no doubt that many of the genes are functional since there are large families of similar proteins in C . briggsae and dN / dS analysis shows that most of the protein sequence in both families is under strong purifying selection ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00042314 SentenceID s166 SENTENCE : High dN / dS sites are concentrated largely in the MATH domain ( supplemental data 10 at http : / / www . genetics . org / supplemetal / ) and alignment with a solved MATH-domain protein structure suggests that the sites under positive selection are concentrated on one face of the domain in a region that interacts with one of its binding partners , CD40 ( McWhirter et al . 1999 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00042314 SentenceID s169 SENTENCE : The entire protein aligns well among most members of the family in C . elegans , with the exceptions most likely being nonfunctional genes and gene prediction errors ( supplemental data 10 at http : / / www . genetics . org / supplemetal / ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00042314 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : chromosome However , similar genomic cluster patterns were seen even when all SR genes were removed prior to analysis ( shown for chromosome V in Figure 2 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00042314 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : Preliminary analysis of very recent gene duplications in the C . elegans genome suggests that most duplications are modest in size ( a few genes or less in length ) and cause local tandem or inverted repeats ( data not shown ; also see Katju and Lynch 2003 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00042314 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : Shorter introns may be an indirect result of the fact that genes with very low expression levels have a smaller average intron size ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00042314 SentenceID s47 SENTENCE : Some of these are likely to be nonfunctional genes , but preliminary investigation suggests that many are due to errors in ab initio gene finding , since improved gene models were readily identified by manual curation ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00042314 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : chromosomal In addition , there is no immediately obvious correlation within chromosomal arms between the local frequency of DNA repeats and gene clusters ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00042314 SentenceID s67 SENTENCE : X chromosome, chromosome The genomic distribution of operons is also different from homologous gene clusters ; operons are relatively evenly distributed by chromosome ( although reduced on the X chromosome ) and they are less common on autosomal arms where most homology clusters reside ( Blumenthal et al . 2002 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00042314 SentenceID s84 SENTENCE : Very similar patterns were observed for matches to S . cerevisiae and H . sapiens ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00042371 SentenceID s104 SENTENCE : P granules, granules Later-stage embryos show diminished staining of PGL-1 and PGL-3 , but display clear concentration of both proteins on P granules ( Figure 6 and data not shown ) . bn125 displays some dissociation of PGL-1 and PGL-3 from P granules , but generally resembles wild type more than the other three alleles .
PaperID WBPaper00042371 SentenceID s109 SENTENCE : cytoplasm After introducing the ok439 and bn103 mutations into the GFPTPGL-1 line , we observed GFPTPGL-1 mainly dispersed in the cytoplasm ( Figure 7 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00042371 SentenceID s139 SENTENCE : A rabbit anti-GLH-4 antibody raised against both an N-terminal peptide and a full-length GLH-4 fusion protein does not recognize GLH-4 protein in the mutant strain by immunocytochemistry or by Western blot analysis ( supplemental Figure 1 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00042371 SentenceID s175 SENTENCE : cytoplasm Both proteins were completely dispersed in the cytoplasm ( Figure 6 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00042371 SentenceID s180 SENTENCE : Neither gk100 nor ok439 mutants displayed resistance to pos-1 RNAi ( Figure 9 ) or skn-1 RNAi ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00042371 SentenceID s83 SENTENCE : cytoplasm In contrast , in gk100 , ok439 , and bn103 mutant hermaphrodites , the majority of GLH-1 is distributed uniformly in the cytoplasm in germlines and embryos ( Figure 4 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00042371 SentenceID s93 SENTENCE : P granules, cytoplasm, granules Both PGL-1 and PGL-3 appear to be completely dispersed in the cytoplasm in some regions of the germline ( e . . , the pachytene region ) but partially concentrated on P granules in other regions of the germline ( e . . , mitotic region and diplotene ) ( Figure 6 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00042411 SentenceID s51 SENTENCE : dendritic A conceptually similar reconstitution experiment in the AWC olfactory neurons resulted in no rescue , consistent with the fact that the AWC dendritic endings are not exposed to the environment ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00042462 SentenceID s38 SENTENCE : It is noteworthy that , whereas loss-of-function mutations in most DCC components results in lethality ( PLENEFISCH et al . 1989 ) , RNAi-based inactivation of individual DCC components RNAi for multiple generations is not lethal ( data not shown ) , suggesting that RNAi directed against these genes does not completely abrogate their function .
PaperID WBPaper00042474 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : Injecting either alone did not rescue the phenotype ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00042474 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : However , we did not see any grinder 14 defect in lin-10 mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00042474 SentenceID s48 SENTENCE : Among the 25 Rab genes tested , RNAi against rab-6 . 2 alone produced a phenotype similar to eat-17 ( Table 2 ) , whereas rrf-3 mutants show no obvious defects in grinder formation ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00042474 SentenceID s51 SENTENCE : Among all the RABs , only RAB-6 . 2 interacted with EAT-17 ( Figure 3E , data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00042474 SentenceID s61 SENTENCE : When we tested several truncated EAT-17 constructs , EAT-17 ( aa1-316 ) , EAT-17 ( aa1-364 ) , and EAT-17 ( aa1-405 ) , they did not interact with RAB-6 . 2 , showing that the GAP domain alone is not sufficient for this interaction ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044063 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : We generated an sgRNA 6 targeting the lab-1 gene , and verified its effectiveness in generating indel mutations at the appropriate locus by direct sequencing when injected with Cas9 ( data not shown ) ( Friedland et al . 2013 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044067 SentenceID s118 SENTENCE : axons Moreover , when we examined other amphid neurons in both the Pstr-1-ABL-1 and Pstr-1-VAB-1 rescued lines , we found that rescue of AWB guidance was almost completely correlated with rescue of other axons in the commissure ( Figure 6D ; vab-1 data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044261 SentenceID s126 SENTENCE : Wild-type animals do not display transposon mobilization using this assay ( Figure 4C and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044261 SentenceID s157 SENTENCE : cytoplasm, reticular A reticular pattern was observed for both RSD-2A and RSD-2B isoforms in intestinal cells ; however , the smaller RSD-2B protein displayed an additional , more diffuse pattern of staining in the cytoplasm ( Figure 5 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044261 SentenceID s164 SENTENCE : We did not observe alterations in the pattern or intensity of HAF-6 protein in these mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044261 SentenceID s166 SENTENCE : When the HAF-6TGFP transgene was introduced into rsd-2 and rsd-6 mutants , the pattern and intensity of GFP signal was not altered in comparison to the pattern observed in wild type ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044261 SentenceID s171 SENTENCE : 1884 W . Han et al . a dispersed distribution , of RSD-2ATGFP was observed by immunostaining with anti-GFP antibodies in fixed it issue ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044261 SentenceID s176 SENTENCE : In fact , we observed no additional alterations in RSD- 2TGFP localization in mutants reared in the presence of nonspecific dsRNA at 25 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044261 SentenceID s183 SENTENCE : Furthermore , the subcellular localization pattern was not drastically altered in any of these mutants when animals were reared at elevated temperatures or in the presence of exogenous dsRNA ( Figure 6 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044261 SentenceID s217 SENTENCE : In animals harboring single-gene mutations in sid-1 ( qt2 ) , haf-6 ( ne335 ) , rsd-2 ( ne319 ) , or rsd- 6 ( pk3300 ) , the localization and intensity of VIT-2TGFP appeared similar to that observed in wild-type animals ( Figure 7 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044261 SentenceID s220 SENTENCE : However , when the mutant animals were reared in unfavorable environments ( bacteria expressing nonspecific dsRNA at 25 ) , the VIT-2TGFP patterns remained unaltered in intestinal cells , and VIT-2TGFP was again observed in mature oocytes and developing embryos ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044261 SentenceID s225 SENTENCE : However , the GFP patterns in the double mutants remained unaltered when animals were reared at elevated temperatures on bacteria expressing dsRNA ( data not shown ) , and we again observed uptake of VIT-2TGFP into developing oocytes .
PaperID WBPaper00044261 SentenceID s228 SENTENCE : Efficient internalization of labeled beads was noted in each strain ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044261 SentenceID s24 SENTENCE : Indeed , in our laboratory we have been unable to rescue the RNAi defects in rsd-2 ( ne319 ) mutants using transgenes composed of YAC or cosmid sequences ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044261 SentenceID s99 SENTENCE : rsd-2 and rsd-6 in C . elegans Tgfp reporter in bli-3 F38E11 . 5 unc-112 Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No Yes Yes ( 1 / 2 lines ) Yes ( 1 / 2 lines ) No No No No No No No Yes ( 1 / 1 lines ) No No No No No No Yes ( 1 / 3 lines ) 1881 GFP under our experimental conditions ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044385 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : Moreover , pha-1 ( ts ) ; sup-36 ( e2217 ) animals that contained the F38A5 . 7 array ( marked by sur-5 : : GFP ) arrested as embryos with a Pun phenotype that was identical to that of pha-1 ( ts ) single mutants at 25 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044385 SentenceID s115 SENTENCE : In contrast , incubation of SUP-35 and SUP-36 did not lead to the coprecipitation of SUP-36 with SUP-35 ( Figure 7A ) ; this was also true for additional tests using a bacterially expressed GST SUP-36 fusion protein ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044385 SentenceID s12 SENTENCE : Both MAFFT and MUSCLE alignment programs produced nearly identical dendrograms ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044385 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : Third , sequencing of additional alleles of sup-36 identified multiple independent mutations within F38A5 . 7 ( see below ) , whereas mutations in other genes within the e2217 - deleted region were not detected ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044385 SentenceID s162 SENTENCE : The presence of correctly sized 35S-labeled SUP-36 and SUP-37 was confirmed in separate experiments ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044385 SentenceID s167 SENTENCE : Somewhat surprisingly , most lin-35 ; ubc-18 suppressors failed to significantly suppress the phenotypically related synthetic lethality of lin-35 ; pha-1 ( fd1 ) mutants ( Figure S6 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044385 SentenceID s169 SENTENCE : Furthermore , a small-scale lin-35 ; pha-1 RNAi suppressor screen failed to identify suppressors that were distinct from those identified by the lin-35 ; ubc-18 screen ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044385 SentenceID s17 SENTENCE : SUP-36 is 65 % identical and 83 % similar to F15B10 . 3 , but , unlike SUP-36 , F15B10 . 3 is encoded by three exons ( Figure 2B and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044385 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : Sequence homology searches also identified a number of SUP-36 like proteins in related nematode species as well as several proteins with homology to SUP-36 in nonnematode organisms ( Figure 2B and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044385 SentenceID s28 SENTENCE : Although RNAi of these genes failed to suppress either pha-1 or lin-35 ; ubc-18 mutants ( data not shown ) , there is likely to be a high degree of genetic redundancy among F-box proteins in C . elegans , thereby making their functional analysis difficult .
PaperID WBPaper00044385 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : Genetic mapping and molecular identification of sup-36 Preliminary mapping placed sup-36 on LGIV ( data not shown ) ( Schnabel et al . 1991 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044385 SentenceID s55 SENTENCE : We also note that a strain containing a consortium-generated sup-36 deletion allele , tm3912 , is strongly impaired for growth and that this phenotype was not rescued by expression of wild-type sup-36 from an extrachromosomal array ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044385 SentenceID s72 SENTENCE : 216 S . R . G . Polley et al . on wild type ( Figure 1D and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044385 SentenceID s82 SENTENCE : In addition , we note that a transcriptional reporter construct ( Psup-36 : : GFP ) , containing sup-36 upstream sequences only , showed a similar pattern of expression ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044466 SentenceID s9 SENTENCE : Note that we also analyzed the unc-43 ( tm1605 ) deletion allele and found it to be homozygous viable with growth , behavioral , and soluble cargo-trafficking phenotypes similar to the nonsense mutants reported here ( data not shown ) . tm1605 is a 651- bp in-frame deletion that removes H113 through R218 ( amino acid numbering refers to the K11e8 . 1f .
PaperID WBPaper00044520 SentenceID s23 SENTENCE : We cloned mig-18 by genetic mapping followed by injection rescue experiments using genomic DNA fragments ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044520 SentenceID s31 SENTENCE : The k140 and gm321 alleles were likely to be strong loss-of-function or null alleles , as they displayed similar phenotypes and were not enhanced when in trans to the deficiency eDf2 ( Nishiwaki 1999 ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044520 SentenceID s68 SENTENCE : This construct , however , was not functional as it failed to rescue the mig-18 mutant phenotype ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044647 SentenceID s49 SENTENCE : junctions While the sole C . elegans MyD88 family member tir-1 also exhibits alternate splicing , no alternate functions have been reported for these splice forms in innate immunity , and the relevant intronexon junctions in MyD88 do not appear to be conserved in tir-1 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044647 SentenceID s75 SENTENCE : In contrast , Eftud2 inhibition did not affect all mRNA splicing events as intron 3 of actin was excised normally ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044647 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : Eftud2 Regulates Innate Immunity 491 levels in the Gene Expression Omnibus database , data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044667 SentenceID s115 SENTENCE : Notably , some smc-5 ; polh-1 double mutants displayed synthetic somatic defects upon UV irradiation characterized by a reduction in size ( Figure 4B and Figure S6 ) and additional somatic defects ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044667 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : Noncomplementation test for UV hypersensitivity found sbj2 and sbj3 to be allelic to the smc-5 ( ok2421 ) deletion mutant ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044667 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : Low levels of immunostaining are also detected in somatic blastomeres of young embryos with 100 cells or less ( data not shown ) , which suggests that SMC-6 expression is ubiquitous but enriched in the germline , similar to the mRNA expression of human SMC5 and SMC6 that is ubiquitous but highly enriched in the testis ( Taylor et al . 2001 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044667 SentenceID s6 SENTENCE : We identified one mutant that exhibited a complete L1 arrest after treatment with low doses of UV containing a novel allele of the NER endonuclease xpg-1 , thus providing a proof of principle that our screening strategy was effective at discovering mutations in DNA repair genes ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044820 SentenceID s203 SENTENCE : Other CHE-1 target genes with ASE regulatory motifs are also conserved in D . melanogaster and are highly ranked by TargetOrtho ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044820 SentenceID s205 SENTENCE : This trend is apparent in other UNC-3 target orthologs in Drosophila as well ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044838 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : Independent primer pairs were also used in qRT- PCR and gave similar results ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044838 SentenceID s30 SENTENCE : However , we have conducted proteomic analysis of NRDE-2 and NRDE-3 but failed to identify RRF-1 interaction with either of them ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044838 SentenceID s49 SENTENCE : Independent primer sets were applied , and similar results were obtained ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044963 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : Binding to the potassium channel requires two conserved residues that are not found in this particular ShkT-like domain of SKPO-1 or others from C . elegans ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044963 SentenceID s92 SENTENCE : We also examined wild type and skpo-1 mutant animals that had been exposed to E . faecalis for 24 hours prior to staining and did not observe any differences in the localization of SKPO-1 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00044981 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : Although these events can be uncoupled by mutational analyses in C . elegans ( Dernburg et al . 1998 ) ( Figure 8 and data not shown ) , the strict temporal relationship suggests that these events are normally interdependent .
PaperID WBPaper00044981 SentenceID s60 SENTENCE : X chromosome, chromosome Furthermore , the same staining pattern was observed in met-2 males ( data not shown ) , which fail to load the repressive histone mark H3K9me2 on the X chromosome of males ( Bessler et al . 2010 ; Checchi and Engebrecht 2011 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045037 SentenceID s55 SENTENCE : SC However , unlike tel1 yku70 , elongation of telomeres by expression of the Cdc13-Est1 fusion protein did not suppress the SC of tel1 shu1 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045322 SentenceID s111 SENTENCE : Insertion of the unc-119 vector and deletion of the oma-1 sequences was confirmed by PCR ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045322 SentenceID s33 SENTENCE : Similar results were obtained in several additional Co-CRISPR experiments ( Figure 2C and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045322 SentenceID s51 SENTENCE : In our experience , failure to take this step frequently results in HR events containing CRISPR-Cas9-induced indels or a very low frequency of HR events : sometimes 0 % ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045322 SentenceID s67 SENTENCE : These studies identified two K68A HR events among 93 F1 rollers ( 60 injected worms ) , and 3 flag HR events among 84 F1 rollers ( 40 injected worms ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045462 SentenceID s102 SENTENCE : F1 progeny from germline-minus adults were , as expected , embryonic lethal , and 14 displayed a phenotype identical to that of pha-1 ( 0 ) animals that failed to inherit the pha- 1 ( + ) array in the parental strain ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045462 SentenceID s108 SENTENCE : Finally , we occasionally observed adult hermaphrodites that retained abnormal numbers of eggs ( Egl ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045462 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : body We note that although the strongly 16 reduced expression of AJM-1 may account , at least in part , for the body morphogenesis defects observed in pha-1 mutants ( FAY et al . 2004 ; GRANATO et al . 1994a ; SCHNABEL and SCHNABEL 1990 ) , it can not explain defects in pharyngeal development , as ajm- 1 ( ok160 ) null mutants did not display defects in pharyngeal morphogenesis ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045462 SentenceID s32 SENTENCE : chromosome Similar results were also observed using an independent array of AJM-1 : : GFP integrated on a different chromosome ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045462 SentenceID s60 SENTENCE : Although arrested , this animal had a pharynx with relatively normal morphology ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045462 SentenceID s71 SENTENCE : These animals failed to display gross morphological defects of their intestines , and their intestinal cells appeared to contain microvilli ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045462 SentenceID s8 SENTENCE : Notably , these defects are not observed in homozygous pha-1 ( ts ) strains shifted to the non-permissive temperature after embryogenesis ( GRANATO et al . 1994a ; SCHNABEL and SCHNABEL 1990 ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045516 SentenceID s118 SENTENCE : cell cortex, cortex, nucleus We targeted the GRP-1 PH domain to either the nucleus ( NLS-PH ) or cell cortex ( MYR-PH ) , but did not observe an extra A / PVM phenotype in wildtype animals or ced-3 ( n717 ) mutants sensitized to the loss of GRP-1 activity ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045516 SentenceID s119 SENTENCE : nuclei Third , although predominantly localized in nuclei like the fulllength GRP-1 , a deletion mutant containing only the GRP-1 CC domain neither rescued the grp-1 mutant ( Figure 6A , D , D ' , G ) nor produced extra neurons in a wild-type grp-1 background ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045516 SentenceID s137 SENTENCE : When placed in a wild-type background , the GRP-1mutNLS and the NES-GRP-1 did not perturb the asymmetric divisions of either the Q . p or the Q . a neuroblasts , indicating that delocalizing GRP-1 in interphase does not generate defects in the Q lineage ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045516 SentenceID s159 SENTENCE : cytoplasmic, surface However , the cytoplasmic GFP signal was too bright to allow us to detect a specific accumulation of GRP-1 at the surface , and lowering the expression of GRP- 1 : : GFP fusions by the use of rescuing low-copy number transgenes ( Figure 5D ) rendered the GFP undetectable in Q . p cells ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045516 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : Fourth , complementation tests showed tm1956 and gk402275 failed to complement gm350 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045516 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : Reducing grp-1 activity does not alter the number of PHA neurons in ced-3 ( + ) or ced-3 ( n717 ) backgrounds ( data not shown ) , indicating that the extra neurons observed using gmIs12 are PHBs .
PaperID WBPaper00045516 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : nuclei We observed that GFP : : GRP-1 transgene expression was widespread in somatic cells of embryos , larvae and adults , and was concentrated in the nuclei of interphase cells ( Figure 2A-C and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045516 SentenceID s36 SENTENCE : cytoplasmic When we expressed some of the mutant GRP-1 proteins with an increased cytoplasmic localization in a wild-type background , however , we observed apparently normal Q . a and Q . p divisions ( data not shown ) , suggesting that the cytoplasmic GRP-1 localization is not detrimental for the development of the Q lineage .
PaperID WBPaper00045516 SentenceID s37 SENTENCE : Two independently generated transgenes generated the same expression pattern , were able to rescue the extra A / PVM phenotype caused by the grp-1 mutation ( Figure 2D ) and did not induce any extra cell phenotype in wild-type grp-1 background ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045516 SentenceID s46 SENTENCE : Animals carrying the resulting extrachromosomal arrays ( gmEx353-5 , Table S1 ) were rescued for the Grp-1 A / PVM phenotype ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045516 SentenceID s545 SENTENCE : The grp-1 cnt-2 double mutant also contained a lon-1 mutation used in strain construction ; control experiments showed no effect of lon-1 on the penetrance of A / PVM phenotype of either grp-1 or cnt-2 mutants ( data not shown ) . bris- 1 ( gk592726 ) is a 5 ' splice site hypomorphic mutant in the third intron of the predicted long a isoform , in the first intron of predicted b and c isoforms , and not affecting the predicted d isoform ( TTGgtga > TTGatga ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045516 SentenceID s96 SENTENCE : In two of the three transgenic lines that we tested , we found that the Pmab-5 : : grp-1 : : gfp construct rescued the PVM 27 but not the AVM phenotype ( Figure 5B and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045690 SentenceID s17 SENTENCE : synapse, synaptic Examination of several synaptic markers in other types of neurons revealed similar reduction in synapse number and abnormal synapse morphology ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045690 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : Although the screen should have equal chance to isolate mutations suppressing either gene , out of 95 suppressors analyzed , we found only one allele , ju1041 that specifically suppressed syd-2 ( ju37 ) , but not rpm-1 ( lf ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045690 SentenceID s42 SENTENCE : Among them the ribonucleoprotein complex that catalyzes the ligation step is called the C complex in which snRNAs and most proteins are conserved in C . elegans ( MORTON and BLUMENTHAL 2011 ) ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045690 SentenceID s5 SENTENCE : body Their body size and brood size are also smaller than wild-type animals or each single mutant ( Figure 1A , and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045690 SentenceID s59 SENTENCE : supr-1 ( ju1118 ) was a weak suppressor by the criterion of locomotion behavior ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045690 SentenceID s84 SENTENCE : body A transcriptional reporter driven by 916 bp upstream sequences of ess-2 showed broad it issue expression , including neurons , pharynx , body wall muscles , seam cells ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045717 SentenceID s59 SENTENCE : However , we had difficulty detecting transcripts in both wild-type adult hermaphrodites and syp-1 adult hermaphrodites ( data not shown ) , suggesting that this gene may not normally be transcribed in wild-type adult hermaphrodites or during meiotic checkpoint activation .
PaperID WBPaper00045717 SentenceID s60 SENTENCE : However , we had difficulty detecting transcripts in both wild-type adult hermaphrodites and syp-1 adult hermaphrodites ( data not shown ) , suggesting that this gene may not normally be transcribed in wild-type adult hermaphrodites or during meiotic checkpoint activation .
PaperID WBPaper00045772 SentenceID s101 SENTENCE : 2 , Table 1 ) , we did not notice a difference in edit frequency between the two egg-laying periods ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045772 SentenceID s75 SENTENCE : Sequencing of the deletion breakpoints revealed small insertion / deletions consistent with error-prone NHEJ ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045849 SentenceID s50 SENTENCE : The reduction of XBP-1 or IRE-1 activity by RNAi completely suppresses hsp-4 expression in both mutants ( Figure 8 , C and D , Figure S5 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045849 SentenceID s56 SENTENCE : Hetero-allelic tm3267 / pv18 animals also arrest development when subjected to xbp-1 RNAi ( data not shown ) . tm3267 ; xbp-1 ( RNAi ) animals are fully rescued by the gale-1 + transgene ( data not shown ) while pv18 ; xbp-1 ( RNAi ) animals are not fully rescued to viability by this transgene , animals instead of arresting in L2 stage as their not transgenic siblings they continue development to L4 but they do not reach adulthood .
PaperID WBPaper00045914 SentenceID s105 SENTENCE : Sequencing of the shw-3 gene amplified from eg200 genomic DNA did not reveal any mutations in the shw-3 coding sequence ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045993 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : The reporter confirmed the previously published expression pattern for egl-46 in the FLP , HSN , and PVD neurons and other neurons in the head ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00045993 SentenceID s48 SENTENCE : We found that egl-46 does not affect the expression of ets-5 or egl-13 reporters , suggesting that it acts in a parallel manner to these transcription factors in specifying BAG neuronal fate ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046091 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : Controls include wild type ( WT ) , which is sensitive to Aldicarb , and unc-29 ( e193 ) , which is resistant to Aldicarb ( data not shown ) ( Miller et al . 1996 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046091 SentenceID s32 SENTENCE : As expected , virtually no wild-type animals were moving , while 100 % of unc-29 animals , which are deficient in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor function ( Fleming et al . 1997 ) , were still active and exhibiting a strong level of Aldicarb resistance ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046091 SentenceID s39 SENTENCE : Controls include wild type ( WT ) , which is sensitive to Aldicarb and Levamisole , and unc-29 ( e193 ) , which is resistant to Aldicarb and Levamisole ( data not shown ) ( Miller et al . 1996 ; Fleming et al . 1997 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046091 SentenceID s57 SENTENCE : Aldicarb responses were not assessed under conditions of higher levels of Mg2 + ( 2 and 4 mM ) because the already slow growth of the sax-7 gtl-2 and gtl-2 mutant animals on standard NGM was further impaired at these higher concentrations ( data not shown ) ( Teramoto et al . 2010 ) , making it difficult to obtain sufficient numbers of adult animals to perform the Aldicarb response assay .
PaperID WBPaper00046091 SentenceID s77 SENTENCE : As expected , unc-29 mutant animals , which have impaired acetylcholine receptor function , are resistant to Levamisole ( data not shown ) ( Fleming et al . 1997 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046101 SentenceID s15 SENTENCE : Eight rescued F1 ' s were recovered , all heterozygotes for pha-1 ( ts ) repair ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046168 SentenceID s39 SENTENCE : Further , OSG-1 RNAi in control worms , which express GFP but not Ab42 ( FDX2512 ) , had no effect on the duration of the GFP signal ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046168 SentenceID s56 SENTENCE : Indeed , RHO-1 or CED42 RNAi treatment from day 0 was lethal ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046168 SentenceID s64 SENTENCE : body OSG-1 Is an Aging Susceptibility Gene 491 had a dumpy ( Dpy ) body shape ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046298 SentenceID s34 SENTENCE : The interaction of SET-6 and RAD-26 with LA : SMO-1 : LIN-1 ( 1-64 ; 9-16A ) was increased by 24-fold and 3-fold , respectively ( Figure 2 , lines 2 and 3 ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046298 SentenceID s526 SENTENCE : The LA fusion proteins were expressed at similar levels as determined by Western blotting ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046298 SentenceID s65 SENTENCE : Wild-type hermaphrodites exposed to set-6 dsRNA did not display obvious vulval defects ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046298 SentenceID s66 SENTENCE : The set-6 ( tm1611 ) and set-6 ( ok2195 ) deletion mutations did not cause an independent Muv phenotype ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046298 SentenceID s68 SENTENCE : The Muv phenotype of lin-1 ( e1275 ) ; set-6 ( ok2195 ) double mutant animals was similar to single mutant lin-1 ( e1275 ) animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046298 SentenceID s69 SENTENCE : The Muv phenotype of let-60 ( n1046 ) ; set-6 ( tm1611 ) and let-60 ( n1046 ) ; set-6 ( ok2195 ) double mutant animals was similar to let-60 ( n1046 ) single mutant animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046298 SentenceID s96 SENTENCE : A fragment of MEP-1 containing residues 364-870 , which includes all seven zinc-finger domains , was sufficient to interact with full-length EGL-27 in yeast . In addition , MEP-1 residues 330-870 were sufficient to interact with the amino-terminal 637 residues of EGL-27 in yeast ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046301 SentenceID s64 SENTENCE : When we introduced an analogous mutation that alters the alternative splice acceptor of exon c2 ( critical for generating mCherry / cha-1 ) , we observed the reciprocal results - increased GFP fluorescence and decreased mCherry fluorescence ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046386 SentenceID s12 SENTENCE : Mutants for UNC-49 showed no response to muscimol at any developmental stage ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046386 SentenceID s126 SENTENCE : body Despite showing delays in locomotor circuit development , both nkcc-1 and kcc-2 mutant animals were able to move forward and backward similarly to the wild type by making both dorsal and ventral body bends ( Tanis et al . , 2009 ) and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046386 SentenceID s127 SENTENCE : We note that previous studies ( Jin et al . , 1999 ) as well as our data not shown also show that complete lack of GABA signaling ( in mutants for the UNC-25 GABA biosynthetic enzyme ) are able to rewire the GABAergic DD neurons correctly .
PaperID WBPaper00046386 SentenceID s130 SENTENCE : We found that loss of nkcc-1 did not have any effect on the localization of UNC-49 at any point in development ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046386 SentenceID s139 SENTENCE : body Further , we found that early L1s mutant for any of the Cl- transporters that affect muscimol response ( kcc-2 , abts-1 , nkcc-1 ) also move forward by making both dorsal and ventral body bends ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046386 SentenceID s155 SENTENCE : vesicular We also observed the coiling phenotype in mutant L1s lacking the GABAA receptor UNC-49 or the GABA vesicular transporter UNC-47 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046386 SentenceID s158 SENTENCE : body We also tested adults and L1 larvae for each of the Cl- transporter mutants ( kcc-2 , abts- 1 , nkcc-1 ) : all were able to back normally by making both dorsal and ventral body bends without coiling ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046386 SentenceID s189 SENTENCE : We observed no response upon blue light exposure in mutant L1s lacking the GABA biosynthetic enzyme UNC-25 ( data not shown ) or in doublemutant animals lacking both the UNC-49 GABAA receptor and the GBB GABAB receptor ( Figure 7A open triangles and open squares , 7B ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046386 SentenceID s190 SENTENCE : We also observed no response to blue light exposure in animals grown on plates without alltrans retinal , a cofactor required for ChR2 activity ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046386 SentenceID s29 SENTENCE : We found that 56 % of the muscimol-treated wild-type L1s at two hours post-hatch curled dorsally as they became paralyzed and shortened in length ( Figure 2D and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046386 SentenceID s99 SENTENCE : presynaptic, synapses To determine the timing of DD motor neuron rewiring , we used a chromosomally-integrated transgene that expresses the presynaptic protein RAB-3 tagged with GFP from the DD- specific promoter flp-13 ( Nelson et al . , 1998 ; Park et al . , 2011 ) and monitored the development of these synapses in living animals at 0 . 25 , 2 , 6 , 12 , 22 , and 70 hours post-hatch ( Figure 5A-5C and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046460 SentenceID s41 SENTENCE : chromosome This result is consistent with the extensive lethality and sterility observed in animals treated with cpsf-2 RNAi ( data not shown ) and with mutational studies that failed to recover deficiencies for this region of chromosome V but did recover deficiencies of neighboring intervals ( Rosenbluth et al . 1985 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046460 SentenceID s53 SENTENCE : All the mutations had very similar molecular defects : 85 % had small deletions ( 1-27 bp ) , 9 % had insertions , and 6 % had insertions and deletions ( Figure 2B-C and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046471 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : To address this question , we performed yeast-2-hybrid ( Y2H ) analysis of yeast expressing SHU2 in the GAL4 DNA binding domain ( pGBK-SHU2 ) and tested its interaction with either SHU1 or PSY3 expressed in the GAL4 DNA activating domain ( pGAD-SHU1 , pGAD-PSY3 ) in a genetic background where one of the four SHU genes is disrupted ( Figure 1B and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046530 SentenceID s4 SENTENCE : Alignment of the 70 promoters ( each consisting of 1kb upstream of the ATG codon of the respective ASJ expressed gene ) failed to identify any shared motif owing to the large sequence alyzed ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046530 SentenceID s73 SENTENCE : However , mutant alleles of the five candidates identified , zag-1 , ceh-14 , ceh-26 and ceh-30 , failed to abolish neurons ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046709 SentenceID s16 SENTENCE : bodies, cell bodies, postsynaptic, synaptic, vesicular In addition , we usually saw vesicular staining in the cell bodies of the postsynaptic neurons ( data not shown ) , suggesting that ( 1 ) the method is indeed non-trapping ' and fails to create a stable bond across the synaptic cleft and ( 2 ) that the streptavidin-biotin-NLG-1 / neuroligin complex is actively turned over .
PaperID WBPaper00046855 SentenceID s10 SENTENCE : When expressed in TRN , we observed a lower sensitivity to blue light as compared to ChR2 and these lines were not further characterized ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046931 SentenceID s22 SENTENCE : Both genes are widely expressed ; cdc-42 is most highly expressed in the intestine and muscles while pat-3 expression is particularly high in muscles ( data not shown and ( Plenefisch et al . 2000 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046931 SentenceID s69 SENTENCE : Using the DTC- specific reporter , Plag-2 : : GFP ( Siegfried and Kimble 2002 ) , we found that the DTCs are born approximately 16 to 16 . 5 hours after the reintroduction of food ( data not shown ) in both N2 and mir-83 ( n4638 ) ; mir-34 ( gk437 ) worms .
PaperID WBPaper00046975 SentenceID s163 SENTENCE : cell soma, soma A quantitative analysis of this marker showed that the unc-104 ( ce782 ) mutation did not significantly affect the cell soma levels of soluble RFP ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046975 SentenceID s18 SENTENCE : These temperaturesensitive phenotypes are unique to the ce782 allele : the loss-offunction mutants unc-104 ( e1265 ) and unc-104 ( ce515 ) showed no temperature sensitivity for locomotion ( Figure 2B ) or posture ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046975 SentenceID s233 SENTENCE : axons We note that this is not the case with DCVs , since ce782 mutants that had been shifted to 25 for 12 hr to prepare for the timelapse imaging in Figure 3 had no detectable DCVs in their dorsal commissures or axons ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046975 SentenceID s261 SENTENCE : While none of the three synapse-assembly single mutants had locomotion rates that were significantly lower than that of wild type , the two unc-104 ( ce782 ) ; syd-2 double mutants , hatched and grown at 13 . 5 , often showed coiled postures ( data not shown ) and had locomotion rates that were 5 % of wild type ( Figure 14A ) and not significantly different from unc-104 ( ce782 ) mutants hatched and grown at 20 .
PaperID WBPaper00046975 SentenceID s266 SENTENCE : axons, synaptic, synaptic region The synaptic region length of the unc-104 ; syd-2 double mutant was shortened to 10 . 2 65 . 0 % of wild type ( mean 6SEM ; N = 14 axons ) , and we detected no GFP- RAB-3 signal in the asynaptic region ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046975 SentenceID s92 SENTENCE : The 12-hr time point was also the first time point at which we noted postural changes in the animals ( a shift from sinusoidal to coiled postures ; data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046976 SentenceID s105 SENTENCE : For this analysis we used the unc-104 ( e1265 ) allele , which contains a missense mutation in the cargo-binding domain that causes a strong loss of function ( Kumar et al . 2010 ) , but we also obtained the same result using the motor domain temperaturesensitive allele unc-104 ( ce782 ) ( Edwards et al . 2015 ) , which we analyzed at the restrictive temperature of 20 ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046976 SentenceID s19 SENTENCE : lysosome, punctal Independently isolated alleles of sad-1 and syd-2 showed quantitatively similar reductions in lysosome punctal density and fluorescence ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00046976 SentenceID s42 SENTENCE : dendritic, lysosomes Independently isolated alleles of sad-1 and syd-2 in doubles with unc-16 showed quantitatively similar dendritic accumulations of lysosomes ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00047091 SentenceID s27 SENTENCE : However , we did not observe dauer larvae among animals recovering from extended L1 arrest . We also observed a decrease in fat storage ( data not shown ) , as opposed to the increase seen in dauers and daf-2 insulin / insulin-like growth factor receptor mutants ( O ' ROURKE et al . 2009 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00047091 SentenceID s37 SENTENCE : Likewise , the majority of D8normal animals were visibly holding excess eggs ( Egl ) , though they had not progressed to internal hatching ( data not shown ) , providing additional evidence that egg-laying behavior was broadly affected .
PaperID WBPaper00047091 SentenceID s52 SENTENCE : We also observed a decrease in Oil Red O lipid staining in D8 animals , suggesting reduced fat stores ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00047091 SentenceID s79 SENTENCE : The frequency of abnormal embryos was not increased among grandprogeny of D8 animals , including grandprogeny of D8delayed individuals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00047091 SentenceID s80 SENTENCE : There was also no effect on grandprogeny size after 48 hr larval development ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00048392 SentenceID s42 SENTENCE : boundaries To confirm that both the initial insertion of the dual marker cassette and its excision occurred precisely , we sequence verified the relevant recombined boundaries at the klp-12 locus in a subset of lines ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00048392 SentenceID s62 SENTENCE : nuclear, nuclei HIM-18 signal was observed in mitotic nuclei at the distal tip region of the germline ( premeiotic tip ) , with a reduction in signal upon entrance into meiosis followed by increased nuclear signal once again from late pachytene through the end of diakinesis , consistent with the previously described immunolocalization for HIM-18 ( SAITO et al . 2009 ) ( Figure 4C and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00048523 SentenceID s184 SENTENCE : Presence of a truncated transcript expressed from the remaining frk-1 sequence was not detected ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00048635 SentenceID s101 SENTENCE : body By RNAi and / or mutant analyses of the 6 PDE homologues in C . elegans ( CHARLIE et al . 2006 ) , we found that the pde-2 gene is required for normal body size regulation ( Figure 9 and data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00048635 SentenceID s11 SENTENCE : Interestingly , we found that ks99 and ks100 , but none of the Class II mutations , suppressed the confined tracking pattern of che-2 animals ( Figure 1 for 14 ks100 , data not shown for ks99 , see below for nj10 ) .
PaperID WBPaper00048635 SentenceID s13 SENTENCE : Both ks99 and ks100 are mutations in gcy-12 ks99 and ks100 mutations were linked to linkage group II ( LGII ) ; therefore , we performed a complementation test and found that ks99 and ks100 could not complement each other ' s Chb phenotype ( data not shown ) , suggesting that they are mutations in the same gene .
PaperID WBPaper00048635 SentenceID s35 SENTENCE : body Given the action of GCY-12 in body size regulation , this suggests that animals cultivated at 25C may be smaller than those cultivated at 15C . However , we did not observe such temperature-dependent body size changes in either wild-type or egl-4 animals ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00048636 SentenceID s153 SENTENCE : Further validating the specificity of the MOs , we showed that injection of a 5-bp mismatch MO resulted in reduced but not absent GFP signal ( Figure 9D ) , and embryos injected with 45 ng of the 5-bp mismatch MO did not develop NTDs ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00048941 SentenceID s108 SENTENCE : bodies, cell bodies We also found that AIY neuron cell bodies were frequently displaced anteriorly in kal-1 ( gf ) vab- 1 mutants compared to wild-type , whereas kal-1 ( gf ) efn-4 cell bodies were often displaced posteriorly ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00048941 SentenceID s143 SENTENCE : axon In addition , we observed exuberant axon branching ( multiple branches from a single neuron ) and hyper-long axon branches ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00048941 SentenceID s83 SENTENCE : body, neurite Intriguingly , expression of efn-4 in the body wall muscle rescued kal-1 ( gf ) neurite branching in 1 out of 3 lines tested with the other two lines approaching significance , but did not rescue body morphology defects seen in efn-4 mutants ( data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00048941 SentenceID s92 SENTENCE : We found similar association curves for VAB-1 : : AP binding to both EFN-1 and EFN-4 ( figure 5a ) whereas Fc shows negligible association ( the Fc binding data was used to normalize for negative drift hence data not shown ) .
PaperID WBPaper00049182 SentenceID s21 SENTENCE : This idea is supported by the facts that the ethanol resistant mutant in intoxication , slo-1 , was not isolated by our screening ,